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Foreigner Asylum and had thus | Dr. Whitney makes the same statelearned the manner of treatment. ment as other medical missionaries Some of these being situated some have made, that there is no diminudistance from Foochow it was much tion in the quantity of the drug more convenient for the victims of consumed. This fact presents a opium smoking to resort to them most sad future for China. than to come to the Foreign asylum.

Report of the Medical Missionary Hospital at Fatshan, in connection with the Wesleyan Missionary Society, in charge of Charles Wenyen, M.D., M.Ch., (Q.U.Q.), L.B.C.P.Ed. For the year 1881.

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THIS is the Report of a new Hospi- habit. He was extremely anaemic tal. The buildings were only ready and emaciated, was suffering severe for use at the middle of October neuralgic pain, and his stomach was of the past year. The Report of the unable to digest the simplest food. commencement of the work makes Seeing at once that it was too late it evident that the populous manu- to help him, we declined to admit facturing town of Teatshan presents him to the hospital; his friends, a most favorable field for medical however, refused to take him away, missionary work. We feel assured and at length left him in one of the that Dr. Wenyen's hopes for success unoccupied rooms. Shortly afterin his medical work at Teatshan wards he was found there dead, with will be fully realized during the the opium pipe in his hand, and the current year. We wish him every opium lamp burning by his side." success in his arduous labors for And while we were writing these the good of his fellow men. Dr. lines a missionary of the London Wenyen relates one fatal case of Mission who had just returned from opium smoking which will be interesting from the pending discussion of that subject. Dr. Wenyen says: "A fatal case of opium smoking also came before us a few weeks ago. The patient was a man 35 years of age. He had been smoking opium for about five years, and had consumed daily only a moderate amount of the drug, but the pitiable condition in which he was carried by his friends to the hospital was regarded by them, and not without reason, as a direct consequence of the

a visit to stations in the country, stated to me that he, in one of the passenger boats, had met a most pitiable case of the evils of opium smoking. The man was reduced to nearly a state of idiocy as well as of abject poverty. He had sold two sons to get money. His aged mother and wife were in great distress. His neighbors were reproaching him for having brought all this misery upon himself. The reproaches of his neighbors and family were only noticed by a silly idiotic laugh.

Transactions of the Asiatic Society of Japan. Vol. X. Part 1. Yokohama:

May 1882.

THIS Part of Vol. X, contains value and interest. We transcribe papers of much more than usual the Contents for the benefit of those

who have not seen this Part. the 16th century. At page 63 Mr.

I. A Chinese and Japanese Voca- Satow, after describing a certain bulary of the XV. Century, with book from Corea, part of which was Notes chiefly on Pronunciation. printed from movable type, says, By Joseph Edkins, D.D., Peking. This book is most important for

II. Notes on this Vocabulary of the bistory of printing in all counthe XV. Century. By Ernest Satow. tries, since its date is at least a

III. Konodui and its spots of hundred and twenty-six years before interest. By J. M. Dixon, M.D. the earliest printed book known in

IV. On the early History of Europe.” The writer says, “the Printing in Japan. By Ernest Japanese were indebted to the Satow.

Coreans for the knowledge of using V. Birds of Japan. By T. W. movable type, as

“ In 1420 the Blakisto and H. Pryer.

King of Korea ordered copper movThe paper which will most in- able types to be made, and further terest general readers is the one ordered large copper types to be by Mr. Ernest Satow on the History made for the purpose of printing of Printing in Japan. It is a very this book.” page 62. Thus it would valuable article and connects itself appear that the nation last to open with the general history of printing its ports to trade with western in other lands. The writer says, nations was the first to use movable page 48:—“In Japan the earliest type in printing books. example of block printing dates from This List of the Birds of Japan the middle of the 8th century; but is the most complete that has in China block printing was known been prepared, reaching the number at the end of the sixth century. of 365 species, while the List of Printing with movable type was the Fauna Japonica only enumeintroduced into Japan at the end of 'rates 199.

*** Around the World Tour of Christians Missions." By Wm. F. Bainbridge.

Boston: D. Lothrop & Co. Many of our readers made the ac- | and conversed with them respecting quaintance of Mr. Bainbridge and the methods and results of their his genial wife during their visit work. Many advantages attend such to China a few years ago. These an extensive survey of the mission and many others will be glad to field at large and actual contact know that Rev. and Mrs. Bainbridge with the mission work in its varihave each written an account of ous departments. All missionaries their observations in the various know the advantages of visiting mission fields visited. It is with other mission fields than their own Mr. Bainbridge's book that we have and comparing their own methods now to do.

of work with those of their brethren. During his travels Mr. Bainbridge To all who wish thus to enlarge met with over 1000 missionaries, their field of vision and who are

per cent

ready to adopt suggestions from the As a popular book on Missions practice of their fellow-laborers Mr. Bainbridge's volume will prove this book will prove of great value. more useful than Prof. Christlieb’s

Though prepared apparently in valuable little work. It contains haste, so that there are occasional the same valuable information, but slips and defects in the English, not in so much of a dry, statistical it is written in a pleasant style and style ; while the personal recollecbrings the different subjects treated tions of the lands visited serve to clearly before our minds.

give variety and to excite the in. Besides giving a glance at the pre- terest of the reader; for we always vailing systems of religious thought feel more interest in a living person in the lands visited, and a detailed than in a mere subject. account of mission work there, Mr. Their are occasional inaccuracies, Bianbridge gives his own views as as when it is stated that 25 to different points of missionary of the students at an A.B. examipolicy. In almost all of these opinions nation are successful, and that he shows such a grasp of his sub. “almost all ” sonless mothers in ject, such an appreciation of the China are in dread of being sold by arguments on both sides, and such their husbands. These exaggerated sound judgment that these thoughts statements must have resulted from will be to many the most attractive some lack of knowledge in his inpart of the book. Indeed the author formants, but we all know how full states that this is the special pur- books of travel are apt to be of such pose of this volume. His disclaims inaccuracies. their being merely personal impres- The book has proved an attractive sions from a world-wide range of one at home as three editions were observation, and says truly that printed within a month from the the value of the book depends on first issue, and an edition (Sub. its being “an attempted compila- scription) on better paper and with tion of the matured thoughts and illustrations is now in course of feelings of hundreds of experienced preparation. missionaries, met in frequent con- An Appendix contains a list of versations face to face with their Christian missions, and there is a work in almost all lands throughout fall Index rendering the book an the world." All missionaries feel admirable one for reference. their need of just such knowledge It is to be hoped that all misand while the book will be valuable sionaries will have this work in at home in diffusing missionary their libraries and I am sure no one information it will be none the will regret spending the small sum

to missionaries the needed to put it there. field.

R.H.G.

less so

on

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THE PROVERBS AND COMMON SAYINGS OF THE CHINESE. BY REV. ARTHUR H. SMITH.

(Continued from page 259.)

III. ODES.

THE HE relation between Chinese Proverbs and Chinese Poetry (not classical) resembles that between Proverbs and Antithetical Couplets. All those qualities of the Antithetical Couplet which adapt it for quotation, are frequently found in poetry, with the additional attraction of the rhyme. Proverbs and other Common Sayings are often caught up by the composer of an Ode, and woven into his verses, while on the other hand, a well turned poetical expression sometimes gives it a permanent currency, as is the case with so many of the lines of Pope. Whether the Proverb has been made poetical by its setting, or the poetical expression has become proverbial by constant quotation, it may be sometimes difficult to determine. In cases of the latter class, the remote origin of a poetical 'Common Saying' has often been lost sight of by every one but Scholars. An examination in detail of the Rules governing the construction of the different varieties of Chinese poetry (vaguely classified as Shih, Tz'u, Ko and Fu), is fortunately quite unessential to our purpose, since the subject is somewhat complicated, and as full of intricate details and thorny Exceptions as a Latin Accidence. In the Literary Examinations, the Shih and Fu are the only recognized forms of Poetry. The Tzu and Ko are more spontaneous, or even lawless, sometimes descending by rapid stages into a species of rythmic prose, or even into mere doggerel. While the Shih has either five or seven characters to the line, other kinds of verse often enjoy unfettered license. To avoid the introduction of confusing distinctions in the appended examples, whatever assumes a poetical form, is generically termed an Ode. The examples themselves have been selected, as in the case of Antithetical Couplets,

not only to show how Proverbial Sayings are often found in such poetical forms, but also to make it incidentally evident how smooth verses may easily become current linguistic coin. A little book called the Poems of Shen Tung() or the Divine Child-also known as Hsieh hsuch shih (1)-is in general circulation, and contains many lines which have become proverbial. The verses are reputed to have been composed by this supernatural Infant before the age of ten years. The following is a common citation from Shen T'ung:

'He was only a Common Farmer, when that morning brought its light,
And yet as the Emperor's Minister high, he trod his halls at night;

For Generals and Statesmen too, are seldom raised from seed,

That every youth should struggle hard-this is the vital need.'*

朝為田舍郎。暮登天子堂。

將相本無種。男兒當自強。

FAMILY ODE.

A 'Princeless Medicine' for preserving peace in the household.

'When sisters-in-law are joined in heart

No family comes to ill;

When sons all act a filial part

It works like a Harmony-pill.'

萬金難買之藥。

妯娌密和家不散。子孝雙親順氣丸。

*In the collection of Shen Tung's Odes, these four lines are generally found under the title: Exhortation to Study (). The obvious intention is to urge to extreme diligence (), since the fruit of such a course will be a certain and perhaps sudden reward. The practical embarrassments of an arrangement of proverbs merely by 'subjects,' is illustrated in the circumstance that in Mr. Scarborough's volume the first two of these four lines are separated from the last two, and placed (No. 688) under the caption 'Luck.' A more inappropriate situation it would be difficult to select. The quest of the expression is by no means facilitated by the fact that no reference occurs in the index to any word in the couplet, or to anything cognate to its contents. The same inconveniences are met with in the classification of Antithetical Couplets, as in that of Odes. Thus, under the title "Concession and Forbearance," is appropriately found (No. 1852) "Imitate Chang Kung who wrote so many times the Jen character" (**). The other line of the couplet is, however, placed (No. 34) under the head of "Example": "Imitate Ssu Ma who laid up much secret merit" (#75**). So also under "Wine," (No. 1005) we find: "Wine does not intoxicate men-men intoxicate themselves" (¬B^^ M). The second line of this couplet is banished to the title "Hypocrisy and Deceit," where we have (No. 1719): “Beauty (or lust) does not bewitch men-men bewitch themselves"(^^). Yet in other cases where the connec tion between two lines of the same distich is even less intimate, they are allowed to remain undisturbed in their union. That it is undesirable to learn separately, and with no knowledge of their appropriate connection, lines which to the Chinese ear belong together, must be obvious. Imagine a Dictionary of Quotations from English authors, classified according to subjects, in which the words: "Hope springs eternal in the human breast," is found under "Hope," while the following line: "Man never is, but always to be blest," are entered under "Man"! Divorces of this kind are quite unnecessary, since judicious cover-references would obviate every difficulty.

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