Puslapio vaizdai

connected with a song-first-rate, certainly—but | intention, this martyr without the prospect of a not better than many of his former poems! It fiery chariot! east, to us, a strange light upon the chance The “Bridge of Sighs" breathes a deeper medleys of fame ; and, on the lines of Shakspere, breath of the same spirit. The Poet is arrested

by a crowd in the street: he pauses, and finds « There is a tide in the affairs of men Which, taken at the food, leads on to fortune.".

that it is a female suicide whom they have

plucked dead from the waters. His heart holds Alas! in Hood's instance, to fortune it did not its own coroner's inquest upon her, and the poem lead, and the fame was brief lightning before is the verdict. Such verdicts are not common in darkness.

the courts of clay. It sounds like a voice from And what is the song which made Hood awake a loftier climate, like the cry which closes the one morning and find himself famous ? Its great Faust “She is pardoned.” Ile knows not—what merit is its truth. Hood sits down beside the the jury will know in an hour—the cause of her poor seamstress as beside a sister, counts her crime. He wishes not to know it. He cannot tears, her stitches, her bones——too transparent by determine what proportions of guilt, misery, and far throngh' the sallow skin-sees that though madness have mingled with her "mutiny." He degraded she is a woman still ; and rising up, knows only she was miserable, and she is deadstears, by Him that liveth for ever and ever, dead, and therefore away to a higher tribunal. that he will make her wrongs and wretchedness He knows only that, whate'er her guilt, she never known to the limits of the country and of the ceased to be a woman, to be a sister, and that race."- And, 'hark! how to that cracked, tune- death, for him hushing "all questions, hiding all less voice, trembling under its burden of sorrow, faults, has left on her only the beautiful.” What DOT shrunk down into the whispers of weakness, can he do? Ho forgives her in the name of and now shuddering up into the laughter of humanity; every heart says amen, and his verdict, despair, all' Britain listens for a moment—and thus repeated and confirmed, may go down to fór no longer--listens, meets, talks, and does eternity. little or nothing. It was much that one shrill Here, too, as in the “Song of the Shirt," the shriek should rise and reverberate above that effect is trebled by the outward levity of the world of wild confused wailings, which are the true strain. Light and gay, the masquerade his series of London ;" but, alas! that it has gone grieved heart puts on ; but its every flower, down again into the abyss, and that we are now feather, and fringe shakes in the internal anguish employed in criticising its artistic quality instead as in a tempest. This one stanza (coldly praised of recording its moral effect. Not altogether in by a recent writer in the Edinburgh Review, Fain, indeed, has it sounded, if it have comforted whose heart and intellect seem to be dead, but to one lonely heart, if it have bedewed with tears us how unspeakably dear!) might perpetuate the one arid eye, and saved to even one sufferer a name of Hood: pang of a kind which Shakspere only saw in

“The bleak wind of March part, when he spoke of the “proud man's con

Made her tremble and shiver, tamely"_the contumely of a proud, imperious,

But not the dark arch, fashionable, hard-hearted woman

Nor the black flowing river; one that

Mad from life's history was a woman, but, rest her soul, she's dead."

Glad to death's mystery Not the least striking nor impressive thing in

Swift to be hurled, this " Song of the Shirt” is its half jesting tone,

Anywhere, anywhere and light, easy gallop. What sound in the street

Out of the world!" sa lamentable as the laughter of a lost female! After all this, we have not the heart, as Lord It is like a dimple on the red waves of hell. It is Jeffrey would say, to turn to his “Whims and oddimore melancholy than even the death-cough ties,” &c. at large. “Here lies one who spat more shrieking up through her shattered frame, for it blood and made more puns than any man living," speaks of rest, death, the grave, forgetfulness, was his self-proposed epitaph. Whether punperhaps forgiveness. So Hood into the centre of ning was natural to him or not, we cannot tell. this true tragedy has, with a skilful and sparing We fear that with him, as with most people, it hand, dropt a pun or two, a conceit or two; and was a bad habit, cherished into a necessity and these quibbles are precisely what make you quake. a disease. Nothing could be more easily acquired “ Every tear hinders needle and thread,” reminds than the power of punning, if, as Dr. Johnson us distantly of these words, occurring in the very was wont to say, one's mind were but to abandon centre of the Lear agony, “Nuncle, it is a naughty itself to it. What poor creatures you meet connight to swim in.” Hood, as well as Shakspere, tinually, from whom puns come as easily as perknew that to deepen the deepest woe of humanity spiration. If this was a disease in Hood, he turned it is the best way to show it in the lurid light of it into a “commodity.” His innumerable puns, mirth; that there is a sorrow too deep for tears, like the minnikin multitudes of Lilliput, supplytoo deep for sighs, but none too deep for smiles ; | ing the wants of the Man Mountain, fed, clothed, and that the aside and the laughter of an idiot and paid his rent. This was more than Aram might accompany and serve to aggravate the Dreams or Shirt Songs could have done, had he anguish of a god. And what tragedy in that written them in scores. Some, we know, will, on svallow's back which "twits with the spring” the other hand, contend that his facility in punthis captive without crime, this suicide without ning was the outer form of his inner faculty of minute analogical perception—that it was the, thy quiddities ?—thy flashes that wont to set the same power at play—that the eye which, when table in a roar? Quite chapfallen?” The death earnestly and piercingly directed, can perceive of a man of mirth has to us a drearier signifidelicate resemblances in things, has only to be cance than that of a more sombre spirit. He opened to see like words dancing into each other's passes into the other world as into a region where embrace; and that this, and not the perverted his heart had been translated long before. To taste of the age, accounts for Shakespere's puns; death, as to a nobler birth, had he looked forpunning being but the game of football, by which ward; and when it comes, his spirit readily and he brought a great day's labour to a close. Be cheerfully yields to it as one great thought in this as it may, Hood punned to live, and made the soul submits to be displaced and darkened many suspect that he lived to pun. This, how- by a greater. To him death had lost its terrors, ever, was a mistake. For, apart from his serious at the same time that life had lost its charms. pretensions as a poet, his puns swam in a sea of But "can a ghost laugh or shake his gaunt humour, farce, drollery, fun of every kind. Pa- sides ?"---is there wit any more than wisdom in rody, caricature, quiz, innocent double entendre, the grave ?do puns there crackle ? —or do comic mad exaggeration, laughter holding both his sides, annuals there mark the still procession of the sense turned awry, and downright, staring, sla- years? The death of a humourist, as the first vering nonsense, were all to be found in his writ- serious epoch in his history, is a very sad event, ings. Indeed, every species of wit and humour In Hood's case, however, we have this consolaabounded, with, perhaps, two exceptions;--the tion: a mere humourist he was not, but a sincere quiet, deep, ironical smile of Addison, and the lover of his race-a hearty friend to their freedom misanthropic grin of Swift (forming a stronger and welfare--a deep sympathiser with their sufantithesis to a laugh than the blackest of frowns) ferings and sorrows; and if he did not to the full were not in Hood. Each was peculiar to the consecrate his high faculties to their service, single man whose face bore it, and shall probably surely his circumstances as much as himself were re-appear no more. For Addison's matchless to blame. Writing, as we are, in a city where smile we may look and long in vain; and forbid he spent some of his early days, and which never that such a horrible distortion of the human face ceased to possess associations of interest to his divine as Swift's grin (disowned for ever by the mind, and owing, as we do to him, a debt of fine, chubby, kindly family of mirth!) should be much pleasure, and of some feelings beyond it, witnessed again on earth!

we cannot but take leave of his writings with “Alas! poor Yorick. Where now thy quips ?- every sentiment of good-humour and gratitude.




"Now it is all over: tell the piper to play IIa til mi tulidh!" (We return no more.)

Luist words of Rob Roy. ** We retur no more! we return no more!"

Why did it coldly, tamely, still Said the chief, ere he breathed his last,

Its truths from the dauntless keep, For he knew that the reign of the fierce and free, Leaving the brave, proud heart to sighAnd the bold in deed, was past;

Ere it sank in dreamless sleepHe knew that the slogan of Border war

“Ila til, ha til mi tulidh ?" All mute as the sleuth hound's breath

For they shall not die ! for they shall not die ! Should never awaken the hills again

Whilst the hills their fame can keep; With shouts whose echo was death:

Whilst fancy-bold as the boldest still “ Ha til, ha til mi tulidh!"

Can the gulfs of time o'erleap; Did they crowd around him, the brave of old,

Whilst the wild, free spirit of old romance In the dreams of that solemn hour,

Yet haunteth each loch and glen; All the mighty chiefs of his royal line,

Whilst Scotland can say, from her heart of hearts, In the pride of their early power?

“ Thus speak not my mighty menMacalpine who reigned o'er a conquered race,

Ha til, ha til mi tulidh!" And those that held rule in Lorn

And mighty they were, those chieftains bold, Did he think of these as he turned to die?

With their germs of noble thought, And his words—were they words of scorn ?

By the rugged nurture of rugged times “Ila til, ha til mi tulidh!”

To growths of wild grandeur brought;

With their generous love of freedom, still Did he brood o'er the wrong that 'whelmed his sires,

Unchanged through the changes round;
Making all their hearthstones bare,

And, oh! not for them, ʼmid their native hills,
Through the ages that saw them held at bay,
And hate-hunted everywhere ?

Should those parting words resound
Did he call to mind their scattered haunts,

“Ha til, ha til mi tulidh !". In Balqubidder and Glenstrae,

In their sometime lawless bravery, And breathe, in his spirit's bitterness,

They shall yet around us throng, One trust ere he passed away?

Where the clinging love of their native soil, “ Ha til, ha til mi tulidh!"

Was than wrath and death more strong:

They were suited well to their own rude times, O why was the gift of the scer of old

And ours will not let them go, Withheld in that parting hour?

Till the last of Scotland's sons shall say Why stood not the future before him then

Mid the final wrecks below In the might of its deathless power?

“ Ha til, ha til mi tulidh!"


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This, from its title, would claim to be one of the open enemy. The Saxons of that time made ex. most extraordinary books that the English world actly the same complaints which have since been ever received. Though the editor, a decided Anti- heard from Spain, Portugal, and every country Jacobin, if not an Anti-Gallican, chooses to be anony- traversed by French soldiery. mous, there is no reason whatever to question the

“ Whatever they could not consume or carry away was authenticity of the letters. Though there were no destroyed or reudered useless. They broke in pieces other testimony, they bear intrinsic evidence of household furniture, casks, and other vessels, tore up being in truth the letters of Napoleon to the Direc- papers and books, ripped open beds, and strewed the

feathers over the fields, and slaughtered cattle which they tors, and of Massena, Augerau, and the other repub- could not remove, and left them to putrify in the deserted lican generals to the General-in-Chief, and of Carnot, farm-yards. Twenty villages around Freiburg were renin name of the Executive Directory, and written dered desolate because the French had sojourned in them.

Nor were the private soldiers alone to blame for these for the guidance of the young Commander-in-Chief wanton excesses, of which their officers set them the of the army. It was the Army of Italy, and the cor- example. Thus it is related that the Marquis d'Argenrespondence commences with the opening of the son, who commanded the French in Halberstadt, when

ever he was about to leave a house in which he had brilliant campaign of 1796. Having warned our lodged, was accustomed to break in pieces the furniture, readers that the anonymous editor is the very op- and to destroy the looking-glasses with a diamond. posite of a Bonapartist, though he does justice to confirmed by the testimony of Count St. Germain, who

" These complaints, preferred by Germans, are fully the extraordinary genius of Napoleon, we shall let commanded a division of the French army at the battle of him open his own case, remarking that his opinions, Rossbach. Writing to a friend, he says, I head a band

of robbers, of murderers, who deserve to be broke upon though extreme, are not always unjust.

the wheel, who run away at the first musket shot, who are " Ilad any other combination of circumstances thrown always ready to mutiny. Again: •The country is plunNapoleon into a different career, it can scarcely be doubted dered and laid waste for thirty leagues round, as it fire that, whatever it might have been, he would have acquired from heaven had fallen upon it ; our marauders have the highest distinction to which it was capable of leading. scarcely left the very houses standing. . They He would have shone had he been a statesman, a diplo- plundered, murdered, violated women, and committed all Natist, an actor, and nothing more. Ilistory has indus- possible abominations. To characterise the conduct of triously deduced the prominent features of his character the troops of the great nation in Germany during subsefmm his actions, but many minute traits have escaped its quent wars, in the time of the Republic and the Empire, olservation. Both are sketched by his own hand unre- would require a mere repetition of the circumstances servedly in this work, which contains the secret and offi- detailed above." cial correspondence of this remarkable man, during what may be termed his apprenticeship to power, the years

There is a certain kind of candour in thus adbetween his appointment to the command of an army and mitting that in general the troops of the Republic his usurpation of the government, to the heads of which

were not much worse than those of the Monarchy; he had ever professed the greatest deference. “In these letters, not intended to meet the public eye,

and that the national flag, and the “Holy bayonets of he has laid bare the sentiments and motives which in France !" cannot be displayed by any government, fluenced his actions during the busy years over which they whether of Bourbons or Bonapartists, without being extend, and thus raised a monumentum ære perenniusa monument more imperishable than that designed to formidable alike to friend and foe. cover his ashes in the capital of what was once his mighty The condemnation of General Bonaparte for the

pire. They display his unrivalled judgment, sagacity, excesses of the army of Italy would not be complete, fi resight, and discrimination—his indefatigable perseverance, activity, industry, and that attention to the minutest if at all deserved, unless it were shown that he was circumstances, without which the success of the most ably entrusted by the Directory with sufficient authority combined plans may be endangered.. But the monument, to repress and punish the excesses of his soldiers ; like a medal, has its reverse. There we discover the recklessness of the means employed for accomplishing and this he possessed, but without using it, as ends—the duplicity, fraud, hypocrisy, perfidy, rapacity, the complaints of his own generals prove. Naeruelty, which cast a shade over those higher qualities that poleon wished to be popular with the soldiers, would excite unmixed admiration, but for the purposes to Fibich they were applied.”

and already understood the grand game opening

before him. Before he had been a month at We do not pretend to give any analysis of this work, which is of so miscellaneous a character as to the head of the army, we find General Laharpe, a render system impossible. The editor shows too suc

brave Swiss and a sincere Republican, who comcessfully that the morale of the French army has manded one of the divisions, thus remonstrating always been bad, and that the troops were quite

with his Commander-in-Chief: as ferocious and reckless under Louis XIV. and his themselves up, and which cannot be remedied, because

"The boundless licentiousness to which the troops give Minister, Louvois, as under Napoleon and the Di

we have not a right to order a scoundrel to be shot, is rectory; and that the same flagitious character was hurrying us into ruin, dishonouring us, and preparing for applicable to the French forces and their com

us the most cruel reverses. As my character for firmness manders in the Seven Years' War, when the deliver- tolerate them, there is but one course for me to take,

will not permit me to witness such things, much less to ers proved a greater scourge to their allies than the that of retiring. In consequence, General, I beg you to

* The Bonaparte Letters and Dispatches, Secret, Confidential, and Officia); from the originals in his Private Cabinet. Volumes I. and II, Octavo. London: Saunders & Otley,

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accept my resignation, and to send an officer to take the and drew upon themselves a cruel vengeance, for that command intrusted to me; for I would rather dig the most heinous of offences against their invaders, ground for a livelihood than be at the head of men who In this correspondence, we find the Directory, so far are worse than were the Vandals of old.”

from approving the formation of republics in the conThree days later, we find other generals threaten- quered provinces, with farsighted policy discouraging

any measures which would be liable to obstruct the freo ing to resign for the same reason. The army was disposal of them on the conclusion of peace; though at altogether in a deplorably disorganised state ; and, the same time urging the expediency of sowing revoluq too often wanting food, the soldiers broke forth tionary ideas in the Sardinian and Austrian dominions." upon the people like demons incarnated, or feroci

The French army advanced, discipline was partly ous beasts of prey. Laharpe complained that “the restored, and in about ten days from the date of officers pillaged, and got drunk like the men.” Laharpe's letter, we find Bonaparte addressing the Serrurier, another general of division, reports at Executive Directory. It was Carnot who, at this this time—"Several corps have been without bread time, conveyed to the Commander-in-Chief its or for these three days; the troops abused this pretext ders and instructions in long epistles, to which Nato abandon themselves to the most horrible pillage.” poleon replied with pith and brevity, sending along And again, Laharpe writes to Bonaparte

with the report of his military progress, all manner, .“ All the agents, store-keepers, and

of suggestions for the guidance of the Directory or

ers, in all the administrations, are making requisitions at random: the its master-spirit, Carnot, in its dealings with the peasants of these parts are absolutely ruined: the sol- Italian States. Thus characteristically he writes, diers are destitute, and their leaders disconsolate: rogues only are enriching themselves. There is not a moment

on the 26th April, 1796, when he had been but 'a to be lost, General

, if you would save the army, if you very short time at the head of the army of Italywould not have us be considered in Piedmont as men The city of Coni has just been occupied by our worse than the Goths and Vandals. Punish the knaves troops. There was in it a garrison of 5000 men. severely; reduce the number of those public bloodsuckers ; I cannot doubt that you will approve my conduct, whom one never sees exerting themselves for the benefit since it is one wing of an army that agrees to a suspenof the army, but is sure to find wherever they can profitsion of arms, to give me time to beat the other. At isa by disorder."

king who puts himself absolutely into my power, by giving It is worthy of notice that the honest “Swiss” me three of his strongest fortresses, and the richest half

of his dominions.

JI PAR was shortly afterwards shot in the dark in a melée,

“! You may dictate, like a master, peace to the King and, as was suspected, wilfully, by his own soldiers. of Sardinia. I beg of you not to forget the little island On the same day, from another quarter, Chambarl- of St. Pierre, which will be more useful to us by and bye hao, a chief of brigade, writes to the General-in-than Corsica and Sardinia put together.

" If you grant him the portion of the Milanese, which Chief

I am about to conquer, it must be upon condition that he “ Indiscipline has reached the highest pitch. I am shall send 15,000 men to second us, and to guard that? using all possible means to maintain order, but they are country after we have made ourselves masters of it of no avail. There is no kind of excess which the sol. Meanwhile, I shall cross the Adige with your army, and diers do not indulge in, and all that I can do is useless.euter Germany by the Tyrol. I therefore request you, General, to be pleased to accept My columns are in march ; Beaulieu in flight : 1 my resignation; for I car

with soldiers, who hope to catch him. I will impose some millions of-con-, know neither subordination, nor obedience, nor law." tributions on the Duke of Parma : he shall be forced to . The same remonstrances and entreaties were re

make propositions of peace to you. Be not in a hurry,

that I may be in time to make him pay the costs of the peated from every quarter ; and such was the Army Campaign, provision our magazines, and rehorse our carof Italy—the school in which Napoleon learned the riages at his expense. rudiments of war. He had, at this time, two leading if your intention is to dethrone him, you must amuse him

* If you will not make peace with the King of Sardinia, objects—to maintain his influence with the Executive for a few decades, and give me notico immediately. I' Directory, and his popularity with the troops. He will get possession of Valenza, and march upon Turin. succeeded in both. The orders and instructions is beaten Beaulieu and obliged him to recross the Adige ;

I will send 12,000 men upon Rome, when I have sued by the Directory during the campaign to when I shall be sure that you grant peace to the King of the Commander-in-Chief tend to countenance the Sardinia, and you send me part of the army of the Alps. rather sweeping charges made by the Editor of the 15,000,000, as indemnities for frigates and vessels taken

As for Genoa, I think you ought to demand of it Letters, when he states

in its ports, and insist that those who caused the Modeste "In truth, all the orders of the Directory at home, all

to be burned, and called in the Austrians, shall be tried the proceedings of its instrument, the army in Italy, ex

as traitors to the country. If you charge me with these hibit a system of rapine, robbery, and spoliation, so

matters, which you will keep profoundly secret, I will monstrous as scarcely to be paralleled in the history of find means to do all that you can desire." civilised nations. Practised with eclât by the heads of This looks like the bold commencement of a forthe government and their able and willing agent, the tunate career. We have now a mass of the corresGeneral, and with all but impunity by the civil officers of the army, there would have been too striking an incon- pondence of the Generals-of-Division, reporting sistency in calling the naked and starving soldiers to a progress to their chief, and many of his letters to rigid account for their outrages. The wretched inhabi- the Commander-in-Chief of the army of the King tants of the countries occupied by the French troops, vic-of Sardinia. The French army still advanced ; the tims of this threefold extortion, were encouraged by revolutionary artifices, to seek a melioration of their fåte, by Po was crossed, “the second campaign was begun,” forming themselves into republics independent of their late and Bonaparte writes to Citizen Carnot exultrulers, but under the influence and protection of France, which failed not to exact an exorbitant recompense for the ingly :favour ; while others rose to exterminate their oppressors, “ Beaulieu is disconcerted. He calculates very ill, and


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constantly falls into the 'shares that are laid for him., transport for the French troops, “ leaving the mode
Perhaps he meant to give battle ; for that man has the of reimbursement to be settled afterwards ;" and
daring of madness and not that of genius ; but the 6000
men who were forced, yesterday, to cross the Adda, and

who were defeated, will weaken him much. Another It is likewise after the expedition to Leghorn that wo
Pictory, and we are masters of Italy.

shall endeavour to raise a loan in the city of Genoa, but **** I have granted a suspension of arms to the Duke of we must beware of harassing it. We will make it sensiParma. The Duke of Modena is sending me plenipoten- ble that we are more generous than our enemies, who tiaries.

The moment we cease our moves proposed to deliver it up to the King of Sardinia. We ments, we shall new-clothe the army ; it is still in a fright- will demand in such a manner as not to be refused, that ful state ; but all are getting fat. The soldiers cat every thing belonging to our enemies, especially the Eng. nothing but Genesse bread, good meat and in quantity, lish, as well in the port and city of Genoa as in the rest good wine, &c. Discipline is becoming re-established of the territories of that Republic, shall be immediately from day to day ; but it is often necessary to shoot, for put into our hands. We will insist on the sequestration there are intractable men who cannot command them- of the property and funds of the merchants and the priselreg."

vate persons of the country who make war upon us, and . What we have taken from the enemy is incalculable. the Genoese Government shall answer for the fidelity of the We have the effects of hospitals for 15,000 siek, several sequestration. We will continue to give in exchange for magazines of corn, flour, &c. The more men you send what Genoa shall supply us with, bonds of redemption, to me, the more easily I shall be able to feed them.

be treated of at the general peace. Lastly, we shall re"Lam despatching to you twenty pictures by the first quire all emigrants, without exception, to be expelled masters, Correggio and Michael Angelo.

from the territories of Genoa and Tuscany, as you have, "Towe you particular thanks for the attentions which no doubt, caused them to be expelled from the part of you are pleased to pay to my wife. I recommend her to Piedmont which you occupy, in case they have been bold you. She is a sincere patriot, and I love her to dis- enough to remain there.

As to the course to be pursued in regard to the Duke "I hope, if things go on well, to be able to send you of Parma, it is just that he should pay for his infatuation a dozót millions to Paris. That will not come amiss for in not detaching himself from the coalition. His territhe army of the Rhine,"

tories must supply us with all that we have need of, and There is much to ponder in this letter, and not with money into the bargain : but our connexion with

Spain enjoins us not to make any useless devastation less in the reply of Carnot, in name of the Exe- there, and to spare his country much more than the other cative Directory: Among lesser matters, he thus possessions of our enemies. It is the Milanese most esbreaks out:

pecially that we must not spare. Raise there contribu

tions in specie immediately, and during the first panic DAt the moment that the Directory is writing, you which the approach of our arms will excite ; and let the ame, no doubt, in the Milanese. May the lucky destinies eye of economy superintend the application of them. The of the Republic have carried thither some French columns, canals and the great public establishments of this country, before the Austrian has been able to recross the Po! which we shall not keep up, nust feel somewhat of the May they place you in a situation to cut off his direct effects of war; but be prudent.” communication with Milan and the court of Vienna! Your letter of the 9th expresses the intention of marching

This communication justifies the accusations of on the 10th against Beaulieu. You will have driven him the Editor, when he charges the Directory with before you. Do not lose sight of him for a moment. Your activity and the utmost celerity in your marches rapacity, and with concerting a regular system of can alone annihilate the Austrian army, which must be “rapine and spoliation unheard of in the history of destroyed. Mareh ! -'no fatal repose ! There are yet civilised nations." Venice was to be treated as a Lures left for you to gather ; and it will be all over with neutral power, but not as a friendly power. “It the remnants of the perfidious coalition, if you follow up, as you declare it to be your intention to do, the advantages | has done nothing to deserve our kindness." A given to us by the splendid victories of the Republican great difficulty, if not the greatest, was treating army which you command.

The powers of Italy call us towards your right, with the Roman States. Some members of the citizen-general, and this course must rid us of the perfi- Executive Directory would at once have annihilated dious English, so long masters of the Mediterranean. It the Popedom, with the Pope ; other Republican must likewise enable us to recover Corsica, and to wrest those French departments from the ambitious house of statesmen counselled the formation of three small Brunswick-Lüneburg, which has so proudly established republics out of the States of the Pope—republics itself in there. Such are the sentiments of the Directory being then “the order of the day.” The generals, on this head.

First, effect the conquest of the Milanese, whether it in this and in other instances, proved themselves be destined to return to the house of Austria, as a necessary better statesmen than those whose proper business erssion for securing our peace with it, whether it may be

was statecraft. By anticipation, Carnot had warily expedier:t to give it in the sequel to the Piedmontese, either as a reward for the efforts which we may have in suggested, that if Rome made advances to the vicdueed it to make for assisting us in that conquest, or as torious invaders, all Europe should be apprised of an indemnity for the departments of Mont Blanc and the the fact, and the newly-begotten friendship, by Maritime Alps, constitutionally incorporated with the French Republic. Drive back the enemy to the moun

“the Pope ordering public prayers to be made for tains of the Tyrol, and put him in dread of finding him the success and prosperity of the French Republic.” self forced there."

But Carnot did not stop with this projected seethHighly praising the plan of operations projected ing of the kid in its mother's milk. He added, in by the impetuous young general, Carnot points out his confidential letter to Napoleonits difficulties, and sketches his own plan and the man- "Some of his beautiful monumeuts, his statues, his ner in which the Government of each Italian State pictures, his medals, his libraries, his bronzes, his Madois to be dealt with. Lucca was to be conciliated ; nas of silver, and even his bells, will indemnify us for the

expense occasioned by the visit that you will have paid Genoa and Leghorn temporised with in the mean

him. In case the Court of Naples, alarmed at your aptime, but the former made to furnish provisions and proach, should cause proposals to be made to France, it

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