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The History was twice revised and reprinted during the Ming dynasty, once each in the reigns of K'ang Hi and K'ien Lung, about A.D. 1690-1749. The last and best edition was produced in 1824, in 150 volumes () and was the joint work of a number of Suchow scholars under the leadership of Sung Jü Ling (*). A new edition bringing the history down to the end of the reign of Tung Chi () 1874 and including the dire experiences of the devoted city during the Tai P'ing Rebellion, is now being published under the auspices of the Fu T'ai.


is more than 2,300 hundred years old. The first wall was built under the supervision of Wu Tz Sü (f) by order of Hoh Lü ( U) prince of Wu in the reign of King Wang of the Cheu dynasty, B.C. 513-496.

In the first volume, actually the fourth, which treats of the principal changes that have befallen the city, it is stated that the country in which Suchow is situated belonged originally to the Yang Cheu District in the time of the Great Yu () of the Hia dynasty, B.C. 2205. In the period embraced in the Spring and Autumn Annals () Suchow was the capital of the kingdom of Wu (H).

When Tai Pêh (f) and Chung Yung (f) the elder sons of T'ai Wang (E) of the Cheu fled from their younger brother who had been appointed successor to their father's dominions, they went south and settled in a region of country called King Man (), and named the country-which they seemed to have ultimately conquered and ruled-Keu Wu (♫] ),* T'ai Pêh dwelt in Mei Li (f) about twenty miles north of the city of Hoh Lü. The elder son of Sheu Mung, who was a descendant of the nineteenth generation from T'ai Pêh, moved still further south and settled on or near the place where, four generations later, Hoh Lü built the city of Suchow.

There is still a town in existence some twenty miles north of Suchow, called Mei Li (), which is supposed to be identical with the Mei Li of T'ai Pêh's time.

The History states that Hoh Lü had frequent conversations with his minister, Wu Tz Sü as to the best methods of strengthening his kingdom and securing the safety and prosperity of his people. Among other plans proposed by Wu Tz Sü to this end, one of the most important was the founding of a new city and stronghold for the seat of government. The king agreed to the necessity of this movement, and commissioned Wu Tz Sü to select a site and proceed with the building of the city, which he accordingly did.

has the sound of probably derived from the pronunciation of the aborigines.

There is a village some eight or ten miles north-east of Suchow called "Prospect City" (#), which derives its name from the alleged fact that it was the site originally "prospected" and selected by Wu Tz Sü for the contemplated city of Suchow, the capital of Wu. But for some now unknown reason this site was abandoned for the one which the city now occupies.

The name of the city, as at first built, seems to have been Hoh Lü city (). The name Su was derived from a very high tower, built by the son and last successor of Hoh Lü in or near the city, and named by him "Beautiful Su Tower" (h). This tower was named from the Ku Su Mountain (). This tower is said to have been so high that from the top of it a man could be seen at a distance of 100 miles. It was built by Fu Ch'a, IIoh Lü's son, principally as a pleasure resort. An artificial lake, a pleasure garden and other accessions were built in connection with it, and here Fu Ch'a abandoned himself to pleasure in the society of the beautiful Si Shi. This female beauty had been sent to him as a snare by the crafty king of Yuel. The latter unable to withstand the power of either Hoh Lü, or his son, resorted to stratagem. Soon after, Fu Ch'a's accession to his father's dominions, the king of Yueh selected one of the most beautiful women of his kingdom, and after training her in all the female accomplishments of the time, sent her as a present to Fu Ch'a. The device was only too successful. Fu Ch'a gave himself up to dissolute enjoyment, notwithstanding the brave remonstrances of the faithful Wu Tz Sú. Ruin gradually stole unawares upon his army and kingdom, and he was ere long completely crushed by the wily king of Yueh and his kingdom overthrown. It would be tedious and unprofitable to tell of the many vicissitudes through which the city has passed since it was founded. It has been the scene of many fierce struggles, and in its earlier history passed frequently from one to another of the three kingdoms that then held this part of China, each new ruler changing its name, and sometimes also changing the names of its gates. The name Su () seems to have become permanently attached to the city in the reign of K'ai Hwang of the Sui dynasty, about A.D. 590, at which time the kingdom of Wu was finally overthrown and the country added to the dominions of K'ai Hwang.

The city has long been noted as the abode of wealth and luxury, and as one of the principal literary centres of China. The well known saying: "Above is heaven, below are Su and Hang" (LT

), indicates what a paradise each of the cities, Suchow and Hangchow, is in the estimation of the Chinese.

Dr. Williams, in his Middle Kingdom says that Suchow is situated on islands in the Great Lake, and contains a population of 2,000,000

inhabitants. I do not know where he could have got his information. He certainly could not have visited the city himself.

The city is situated some ten miles east of the eastern shore of the Great Lake. It is possible that the numerous small lakes surrounding the city at various distances may have led carly visitors to believe that the land on which the city is built, consisted of islands, while the fact is that the numerous small lakes are separate and independent bodies of water, each having a different name. As to the population it is hardly probable that there were ever two millions. It is the common opinion among the natives that during the T'ai Ping rebellion seven-tenths of the population were destroyed or driven away. And yet notwithstanding the rapid recuperation and growth that has been going on for fifteen years since the rebellion was suppressed a recent census shows that the present population cannot be more than 300,000, including the suburbs. It is not probable therefore that in its palmiest days it ever contained more than 1,000,000 inhabitants.

In a future communication I may tell something of the places of interest in and about the city, its temples, pagodas, noted bills, &c., and of the men and women who have had a prominent place in its history.



By Rev. A. H. SMITH, MR. PORTER reached here with his family June 30th. The proces

sion of carts conveying his impedimenta from the boats, may hare resembled the train which cscorted Jacob down to Egypt. It seemed evident to the most casual observers, that he, at least, had come to stay. The very next evening, a messenger came to us from a few leading men of the village, with a proposition and an inquiry. They said that in China, when a new family arrives, or when a new house is built, it is customary to recognize the circumstance with a kind of Ceremony, called The Setting up of the Kettle’ (FR SA)—in fact, a kind of House-warming. They also said that the missionaries had been in their village more or less for fifteen years, and that whatever other villages might think of us, they knew, and desired others to know, that missionaries are a desirable class of Immigrants (not to be kept out by an Exclusion Bill). In recognition of the fact that two more families This article was intended for private perusal, but permission has been obtained

from the writer to publish is as a continuation of the interesting papers which appeared in Nos. 4 and 5 of Vol. XII., under the above heading.-Ed. C. R. &M. J.

have been added to the village, they wished to present us with a Tablet-if that would be agreeable to us-as the most honorable Chinese way of expressing their sentiments. As it was designed to celebrate both the admitted excellence of our Doctrines, and the still more indisputable virtues of our Drugs, the suggested inscription was capable of a double meaning () with reference to both these points. The following was the proposed legend: I Shih Ming Tê


The Healing of the World Illustrates their Virtue,' the last half quoting the opening sentence of the Great Learning. We have often heard of a certain kind of welcome extended to missionaries in China, attempting to set up homes in the Interior, but they have generally been of the sort which the Am. Presbyterians experienced in Chi Nan Fu in 1881. Of anything like the present proposition, we had never heard or read. The singularity of the offer, was not diminished by the antecedent circumstances. No one who has not a minute knowledge of the long struggle with the District Magistrate of Tê Chou, can adequately realize what those circumstances were. For nearly a year, he has been fertile in expedients to get us into trouble, danger, and disgrace. He incited the people to mob us, he deliberately, repeatedly, officially and outrageously insulted the U.S. Consul, he ostentatiously ordered a rigorous investigation into the most infamous libels against our Church-members, against our helpers, and against us-libels of his own manufacture. For the past six months he has felt assured of success in driving us out at least of his District. After the mobbing of the Consul, the Magistrate gave a series of Theatrical Performances and Feasts, to which Officials and Gentry were invited, expressly to celebrate the joyful victory over Foreigners. At the close of these festivities-extending over half a month-an impromptu representation was ordered up, displaying the 'Burning of Foreign Buildings, and the Murder of Foreigners' (*** A) which was given in the presence of the Magistrate and of all the Officials of Tê Chou. In these acts, this Official was in perfect sympathy with the high Provincial Authorities, who are now desperately trying to expel Foreigners, by sub-latent methods. Under these conditions, for a village 8 li from the Tê Chou line, and within two days' journey of the Provincial Capital, to offer to Foreigners a Tablet, on the occasion of their threatening to come and live among themappeared unique.

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The proposition of our new Neighbors was at once accepted, (what else could be done with it ?) but with a vague apprehension of what it certainly implied. In acknowledgement of the Tablet, it would fall to us, to wait upon' () them, and when the nature of a Chinese

Feast (for which 'waiting' is but an euphemism) is calmly considered, no one will be surprised that we were filled with secret terror.

**** At the Sunday meeting next day, the proposed villagers' Tablet was abundantly discussed. One of the Church-members, whose heart, we were informed, the 'Lord had touched,' felt that this was a rebuke to the Church. Should some hundreds of Church-members sit impassive, and behold a village, still more than nine-tenths Heathen, visibly glorify' the Shepherds with a Tablet? Perish the thought! Hence the war-cry: 'A Church-Members' Tablet.' The idea grew rapidly. Almost before we knew of it, it had begun to bud and blossom. The plan of the villagers had been to present their tablet at once, as my departure was known to be set for an early day. This new scheme necessitated the delay of another week, as it was impossible to reach all the members, or even any large proportion of them, except on Sunday, when the names of those wishing to co-operate were to be taken. On some accounts it would have been more natural to postpone the whole affair until Autumn, when we are all completely transferred to the new home; but to this there was the obvious objection that it is often necessary for the best welding effect to strike when the iron is hot. If the villagers could not be put off, much less could the Churchmembers be denied, especially in view of the nature of their proposition, which was that their part should be to welcome the villagers to the residence of the Shepherds, on behalf of the latter. Each Churchmember, or registered applicant for baptism (Z) was to contribute his fixed quota of 200 cash (7) just as at Weddings, Funerals, &c. Whatever remained, after paying for the Tabletwhich cost 15,000*-went towards the general expenses, as in ordinary Chinese celebrations. Aside from members, and applicants, no one was invited, or allowed to take a part. The contribution of the villagers went exclusively to pay for their Tablet, which was made by the same persons, in the same style, and at the same price as the other. A long list of inscriptions was prepared, and submitted for our choice, of which the following quotation from the Historical Classic, was selected: Reverently Exacting, the Way of Heaven.' While the village Tablet was appropriately dated: 'In the Eighth Year of Kuang Hsü, Jen Wu of the Cycle, in the Pomegranate Month and during the last third of the Moon’(光緒八年歲次壬午榴月下澣), that of the Church-members as naturally dates in The Year of Our Lord One Thousand Eight Hundred and Eighty-two.' At this point, however, a slight anachronism crept in, for the date is completed as if it

The sums named are reckoned as in the Northernmost Provinces, where one cash is called two. Each man contributed 100 real cash.

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