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and stolen property for which there is so extensive a field in India. Christian people who will take the trouble to read the correspondence will probably conclude that the whole thing is merely another late phase of human folly. Foolish however, as it is, it is not more absurd than the reveries of Keshub Chunder Sen, which pass with some for wisdomn. The mixture, however, of recondite Vedantism and the most vulgar Spiritualism with bitter antagonism to Christianity, is judiciously concocted for the Indian market. Already disciples have been gathered into Theosophism; some from European infidelity, still more recruited among natives. Unless there should be an explosion shortly, much and serious mischief may be anticipated from this strange source. Professor Max Müller, if we interpret the gist of his letter rightly, is anxious betimes—and we do not wonder at it-to back out from all connexion with this strange hybridism, although it seems to a certain extent to chime in with his favourite studies."

The ground on which the writer of this article says Prof. Müller appears desirous to back out from all connexion with that matter is found in the Letter he wrote in reference to a controversy between two Hindu scholars as to the nature of their own books. One of these, the reformer referred to, claims that they contain a revelation, and he insists on explaining them according to their own traditions and commentators. Of the explanations of the reformer, Prof. Müller says

Though these editions are useless to European students, they are interesting as a last attempt to revive, by a forced interpretation, the ancient and effete religion of the Veda. Dayânanda claims a pure monotheism for the ancient Hymns of the Rig-Veda, thus entirely destroying their real historic interest as relics of an incipient polytheistic worship.. ... The influence of European teaching in the universities and colleges of India has shown itself very clearly, in the opposition which Dayananda Sarasvati has met with among his own countrymen. The pupils of these colleges are far too well acquainted with the results of Vedic studies in Europe to submit quietly to the unnatural, unhistorical and uncritical views even of so devoted and learned a man as Dayâ nanda.” Such is the opinion which Prof. Müller expresses. But the history of mankind justifies the expression of serious doubts of its correctness. Pride of country, and of antiquity, will lead most of the people to receive the opinions of such men us Dayânanda, which accord with the natural feelings of the heart, and which minister to the feelings of national pride. These feelings are much stronger than intellectual conceptions. And besides this, very few of those who hear the teachings of the advocates of their own religion have ever been at any of the Indian colleges or universities to have their


belief in their own religion undermined or lessened. This phase of native religious thought in India, shows that there is little ground for the hope, which Prof. Müller expresses in his lectures on the origin of religions “that the Church of the Future will be composed of the adherents of all the great religions of the world.” From the history of the past there is no reason to suppose that the non-christian religions will give up their several forms, except when they experience such a change of views as leads them to accept the glorious blessings and hopes which Christianity offers to mankind. And there is no reason, from the past history of Christianity, that its followers will leave the great and precious truths of our holy religion to participate in an organization composed of such heterogeneous elements.

In this connection I would call attention to a usage of the word sacred, which is coming into use among some writers, which is not fully sanctioned by the dictionaries. The word sacred is defined by Chambers thus: "Set apart or dedicated, especially to God; made holy, proceeding from God, religions relating to the Scriptures : entitled to respect or veneration : inviolable." It is defined by Webster thus : “1. Holy; pertaining to God or his worship; separated from common secular uses and consecrated to God and his service; as a sacred service; a sacred place; a sacred day; a sacred feast; sacred orders. 2. Proceeding from God and containing religious precepts; as the Sacred Books of the Old and New Testament. 3. Narrating or writing facts respecting God and holy things; as a sacred historian. 4. Relating to religion or worship of God; used for religious purposes, as sacred songs, sacred music, sacred history. 5. Consecrated to; dedicated to; devoted to. 6. Entitled to reverence; venerable. Sacred majesty. In this title, sacred has no definite meaning, or it is blasphemy. Sacred place, in the civil law is the place where a deceased person is buried.” From these definitions of the word sacred, well established and general usage restricts this word to things relating to the one true God. Sacred worship is the worship offered to God. Sacred songs are songs used in the worship of God. Sacred orders are those connected with the worship of God. The Sacred Scriptures are the Books of the Old and New Testament which reveal the true God and his will to men.

These definitions of the words and statement of its uses, show tha it is not applied to things connected with religion in general, or of different religions; but that it is restricted to the Sacred Books of the Christian religion, and of worship and service of the true God. Thet point I make then is, that the Editor of the Books of the East has, in applying the word "sacred” to these Books departed from established usage as recognized by the dictionaries. This departure is not called for, because the English language is sufficiently copious to afford words by which to designate them distinctively without using a well known word away from its customary use. It is moreover inexpedient, because it is liable to produce confusion and wrong conceptions in the minds of many persons. It is calculated to give persons unacquainted with these Books the impressions that they have the characteristics that belong to the Holy Bible, because they are designated by the same word they have heard usually applied to it. Its application to them has, on the other hand, a tendency to lower the regard in which the Holy Bible is justly held, when the word sacred is applied to Books the contents of which are such as Prof. Müller himself has stated them to be in his preface to them. While I am entirely willing to let men follow their own views in the matter of religion, I would respectfully ask that they should not wound the sensibilities of many of those who rest their faith and hopes for time and eternity upon the divine revelation of the Old and New Testament, by seeking to put such books as these Books of the East are, into the same category with the Bible, by styling them the “Sacred Books of the East.”


By J. DUDGEON, M.D. TIE programme of the Chinese School Book Series is a very imHE

posing one. When completely finished we shall have an encyclopedia in Chinese, a sort of Western T'u shu chi cheng, or Universal Library. Although called by this modest title, many of the works will form exhaustive treatises of the subjects of which they treat, and therefore have a distinct, scientific and literary value. In a comparatively limited sense only, can it be called a “School” series. Some of the works will simply be reproductions in Chinese of the latest standard text books in the universities at home. The Committee of publication has been fortunate in consigning the various subjects to the different writers, chiefly the ablest and oldest missionaries in China, who have made their respective subjects more or less of a special study. The names, of not a few of the authors, are already favourably known in the world of Chinese letters, and in some cases on the same subjects which are now assigned them. This in itself is a criterion of their merit and a guarantee of the value of the work to be accomplished. Several works of the Series have already been published, and more are in the press or in preparation. We are therefore permitted to judge of the nature of the work


and of its suitability to the object aimed at. Some of the best books, which are still our standard ones, such as Hobson's Anatomy and Natural Philosopy and others, might have been utilized with advantage, with but few if any additional corrections, and thus much time and expense saved. The new may not be always the best. For happiness of expression, clearness and beauty of style and adaptability, some of the works now and for a long time in circulation cannot be surpassed. The Committee seems to have fallen, I fear, into the danger of producing too high classed works, which will be found unsuitable for common mission or Confucian schools. At home no education Board possesses such an array of scientific and philosophic treatises. The programme is enough to dazzle the Chinese by the vastness and brilliancy of our productions on all subjects under the sun. Mr. Hart, the Inspector General of Customs, has, I think, shown a much better appreciation of the requirements of the Chinese by causing the preparation in Chinese of the series of science primers published by the Messrs. Macmillan. The School Committee will probably ultimately find that school text books are just as much the desideratum as before, and abridgements of some of the works will require to be taken in hand. Many of the volumes of this series will be found either to contain too much or too little; too much for common school use, and too little for the successful pursuit of the subject. The work on anatomy now before us by the late Dr. Osgood of Foochow is a case in point.

It comprises six volumes, somewhat bulky, embracing osteology, myology, arteriology, the digestive and nervous systems, and special senses. The work is copiously illustrated with the ordinary drawings of medical works at home, many of which we should not certainly put into works in English for use in schools, or even among scientific or unprofessional persons. Some of them would seem at first repulsive even to the young medical student. Anatomical museums for the common people require to be very carefully guarded and wisely conducted. This work, if intended for common school use, must be largely cut down and brought within the compass of a single volume. Such a work, we have already in Hobson's Anatomy; a book highly and justly prized by the literati for its style. The forthcoming work of the series on physiology will be open to some of the same objections, for it will be a bona fide translation of the latest edition of Kirk's work on the subject. An epitome of it will also be necessary for school use. In Great Britain and the United States we have excellent school text books in the higher branches of education ; such for instance as Hitchcock's Anatomy and Physiology, and our own Chamber's or Kirk and Johnstone's publications.


It is with the greatest reluctance that we take up the review of this anatomical work for the sole reason that the author passed away before it was completely printed. He lived to finish the composition of the work, and the first and second volumes, with the vocabulary, were already in the press when his sudden death took place in August, 1880. We believe many of the errors and misprints in the vocabulary are due to this cause, notwithstanding the statement to the contrary of the Publication Committee, to whom was entrusted their completion. One advantage, undoubtedly possessed, was the printing of the work under their own eyes, at Foochow. Many living authors have much to complain of in this respect, their works being printed at a distance and having no opportunity of proof-reading; and where even the latter is possible, errors do, nevertheless, still creep in. The Vocabulary is the joint work of Dr. Osgood and the General Committee, or at least of the staff at the Shanghai Arsenal with whom he consulted. Dr. Osgood in a few instances differed in his views from that body. We must hold the Committee responsible, and it is so far assuring to know that they do not shirk the responsibility, “having,” as a Committee ought to have, “a perfect knowledge of what they are doing.” It would have been wiser for the Committee, while giving the whole their general superintendance, to have thrown responsibilty upon individual writers. In practice this will still be done. Many of the authors have made their works a specialty for years, it is therefore rather hard to be overridden and overruled by a Committee assuming a special knowledge of the subject coextensive with the writer.

The Anatomy is a very serious abridgement of Gray's wellknown English work on the subject. Itis copiously illustrated with the usual drawings, showing the various organs and parts of the human body. The highly interesting subject of comparative anatomy is not even touched upon. The illustrations are excessively poor as works of art, thin, faint, blurred and indistinct. Of copper plates there are 98. They seem to be worn-out plates, the refuse of some publishing house in the United States. The preface acknowledges many thanks as due to a Mr. Lea, of Philadelphia, for the reasonable rate at which he furnished them. That they were not cut expressely for this work we judge among other things by their having the Arabic numerals, which necessitates the repetition of these figures with their Chinese equivalents, a clumsy but indispensable procedure. The remaining illustrations, 265 in number, are electrotype plates prepared at the Presbyterian Press, Shanghai, from engravings furnished. Thanks are also given for the excellent manner in which these plates

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