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thoroughfares of travel where the habit has been spread by travellers. But the remarks of many observers apply, not only to such places, but to country districts, and to the laboring population of every class. The remarks give the impression that the number of smokers every where is very great. If only one in thirty of the adult males smoked it could not possibly be so observable every where. If we would estimate the smokers to be one in ton of the adult males, it would make the number of smokers to be 6,000,000. And if we accept the estimate of two in ten of the adult males as indulging in this habit, it will make the number to be 12,000,000. It has been seen above that on the surmise of one mace of the extract being the average quantity used, the 200,000 chests of foreign and native drug would furnish sufficient extract for 7,500,000 of smokers. Evidence has been presented showing that the prepared extract is adulterated largely, perhaps to the extent of twothirds. This supposed increase of the extract would supply enough to furnish 5,000,000 with a mace of the extract daily, as that number is the two-thirds of seven-and-a-half millions. This additional number added to the seven-and-a-half millions makes the number which would be required to consume the amount of the adulterated extract at one mace a day to be 12,500,000. Without being positive on a subject, which is only a matter of surmise, I have no hesitation in expressing the opinion that, on a moderate supposition, the number of habitual smokers in China, is not less than eight millions; and it is very probable that it is ten millions. This latter number is one in six of the adult males; or one in thirty of the whole estimated population. It is three percent of the population instead of two-thirds of one per cent as presented by Mr. Hart. The considerations presented in this letter show that the amount of opium extract as now supplied would give more than one mace daily to each one of that number, while it would supply one and a half mace to each one of 8,000,000. Either one of these numbers would satisfactorily explain why all residents and travellers in China remark upon the general prevalence of opium smoking among this people.* In a subject which is necessarily one of conjecture, these considerations well satisfy most persons that the estimate of 8,000,000 as the number of habitual opium-smokers in China is a very probable estimate.
Prayer Union. I shall feel much obliged if you will kindly allow me to bring before the notice of the readers of your journal a Prayer Union which has been in existence for some years past in England.
This Union was first formed by the Rev. H. Law Harkness of St. Swithiu's Rectory, Worcester, in the year 1879. Its special object # Dr. Dudgeon in N.-C. Herald, of March 29th, 1882, p. 340, in reference to this says,
“Of tho percentage of smokers given by the poople themselves and by travellers in the opinm-producing provinces, as from 10 to 60 per cent of men, women and children.” A provalence of tho habit to this degree in many district would make The number of smokers far beyond any number wo havo suggested.
is Prayer for the gift of the Holy Spirit. There are now some 5,500 members in connection with it both in England and America.
Mr. Harkness has recently forwarded a printed circular letter to some of the missionaries in China in which he says: "I earnestly request you to print and circulate something in connection with this Union, or the Prayer for the Holy Spirit-'O God give me the Holy Spirit for Jesus Christ's sake. Amen.' I hope you will see your way to join this Union, and become an associate. I will endeavour to raise money in England, and will make myself responsible to you for 10s. (ten shillings) to help forward this very important movement."
Already a very great blessing has rested upon the movement, especially in the United States, where the subject of prayer for the Holy Spirit has been taken up most warmly.
Surely missionary brethren in this heathen land will not be slow in coming forward to unite together for this special purpose. We need more abundantly the gift of the Holy Spirit for ourselves; we need it more especially for the multitudes to whom we bring the message of salvation.
I shall be happy to receive the names of any persons who may wish to join the Union, and to forward them to Mr. Harkness, who will most gladly supply cards of membership, and give any information about the Union that may be required.
Yours very truly,
NINGPO, April 8th, 1882.
Please insert in your next issue the following corrections of misprints in my paper on "The Mosaic Account of Creation Geologically Considered," which appeared in the Jan.-Feb. number of the Chinese Recorder :
Page 10, second line from bottom, for "north-east to south-east" read north-east to south-west and from north-west to south-east.
Page 11, second paragraph, for "first" read just, and for "abysural" read
Page 11, last paragraph, for "these" read then; for "formed" read found; for "Canadeuse" read Canadense."
Page 12, third paragraph, for "Crebaleo Period" read Cretaceous Period; and for "Cambrean" read Cambrian,
Page 14, seventh line from top, for "amphibious" read amphibians.
And greatly oblige, yours faithfully,
PEKING, April 3rd, 1882.
Boys' High School, Tungchowo. DEAR SIR:
Will you kindly afford me space in the Recorder for a notice of the closing exercises of the Boys' High School here, under the care of Rev. Dr. Mateer, with a general notice of the Institution ?
The first week in February was almost wholly taken up with examinations of the young men and boys in the various studies gone over during the year. At many of these I was present, and was greatly pleased with the manifest thoroughness of the work done. If I were to particularize, I should call special attention to Mrs. Mateer's class in the Child's Book on The Soul in the Primary Department; and Dr. Mateer's classes in Surveying, Astronomy, and Moral Science. Mrs. Mateer's boys had not memorized, but mastered the argument of their text book. Ordinary graduates in our Western colleges are less familiar with surveying than Dr. Mateer's class. The same may be said of Astronomy. I was however specially pleased with the examination in Moral Science. This study is quite in the line of Chinese earned thought, but I venture to say these young men have got altogether new ideas as to the nature of right and wrong. In the course of examination the question of foot binding came up. The young men condemned it decidedly, as an immoral practice, and knew the reason for such an opinion. Other very interesting points of a practical nature were discussed, particularly the relation of sin to the consciencc. I anticipate the happiest results from the faithful study by our young men of Moral Science.
Wednesday evening the junior class had their exhibition. The exercises consisted of essays, orations, and a debate, the whole being enlivened with singing by the school. The orations were very credivable. The chief interest of the evening was in the debate. The question discussed was “Ought sisters to share with their brothers when the patrimony is divided." To my mind the arguments were with the affirmative, but the native judges decided in favor of the negative. To the singing by the school in Chinese this evening was added a beautiful duet in English sung by Mr. and Mrs. Laughlin. This last was a real treat.
Thursday evening was the time set apart for the services connected with the graduating class. Of these there were five two of whom have been in the school five years, two eleven and one thirteen years. The first two had been some years in Mr. Corbett's school before coming here. They have studied Arithmetic, Algebra, Geometry, Trigonometry, Mensuration, Surveying, and Analytical Geometry. Also Natural Philosophy, Chemestry, Astronomy, Moral Science, Ancient History, History of China, History of England, and Evidences of Christianity. They have studied these thoroughly. They have not been crammed, but trained to think: and are in the exact etymological sense educated men. Their commencement exercises were very like those in a Western college. Four young men delivered original orations, the other made the Valedictory address. An interesting feature was a musical “Farewell," addressed to the class by their school-fellows, words and music being original. Dr. Mateer made a
very impressive address to the graduates and gave each his diploma. The Chinese characters neatly written on an elegant red silk scroll makes a very handsome diploma. These young men are all Christians and go at once to posts of influence and usefulness. It will be seen that they are to all intents and purposes college graduates. The institution will probably be very soon in form, what it already is in fact, a college. The following description of it was addressed by the President to the Commissioner of Customs in Chefoo, Geo. L'ughes, Esq., in answer to inquiries regarding the school by that gentleman
“The Boys' High School, connected with the American Presbyterian Mission in Tungchow, was organized seventeen years ago. At first it was a school of six or eight little boys, and has gradually increased till the present time; there being now forty-five pupils, of whom twenty-five are nearly or quite grown men. From the first tho aim was to build up a school of a high order, and this aim has been kept steadily in view. As soon as practicable, we began to teachi Arithmetic and Geography and Natural Philosophy; and from this advanced step by step to the higher Mathematics. After a few years the school was divided into a primary, and advanced department, each having a Chinese teacher. We also declined to take any boy into the school whose parents would not give a written guarantee that there sons should stay eight, ten, or twelve years—or until they had completed the full course of study. We also sent home again all boys, who, after a fair trial, were found to be dull, as well as all who were vicious or unmanageable. We were thus constantly sifting our material, and trying to get the best. It was no small task to enforce these principles, but we persevered, and the result is the present school. The number is not equal to some others; but in scholarship, our young men will compare favorably with the students of any school in China. Special attention has been paid to Mathematics and Natural Sciences. Nuch stress has been laid on the thorough mastery of Natural Philosophy and Chemistry. An extensive collection of apparatus has been provided, and we have spared no pains in giving each class a full course of experiments. The apparatus embraces all branches, but is specially full in electricity. The last additions to our apparatus consist of a new five-inch transit theodolite, a one-horse power steam engine, and boiler, and a first-class ten-inch reflecting telescope, with driving clock complete. The telescope will be mounted on a suitable observatory in the spring. None of the apparatus has been furnished by the Board of Missions. I have however received aid from personal friends, and from friends of education in China and the U.S., America. In connection with the making of experiments, an effort has been made to teach the young men, the use of tools for working in brass and iron, especially in the manufacture and repairing of apparatus. A goodly amount of apparatus has been made in Tungchow. With all this teaching of foreign science we have carefully avoided neglecting the regular Chinese studies. The Classics have been thoroughly taught by a first-class Chinese teacher, and in the High School one day cach week is devoted exclusivel to the writing of essays
in classic Chinese. An important feature of the school is the attention to writing and speaking in Mandarin. Early in the history of the school, we began to have weekly exercises in writing essays in Mandarin and debating. After some years a Literary Society was organized, which has proved an important aid in the training of the students. It meets weekly and has exercises in Mandarin composition, original delamations and debates. From the beginning the moral tone of the school has been an object of prime consideration. For several years past all the pupils in the High School have been professing Christians, and most of them are the children of Christian parents. Without a controlling moral force among the pupils, it would be impossible to make such a school a practical success. One of the chief difficulties encountered, is that of keeping the pupils long enough to acquire a thorough education. To master Western sciences, and at the same time study the Chinese Classics, and be proficient in writing essays, is a difficult task for ordinary minds, to be accomplished only by many years of severe and patient study. We have never taught any foreign language. All branches have been taught in the Chinese language. The five young men who graduate this year have finished the prescribed course of instruction with the exception of two or three branches, for which there are as yet no text books. One of these goes to teach in St. John's College, Shanghai, another to teach in Dr. Allen's new school, and a third goes to Peking to teach in the school under the care of Rev. Jno. Wherry. I should perhaps say that steps have been taken for erecting the school formally into a College and increasing the number of students and the corps of instructors. The classes are already regularly organized and following out a prescribed course of study.”
I have inserted the above at length that your readers may learn the character of the Institution referred to. I am, Yours very truly,
CHAS. R. MILLS: TungcOW, March 1st, 1882.
A Card. As I am about to start for England and the U.S. America I think it fitting to announce that I have prepared the first draught of a Concordance of tho Mandarin New Testament and Psalms, Peking Version. If spared to return to China I hope to get the work ready for the press at an early day.
CHAS. R. Mills. TUNGCHOW, March 1st, 1882.