Puslapio vaizdai



There bloomed not in Eden's most exquisite bowers

A fairer than thou art, thou fairest of flowers ! Nor Hoats there such perfume through sweet Araby

As that which thou yield'st, my pale lily, to me. When first thou unfoldest thy leaves to the light,

Arrayed like the snow in the purest of white, Thou’rt the emblem of maiden unspotted by guile,

Ere yet from her eye hath departed the smile-

Ere the ANGEL OF Peace from her bosom hath flown

Unsullied by sin, and by sorrow unknown ;
While yet her first smiles are bestowed on the skios,

And the first of her accents in gratitude rise.
Pale lily, I love thee, have loved thee for long,

And fain now would weave all my love into song ;
But it will not be told, and I cannot impart
To others the joy thou hast yielded my heart.

Colix RAE Browx.


History of the Conquest of Peru. By William II. Prescott. the men whom they supplanted. They also are giving London : Richard Bentley.

way before another race, more skilled in the art of Recent inquiries into the character and circumstances Mexico, with all the advantages of its position, has been

war, and endowed with greater energy, so that again of the inhabitants of the American continent, previous to

stormed and taken by a foreign enemy.

The present the emigration of European settlers, have rendered more

conflict may not result in the entire subjugation of the accessible the scanty materials remaining to form the history of those numerous but lost nations. Even at the Spanish race; but it is not difficult to foresee that some present moment, it may be doubted whether the continent great change in their habits and character can alone preof America contains a population equal in number to its sworis revolutionised empires and nearly extirpated na

vent the descendants of the chivalrous adventurers, whose inbabitants at the time when Columbus first crossed the Atlantic ; but from the remains of ancient cities in the tions, from perisl.ing in their turn. Mr. Prescoti's history willerness, and from the trailitions of the Indians, it

is of the conquest of Peru, and the preliminary book, which appears probable that, before the arrival of the European tion and characteristics of the nation at the period when

occupies one-third of the first volume, describes the posiconquerors, the population bad decreased from the inaxi

that conquest began. mum which it had previously reached. There is not in the history of the world any iustance of nations equally their form of government that can now be obtained—or

Those glimpses of their institutions, their power, and numerous and equally advanced in civilization melting away before a hostile ruce, and being almost obliteratei probably that ever will be obtained—reach us through the

records left by their conquerors, and are imperfect. In and forgotten in their own land. It is true, indeed, that

this preliminary book, Mr. Prescott has exercised great in the southern states of America the Indian race still forms a large proportion of the population; but, sunt in apparent care in compuring the various statements handed apathy and serfdom to their European conquerors, they investigate those facts that the world wants to know and

down by Spanish writers, who were not often qualified to make 110 'struggle to regain their former supremacy: will not know regarling the history of the American naThey have censed to preserve the traditions and records

tions. of their former power; and, while the bolder tribes of

The narrow strip of land occupied by the Peruvians the north have been destroyed, those of the south promise nothing towards the solution of the questions vourable to agricultural purposes; but by the most labo

between the Andes and the Pacific, was peculiarly unfathat arise regarding the ancient history of their race. Mr. Prescott's “Conquest of Mexico" is very generally

rious cultivation, it had been brought into a condition of known to those who feel interested in the lodian races of great natural fertility, and supported an immense popula

tion at the period of the Spanish invasion. It does not America. Ilis“ Conquest of Peru" has been received with equal favour; and although only a short period has appear that the dynasty of the Incas had been of long

duration; while it is certain that the advancement of the elapsed since its publication, it has already reached a second edition. The conquest of Peru in no respect re

Peruvians in power, and the centralization of the various sembled that of Mexico, except in the general issue. Both tribes, occurred under their rule, or during a period of

more than three hundred years. That fnct does not lead the Peruvians and the Mexicans were subdued by hostile adventurers from the old world ; but otherwise, as

us to suppose that the Peruvian races came into the there was little afinity between the two races, so in their country at nearly such a recent date. Mr. Prescott says:struggles for national existence there are few common fea- “ We may reasonably conclude that there existed in the tures exhibited. The Peruvians and Mexicans-although country a race avanced in civilisation before the time of the both advanced in civilization, both living under a settled Incas; and, in conformity with nearly every tradition, we may

derive this race from the neighbourhood of Lake Titicaca; a form of government, inhabiting large cities, and presenting conclusion strongly confirmed by the imposing architectural remany remarkable characteristics-had 110 mutual inter- mains which still endure, after the lapse of so many years, on

The dominions of the Aztces and the Incas were its borders. Who this race were, and whence they came, may extending their borders in every direction at the period of afford a tempting theme for inquiry to the spectative antithe Spanish invasion; and in course of years, when they quarian ; but it is a land of darkness, that lies far beyond the met, the southern regions of America might have witnessed domain of history: a struggle between the two grent divisions of the children continue to settle on their subsequent annals ; and, so imperfect

“ The same mists that hang aronnd the origin of the Incas of the soil; but the intervention of the Spaniards brought were the records employed by the Peruvians, and so confused both empires to a close, and subjected the Western Con- and contrautictory their traditions, that the historian finds no tinent to European sway. The fate of the Spanish races firm footing on which to stand till within a century of the iu southern America bears some resemblance to that of Spanish conquest. At first the progress of the Peruvians secm


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to have been slow, and almost imperceptible. By their wise and neophyte fared no better than his comrades, sleeping a !. temperate policy they gradually won over the neighbouring bare ground, going unshod and wearing a mean attire-te tribes to their dominion, as these latter became more and more of life, it was supposed, which might tend to inspire him " convinced of the benefits of a just and well-regulated govern- more sympathy for the destitute. ment. As they grew stronger, they were enabled to rely more With all this show of impartiality, however, it will : directly on force; but still advancing under cover of the same bly be doing no injustice to the jndges to suppose that a pia beneficent pretests einployed by their predecessors, they pro- discretion may have somewhat quickened their perceptions : claimed peace and civilization at the point of the sword. The the real merits of the heir apparent. rude nations of the country, without any principle of cohesion At the end of the appointed time, the candidates selected amongst themselves, fell one after another before the victori- worthy of the honours of their barbaric chivalry were preset": ous arın of the Incas. Yet it was not till tho middle of the to the Sovereign, who condescended to tahe a principal fifteenth century that the famous Topa Inca Yupanqui, grand- the ceremony of inauguration. He begin with a brief :father of the monarch who occupied the throne at the coming conrse, in which, after congratulating the young aspirants of the Spaniards, led his armies across the terrible desert of the proticiency they had shown in martial exercises, be ret. Atacama, and penetrating to the southern district of Chili, them of the responsibilities attached to their birtlı and sts: fixed the permanent boundary of his dominions at the river and, aldressing them affectionately as “ children of the $ Vaulé. His son, Iluayna Capac, possessed of ambition and he exhorted them to imitate their great progenitor in lisa! military talent fully equal to his father's, marched along ous career of beneficence to mankind. The novices then! the Cordillera towards the north, and pushing his conquests near, and kneeling one by one before the Inca, he pierod across the equator, added the powerful kingdom of Quito to ears with a golden bookin; and this was suffered to rei the empire of Peru.”

there till an opening had been made large enough for the s But he is too precise a historian to renture into the

mous pendants which were peculiar to iheir order, and ! darkness of the period assigned by some authorities as the

gave them with the Spaniards the name of orrjorci. I

ornament was so massy in the ears of the Sovereign the era when this district of Peru was conquered by the Mo- cartilage was distended by it nearly to the shoulder, prode: guls; and indeed we suspect, as matters are, that the world what seemed a monstrous deforinity in the eyes of the E must do without anything better than surmises respecting peans, though under the magical iniluence of fashion, itt the original inhabitants of Peru; for even the Moguls regarded as a beauty by the natives." found a race to conquer. The Peruvians themselves be

These ceremonies bore some resemblance to the isis lieved the Incas to be descended from the Sun; and the

tive into the ranks of knighthood amongst the Europ Inca race, it may be observed, embraced the whole aristo-chivalry of the middle ages; and, perhaps, if the stris: cracy of the country, who, in their presumed superiority could be traced backward, might be found originatin.. of birth, as beings of another race--the children of the the same source. Although the principal college of Sun-to which the Peruvians tendered their worship, bad Incas, or nobility, was placed in Cuzco, the metrup the best established claim to aristocratic privileges. The yet similar institutions on a smaller scale were founded is city of Cuzeo was the royal residence, and that of many different localities of the certainly not wide but long deci of the nobility, to whom all the principal offices of State nions of the Incas. The nobility, however, monopolize were entrusted, and for whose special use a college was

the literature and science of Peru. They excluded ili instituted at Cuzco, a city a lorned with many magnificent people from their schools of learning-acting on the res buildings.

im, vot contined to the worshippers of the Sun and the “ The sceptre of the Incas, if we may credit their historian, Moon, that a little learning is a dangerous thing. T. descended in unbroken succession from father to son through Incas--we refer not merely to the sovereign or his fi their whole dynasty. Whatever we may think of this, it ap, mily, but the aristocracy of Peru—were Tories of the pare: pears probable that the right of inheritance might be claimed by the eldest son of the Coya, or lawful queen, as she was,

water. They were not causelessly cruel. They initie: styled, to distinguish her from the host of concubines who no injury, except to promote their pleasures or serre tbes shared the affections of the sorereign. The queen was further purposes. They believed probably—and certainly t. distinguished, at least in later reigns, by the circumstance of taught the people to believe-in their divine right to rule, being selected from the sisters of the Inca, an arrangement derived from their divine origin. Their political and so which, however revolting to the ideas of civilised nations, was organization provided everything for the people. Tips recommended to the Peruvians by its securing an heir to the had not spared a single "cranny" where thought conld vercrown of the pure heaven-born race, uncontaminated by any mixture of earthly moud.

ture out. Even those domestic matters, generally lef* " In his early years the roval offspring was entrusted to the individual decision in the most despotic countries, mers care of the Amantas, or “wise men,” as the teachers of Peru- arranged by the Incas, or by the law for the" common peu vinn science were called, who instructed him in such elements ple.” They settled when and whom a man was to marry of knowledge as they possessed, and especially in the cumbrous They provided work and they stored food for tbe populaceremonial of their religion, in which he was to take a pro- tion. In Peru every affair of life was done according a minent part. Great care was also bestowed on his military law; and, according to luw, education was denied to the education, of the last importance in a state which, with its professions of peace and good-will, was ever at war for the acquisition of empire.

“ “Science was not intended for the people, but for these " In this military school he was educated with such of the of generous blood. Persons of low degree are only putied a Inca nobles as were nearly of his own age; for the sacred by it, and rendered vain and arrogant. Neither should each name of Inca--a fruitful source of obscurity in their annals- meddle with the affairs of government ; for this would bring was applied indifferently to all who descended by the male line high offices into disrepute, and cause detriment to the State.' from the founder of the monarchy. At the age of sixteen the Such was the favourite maxim, often repeated, of Tupa Luca pupils underwent a public examination, previous to their admis- Yapanqui, one of the most renowned of the Peruvian Sora sion to what may be called the order of chivalry. This exa. reigns. It may seem strange that such a maxim should ere mination was conducted by some of the oldest and most illus- have been proclaimed in the New World, where popular insti. trious Incas. The candidates were required to show their tutions have been established on a more extensive scale than prowess in the athletic exercises of the warrior, in wrestling was ever before witnessed, where government rests wholly as and boxing, in running such long courses as fully tried their the people, and education, at least in the great northern diagility and strength, in severe fasts of several days duration, vision of the continent, is mainly directed to qualify the people and in mimic comla's, which, although the weapons were for the duties of government. Yet this maxim was strictly blunted, were always attended with wounds and someti nes with conformable to the genius of the Peruvian monarchy, and was death. During this trial, which lasted thirty days, the 10. a) serve as a key to its habitual policy, since, while it watcher?


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with unwearied solicitude over its subjects, provided for their | of the characters for a written language. They had no pbysical necessities, was mindful of their morals, and showed symbols to represent sounds with sufficient accuracy, or throughout the affectionate concern of a parent for his children,

even in a plenary manner. The quipu was their only it yet regarded them only as children, who were never to

means of communicating historical events, except by oral emerge from the state of pupilage, to act or to think for themselves, but whose whole duty was comprehended in the obliga- tradition. The quipu exhibited great ingenuity, and antion of implicit obedience.

swered better for statistical than for literary purposes. “ Such was the humiliating condition of the people under It is thus described :the Incas, while the numerous families of the blood royal enjoyed the benefit of all the light of education which the civili- different coloured threads tightly twisted together, from which

The quipu was a cord about two feet long, composed of zation of the country could afford ; and, long after the Con

a quantity of smaller threads were suspended in the manner of quest, the spots continued to be pointed out where the

a fringe. The threads were of different colonrs, and were tied seminaries had existed for their instruction. These were placed under the care of the amaulas, or wise men, who colours denoted sensible objects, as, for instance, white repre

into knots----the word quipu, indeed, signifies a knot. The engrossed the scanty stock of science--if science it could be sented silver, and yellow, gold. They sometimes also stood for called--possessed by the Peruvians, and who were the sole abstract ideas ; thus, while signified peace, and red, war. teachers of youth. It was natural that the monarch should the quipus were chiefly used for arithmetical purposes.


The take a lively interest in the instruction of the young nobility

knots served instead of ciphers, and could be combined in such his own kindred. Several of the Peruvian princes are said to have built their palaces in the neighbonrhood of the schools, in By means of these they went throngh their calculations with

a manner as to represent numbers to any amount they required. order that they might the more easily risit them, and listen to the lectures of the amantas, whieh they occasionally re-enforced country bear testimony to their accuracy."

great rapidity; and the Spaniards who first visited the by a homily of their own. In these schools the royal pupils were instructed in all the different kinds of knowledge in which The statistics of Peru were kept by these skeins of their teachers were versed, with especial reference to the thread with great nicety. Returning officers were apstations they were to occupy in after life

. They studied the pointed in each district. There were registrars of births, laws, and the principles of administering the government, in which many of them were to take part. They were initiated marriages, and deaths, which our civilization has only in the peculiar rites of their religion, most necessary to those recently attempted to supply, and still supplies imperwho were to assume the sacerdotal functions. They learned | fectly; and there were officers appointed to obtain, record, also to emulate the achievements of their royal ancestors, by and preserve agricultural statistics and the amount of listening to the chronicles compiled by the amartas. They produce-a degree of accuracy which we have not yet were taught to speak their own dialect with purity and ele

attained :gance, and they became acquainted with the mysterious science of the quipus, which supplied the Peruvians with the means of Annalists were appointed in each of the principal como communicating their ideas to one another, and of transmitting munities, whose business it was to record the most important them to future generations."

events which occurred in them. Other functionaries, of a

higher character, usually the amautas, were entrusted with the This statement does not, however, agree precisely with history of the empire, and were selected to chronicle the great another at page 73, where we are informed, that to secure deeds of the reigning Inca, and of his ancestors. The narrathe allegiance of some of their vassals, the Incas adopted tive, thus concocted, could be commmunicated only by oral tra

dition ; but the quipns served the chronicler to arrange the " Another expedient of a bolder and more original charac- incidents with method, and to refresh luis memory. The story, This was nothing less than to revolutionise the

once treasured up in the mind, was indelibly impressed there language of the country. South America, like North, by frequent repetition. It was repeated by the amauta to his was broken up into a great variety of dialects, or rather lan

pupils; and, in this way, history, conveyed partly by oral traguages, having little atlinity with one another. This circum

dition, and partly by arbitrary signs, was handed down from stance occasioned great embrassinent to the Government in generation to generation, with sufficient discrepaney of details, the administration of the ditlerent provinces, with whose idioms but with a general conformity of outline to the truth.” they were unacquainted. It was determined, therefore, to substitute one universal language, the Quichua--the language

Even these traditions are, however, mainly lost, unless of the court, the capital, and the surrounding country—the some future inqnirer unlock the Indian mind, if anything richest and most comprehensive of the South American dialects. yet remains there undiscovered. There is a similarity be. Teachers were provided in the towns and villages throughout tween the Mexicans and Peruvians, in the absence of the land, who were to give instruction to all-even the hum- written characters :blest classes ; and it was intimated at the same time, that no one should be raised to any office of dignity or profit, who was

“ The Peruvian quipus were, donbtless, a wretched suh. unaequainted with this tongue. The Curaeas and other chiefs stitute for that beautiful contrivance, the alphabet, which, who attended at the capital, became familiar with this dialect employing a few simple characters as the representatives of in their intercourse with the court; and, on their return sounds, instead of ideas, is able to convey the most delicate home, set the example of conversing in it among themselves. shades of thought that ever passed through the inind of man. This example was imitated by their followers, and the Qui- The Peruvian invention, indeed, was far below that of the chua gradually became the langunge of elegance and fashion, hieroglyphics, even below the rude picture-writing of the in the same manner as the Norman French was affected by all Aztecs, for the latter art, however incompetent to convey abstract those who aspired to any consideration in England after the ideas, could depict sensible objects with tolerable accuracy. It Conquest.”

is evidence of the total ignorance in which the two nations

remained of cach other, that the Peruvians should have borAgain, page 108, the reader is informed that the policy rowed nothing of the hieroglyphical system of the Mexicans ; of the Incas confined education to their own race. While and, this, notwithstanding that the existence of the maguey they “ watched with unwearied solicitude over their sub- plant (agme) in South America might have furnished them jects, provided for their physical necessities, were mindfui with the very material used by the Aztecs for the construcof their morals, and showed throughout the affectionate tion of their maps." concern of a parent for bis children, they get regarded It is remarkable that these two powerful vations rethem ouly as children, who were never to emerge from the mained in ignorance of the existence of their neighbours; state of pupilage, to act or think for themselves, but whose and appears to establish the supposition that they were dewhole duty was comprehended in the obligation of im- scended from different divisions of the human race, ensi. plicit obedience."

grating at different times, and from different points, to The great deficiency of the Peruviaus was their ignorance America. Pursuing thisling ind


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the Peruvians were tho earliest settlers; that they came laws emanated from the sovereign, and that sovereign hel! from the west, because it is unlikely that they would have

a divine commission, and was possessed of a divine nature. To traversed the wide continent of Southern America, and throne, but it was acrilege. The slightest ofence, viewed in

violate the law, was not only to insult the majesty of the climbed the Cordilleras to settle on a narrow strip by the this ligit, meriied death; and the gravest could incur es shores of the Pacific. They had also, probably, left the 'heavier penalty. Yet, in the infliction of their panishesis, parent race prior to the invention and use of written they showed no unnecessary cruelty, and the sufferings ile characters to express the sounds of speech; and the quipu victim were not prolonged by the ingenuous torinents su free was most likely their own invention. This theory rests

buent among barbarous nations." on better grounds than mere conjecture ; for it is scarcely

All property centred originally in the Incas—but espa possible that the knowledge of written characters, once cially in the Jucas--exhibiting a close resemblance to the obtained, would be entirely obliterated.

laws and customs of Oriental nations. The Mexicans had maile greater advances. They were

1 “ All the mines in the kingdom belonged to the Inc. acquainted with a rude description of bieroglyphies, and They were wrought exclusively for his benefit by persoas may have originally left the African coast while that mode the mines were situated. Every Peruvian of the lower eiss

familiar with this service, and selected from the districts where of conveying ideas was in its imperfect state. We infer that

was a husbandman, and, with the exception of those already they came from the East, as the Peruvians from the West, i specified, was expected to provide for his own support by the and that the races never met.

cultivation of his land. A small portion of the community, We rerert again to the peculiar institution of the Incas, however, was instructed in mechanical arts; some of them of the most perfect aristocracy, and the most patriarchal, on the more elegant kind, subservient to the purposes of lusang

and ornament. a large scale, that the worid has probably ever wit

The demand for these was chiefly limited 'y nessed :

the sovereign and his court; but the labour of a larger han.

ber of hands was exacted for the execution of the great pubir " It was the Inca nobility, indeel, who constituted the rea works which covered the land. The nature and amout o strength of the Peruvian monarchy. Attached to their prince I the services required were all determined at Cuzeo by conluisby ties of consanguinity, they had common sympatines, and, to i sioners well instructed in the resources of the country, and u a considerable extent, common interests with him. Distin- , the character of the inhabitants of the different provinces." guished by a peculiar dress and insignia, as well as by language and blood, from the rest of the cominunity, they were never

Not only, however, the products of the mines, but a confounded with the other tribes and nations who were incor- portion also of those of the soil, reverted to the laca, ter porated into the great Peruvian monarchy. After the lapse of the use of his houschold, and for public purposes :centuries, they still retained their individuality as a peculiar “A part of the agricultural produce and manufactures wat people. They were to the conquered races of the country transported to Cuzco, to minister to the immediate demands of what the Romans were to the barbarous hordes of the enpire, the luca and his court. But far the greater part was stored or the Normans to the ancient inhabitants of the British Isles. in magazines scattered over the diferent provinces. Thes Clustering around the throne, they formed an invincible' spacious buildings, constructed of stone, were divided between phalanx, to shield it alike from secret conspiracy and open in- , the Sun and the inca, though the greater share seems to bere surrection. Though living chiefly in the capital, they were been appropriated by the monarch. By a wise regulation, a 1 also distributed throughout the country in all its high stations deticiency in the contributions of the Inca miglt be suppi.ci and strong military posts, thus establishing lines of communi- from the granaries of the Sun. But such a necessity coud cation with the court, which enabled the sovereign to act si- | rarely have happened; and the providence of the governmeni multaneously and with effect on the most distint quarters of usuaily left a large surplus in the royal depositories, shiel. his empire. They possessed, moreover, an intellectual pre- was removed to i third class of magazines, whose design wu eminence, which, no less than their station, gave them auino- to supply the people in seasons of scarcity, and occasionally te rity with the people; indeut, it may be said to have been the furnish relief to individuals whom sickness or misfortune his principal foundation of their authority. The crania of the reluced to poverty; thus in a manner justifying the assertaa Inca race show a decided superiority over the other races of of a Castilian document, that a large portion of the revenues the land in intellectual power; and it cannot be denied that it of the Inca found its way back again, through one channel : was the fountain of that peculiar civilisation and social polity, another, into the hands of the people. These magazines were which raised the Peruvian monarchy above every other state in found by the Spaniards, on their arrival, stored with all the South America. Whence this remurkable race came, and what various products and manufactures of the country-with was its early history, are among those mysteries that meet us maize, coca, qvinna, woollen and cotton stutis of the finest so frequently in the annals of the New World, and which time quality, with vases and utensils of gold, silver, and copper; and the antiquary have, as yet, done little to explain.” short, with every article of luxury or use within the compass cí We have a notion that, if the thigh-bones of the Incas, Peruvian skill

. The magazines of grain, in particular, wouis like their crania, could be coinpared with those of the frequently have supplied for the consumption of the adjuiring

districts for several years." vassals, they would also evince physical superiority, and that the difference in both cases is traccable, not to a dis

The practice still reininds us of patriarchal times; the tinction of race, but of the manner of living.

custom of storing grain on public account, illustrated often Criminal punishment amongst the l'eruvians was patri- in profune history, and nowhere more beautifully til arebal, paternal, and therefore serere. Removing land

in the scriptural history of Joseph. We have mentioned marks, turning the water away from a neighbour's land already the existence of correct statistical returns, which into one's own, burning a house, were all severely pu- that every province, and in reality every family, had to far

enabled the Inca and his subordinates to assign the work nished. To burn a bridge was death. A rebellious city or province was laid waste, and its inhabitants exterminated.

nish on public account. Rebellion against the Children of the Sun was the greatest

* A register was kept of all the births and deaths throngs.

out the country, and exact returns of the actual populsina of all crimes :

were made to the government every year, by means of the “The simplicity and severity of the Peruvian code may be quipus, a cnrious invention, which will be explained hereafter. thought to infer a state of society but little advanced, which It certain intervals, also, a general, survey of the country at had few of those complex interesis and relations that grow up made, exhibiting a complete view of the character of the sky in a civilized comnunity, and which had not proceeded far its fertility, the nature of its products, both agricultural akż enough in the science of legislation to economize human sui- mineral; in short, of all that constituted the physical resousers tering by proportioning penalties to crimes. But the l'eruvian of the empire. Furnished with these statistical detais, in-titutions mait be regarded from a different point of view was easy for the government, after determining the amount of from that in which we study those of other nations. The I requisitions, to distri' ut: the work among the respective [TO

vinces best qualified to cśccute it. The task of apportioning management of his affairs.

No mendicant was tolerated in the labour was assigned to the local authorities, and great care Peru. When a man was reduced by poverty or misfortune-it was taken that it should be done in such a manner that, while could not be by fault--the arm of the law was stretched out the most competent hands were selected, it should not fall dis- to minister relief; not the stinted relief of private charity, nor proportionately heavy on any."

that which is doled out, drop by drop, as it were, from the

frozen reservoirs of the parish, but in generous measure, The Inca and the priesthood had also a portion of the bringing no humiliation to the object of it, and placing him land specially devoted to their support.

on a level with the rest of his countrymen. “The lands assigned to the Sun furnished a revenue to sup

“ No man could be rich, no man could be poor in Peru ; but port the temples and maintain the costly ceremony of the all might enjoy, and did enjoy a competence. Ambition, avaPeruvian worship and the multitudinous priesthood. Those rice, the love of change, the morbid spirit of discontent, those reserved for the Inca went to support the royal state, as well passions which most agitate the minds of men, found no place as the numerous members of his household and his kindred, in the bosom of the Peruvian. The very condition of his and supplied the various exigencies of government. The re

being seemed to be at war with change. He moved on in the mainder of the lands was divided, per capita, in equal shares him, and in which his children were to follow.

same uubroken circle in which his fathers had moved before among the people. It was provided by law, as we shall see

It was the hereafter, that every Peruvian should marry at a certain age.

object of the Incas to infuse into their subjects a spirit of pasWhen this event took place, the community or district in which sive obedience and tranquillity, a perfect acquiescence in the eshe lived furnishel him with a dwelling, which, as it was con

tablisher order of things. In this they fully succeeded. The structed of humble materials, was done at little cost.

A lot of Spaniards who first visited the country are emphatic in their land was then assigned to him, susticient for his own mainten- testimony, that no government could have been better suited to ance and that of his wife. An additional portion was granted the genius of the people ; and no people could have appeared for every child--the amount allowed for a son being the double

more contented with their lot, or more devoted to their goof that for a daughter. The division of the soil was renewed

vernment." every year, and the possessions of the tenant were increased or If we deplore the ignorance and the serfship of the diminished according to the nunbers in his family. The same Peruvian races,

we must also remember that their arrangement was observed with reference to the Curacas, ex

lives were pleasant and their yoke was light. Obecept only that a domain was assigned to them corresponding dience provided support ; and the tyranny of the Incas with the superior dignity of their stations.

“A more thorough and effectual agrarian law than this cmbraced effective relief without degradation. The cannot be imagined. In other countries where such a law has nation insured its individual members against the been introduced, its operation, after a time, has given way to consequences of calamity, and even the anxieties, of excesthe natural order of events, and under the superior intelligence sive care. Under these circumstances, so favourable to and thrift of some, and the prodigality of others, the usual inactivity, the Peruvians did not degenerate into indolent vicissitudes of fortune have been allowed to take their course, and restore things to their natural inequality. Even the iron

habits. They were even characterised by great industry. law of Lycurgus ceased to operate after a time, and melted

They opened roails in regions of most difficult access. away before the spirit of luxury and avarice. The nearest They perched their villages on the mountain's brow. approach to the Peruvian constitution was probably in Judea, They built reservoirs for irrigation, and terraced the hillwhere, on the recurrence of the great national jubilee, at the sides for their crops. They spanned the deepest ravines close of every half century, estates reverted to their original with their suspension bridges. proprietors. There was this important difference in Peru, that not only did the lease, if we may so call it, terminate with the

“ Over some of the boldest streams it was necessary to conyear, but during that period the tenant had no power to

struct suspension bridges, as they are termed, made of the alienate or to add to his possessions. The end of the brief tough tires of the magney, or of the osier of the country, term found him in precisely the same condition as he was in

which has an extraordinary degree of tenacity and strength. at the beginning. Such a state of things might be supposeil These osiers were woven into cables of the thickness of a man's to be fatal to anything like attachment to the soil, or to that body. The huge ropes, then stretched across the water, were desire of improving it which is natural to the permanent pro

conducted through rings or holes cut in immense buttresses of prietor, and hardly less so to the holder of a long lease. But the

stone raised on the opposite banks of the river, and there sepractical operation of the law seems to have been otherwise ;

cured to heavy pieces of timber. Several of these enormous and it is probable that, under the influence of that love or cables, bound together, formed a bridge, which, covered with order and aversion to change which marked the Peruvian in

planks, well secured and defended by a railing of the same osier stitutions, each new partition of the soil usually confirmed the materials on the sides, afforded a safe passage for the traveller. occupant in his possession, and the tenant for a year was con

The length of this aerial bridge, sometimes exceeding two hunverted into proprietor for life.

dred feet, caused it, confined as it was only at the extremities, “ The territory was cultivated wholly by the people. The

to dip with an alarming inclination towards the centre, while lands belonging to the Sun were first attended to. They next

the motion given to it by the passenger caused an oscillation tilled the land, of the old, of the sick, of the widow's and the or

still more frightful as the eye wandered over the dark abyss of plian, and of soldiers engaged in actual service-in short, of

waters that foamed and tumbled many a fathom beneath. Yet all that part of the community who, from hodily infirmity, or

these light and fragile fabrics were crossed without fear by the any other cause, were unable to attend to their own concerns."

l'eruvians, and are still retained by the Spaniards over those

streams which, from the depth or impetuosity of the current, The Peruvian nation formed, in fact, one great family, would seem impracticable for the usual modes of conveyance. having all things in common to the point necessary for i The wider and more tranquil waters were crossed on balsas, a the support of existence; and if now, we, as a nation, re

kind of rast still much used by the natives, to which sails were joice in our greater attainments, let us not scorn to look attached, furnishing the only instance of this higher kind of back to their care of the widow and the orphan; and to

navigation among the American Indians.” follow their example in preventing poverty, so far as it can Their zealous and careful cultivation of the land was be imitated in our circumstances.

apparent everywhere. Peru was a densely peopled Jand, without the erils of

The Peruvians showed a similar spirit of enterprise in extreme pauperism.

their schemes for introducing cultivation into the mountainous “If no man could become rich in Peru, no man could be parts of their domain. Many of the hills, though covered with come poor.

No spendthrift could waste his substance in strong soil, were too precipitous to be tilled. These they riotous luxury. No adventurous schemer could impoverish cut into terraces, faced with rough stone, diminishing in regular his family by the spirit of speculation. The law was con- gradation towards the summit ; so that, while the lower strip, stantly directed to enforce a steady industry and a sober or anden, as it was called by the Spaniards, that belted round

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