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made them remarkable, and the self-same acci- even at this present day; and in this manner dents befall the same families.
one might be justified in supposing Mademoiselle The grandfather of the hero of the most hor: De Luzi to have come by the united names of rible tragedy of modern times, the late Duke of Luzi Desportes. This is, howerer, mere conjecPraslin, also stained his hand with the blood of ture, The fact of the Duke of Praslin, of 1763, an innocent, a virtuous, a high-born lady, under having taken a tender interest in the Mademoicircumstances, doubtless, of less cold blooded pre- selle De Luzi of his own time, is better estameditation, of less brutality, less revolting to blished; and certainly it cannot but be considered humanity, inasmuch as the hapless victim was a somewhat strange coincidence that, after so not bound to him by such manifold and sacred long an interval of time, scandal should a fresh ties; he pierced not the heart that beat for him, connect the names of De Luzi and Praslin. and him alone, but one that was steeled against In 17833, the death of this nobleman's wife gare him by another affection. Still it was innocent rise to a protracted lawsuit, so curious in its blood ruthlessly shed, and which might have cast nature as to descrve notice. That lady had a deeper stain on the Praslin escutcheon, had throughout life exbibited a violent and most unnot the ways of dealing out justice in those days natural dislike for her children, in consequence of been far different from our own.
which she left the whole of her large fortune to The “ Annual Register” of 1768* gives the an utter stranger, and one whom she had never following account of the affair, under the head of even bebeld, for the mere purpose of disinheriting an extract of a letter from Paris
those whose claims upon her were so direct. It " The new year commences with an account of a very would seem the Duchess had ever entertained tragical affair, that has just happened to our ambassador a conviction that these children did not belong to at the court of Naples ; the fact is this : the Viscount of her, but were the adulterous offspring of her husChoiseul, our snid ambassador, unhappily casting his ten- band and the celebrated and clever actress der regard towards a young lady of that place, of in good Mademoiselle Dangeville, which he had fraudufamily, before engaged to the Count of Conitz (Kaunitz), the emperor's ambassador, and taking advantage of the lently substituted for those she had lost in inCount's absence, pressed this fair Italian lady with the fancy. That this belief, which nothing could most ardent professions of love; and, to forward his suit,
ever shake, was the root of that aversion which overwhelmed her with presents, but all in vain, she still made her hate during life, and disinherit after proving inexorable. One day, in a fit of rage and despair, he drew his sword and plunged it three times in hier body: death, those whom she was compelled to per* Some say she died on the spot; others, that she is not init to call themselves her children, but never yet dead, but mortally wounded. However, the king of could bring herself to look upon as such, is cer Naples, informed of this shocking scene, dispatched a tain. As this lady's sanity never seems to hare courier hither, and our king immediately ordered his said been questioned, except with reference to her ambassador home, and he is since sent to the Bastile. This melancholy transaction has so affected the Duke de will, and as this conviction did not leave her even Pladin (Praslin), the Viscount's father, that he has been at the hour when the mist of prejudice or error at the point of death with grief on this sad occasion, and generally fades from eyes about to turn away is still unable to attend to any business, nor has been at court since the beginning of the new year.
from all carthly objects, it is but fair to presume
that some strange circumstance or other, to this The father of this Viscount de Choiseul, the day unexplained, gave rise to such cruel suspi. then Duke of Praslin, was a man of very loose cions in her mind perhaps the dying confession morality. Though married, he formed the closest of some repentant or malicious nurse-of one who intimacies with actresses ; and we find several wished to atone for past deceit, or, with her curious references to this Duke and his family in last breath, to avenge some long-remembered inthat curious work entitled “ Memoires Secrets jury or slight—who can tell ? So clear are the pour servir à l'llistoire de la Republique des effects, the causes so obscure, in most family Lettres en France, ou Journal, d'un Observateur,“ | dramas. printed in London, doubtless through motives of The children and grandchildren succeeded in prudence, and which closely resembles, in form having her will annulled, under the plea that and matter, our Annual Register. In the year nothing but insanity could account for a mother's 1763, he introduced to the Parisian boards a pro- disinhcriting her own offspring. The Prince of tege of his own, a woman who afterwards gained Guémené, the heir she had named, was nonsuited, a sort of celebrity by the very excess of her vices, and the Duchess only thought of as a lusus named De Luzi, or Deluzi, for so it is indifferently nature. But, perhaps, a less harsh judgment spelled; and though we cannot presume to assert might have been passed upon one whose husband that there exists any connexion between that ac- had devoted the better part of his life, and the tress and the heroine of the late Duke's abomi- affections which he had vowed to share with her, nable tragedy, still there is plenty of room for the to one of the unworthy of her sex. The strong supposition that the latter may be the descendant enduring passion of the Duke for Mademoiselle of that person.
The practice of retaining their Dangeville might well have embittered the own names along with those which marriage con- Duchess, and made her believe him capable of fers on them was always very general among any, and every, unjustifiable and unprincipled actresses, as we see in the case of Mesdames action towards herself. And, again, when she saw Dorus-Gras, Viardot Garcia, and so many more her eldest son, the Viscount de Choiseul, render
himself guilty of a deed of such brutal, bloody imVol. ii., 1768, page 73,
port, as the murder, or attempted murder, ot the
Italian lady, the thought might naturally enough | minor, his legacy must be claimed, which has given rise suggest itself, that the blood of a profligate ac
to a suit-at-law, M. Boudet, advocate to the Viscount tress, and (for Mademoiselle Dangeville was not de Choiscul, son of the Duchess de Praslin, insisted that
this will, though correctly drawn up, should be considered famed for being over-nice in such matters) that of as a testament, ab irato ; and the judges thought so some equally unscrupulous father, moro probably likewise, as it seems, since the minor" Guémené has lost flowed in the veins of this bad man, than that of his cause, and been condemned to the costs. This decia virtuous lady like herself, or of a man, weak sion bears the date of the 2d of April, and was, it is said,
unanimous. and foolish indeed, but of an acknowledged mild- “ It is said that Madame de Praslin imagined her chilness of temper, like her husband. The disgust dren were not hers, but that her husband had succesnaturally consequent upon the evil courses of both sively substituted for her own those of the same ses he father and son, joined to other, and more secret,
had with Mademoiselle Dangeville. Romantic and absurd domestic occurrences, which latter must be mere
as this supposition was, it had so thoroughly possessed the
mind of that singular and vaporous lady that it inspired matter of conjecture since she did not choose to her with an enduring aversion for her posterity, on whom reveal them, most probably led to the doubts she she never bestowed the slightest mark of tenderness. She entertained as to the rights of her children to had drawn up a former will, bearing date the 7th of Jathat title, and caused her to withdraw her affec-nuary, 1760, * with the same evil sentiments which she tions from them.
confirmed in her second, dated 19th February, 1779.
“ Neither did Madame de Praslin love her husband ; Considered even as a mere groundless caprice, she only mentions him in her will to throw ridicule on an idée fixe, based on the mere dislike of her hus- him, by an absurd legacy :—- I beg Monsieur le Duc do band and all that belonged to him, still it is Praslin, iny husband, to accept the model of the horse in strange that the name of Praslin should thus bronze, on which is Henry the Fourth, which I have
brought from my castle of La Flèche.' have been again connected with a certain share of scandal before the tribunals of the country. mother and grandmother-the Duchess having seen even
“ It is, perhaps, the first instance on record of a Some names are really unfortunate in France ; her third generation—having conceived the desire of such, for instance, as that of Castellane. The disinheriting all her progeny, born or yet to be born, and well-known Marquise de Ganges bore it before of having executed her will, as far as lay with her, withher second ill-starred marriage, and the Countess and clear-headedness of the calinest reason.
out any lgitimate or apparent motive, with the coolness of Entrecasteaux, whose murder by the hands of her own husband took place under much the same namely, of her not having happened to know the young
“ Another strange fact appears in this case ; that, circumstances as those of the late Duchess Se- Guémené named in default of the Prince of Soubise, and bastiani Praslin, was a Mademoiselle de Castel- her having mentioned him in so vague a manner that lane. How much more might be added, bio-|(there being two younger sons of that name) it would graphically and historically, to the chapter of order that law should determine upon the real legatee.
later have given riso to a suit betwixt the brothers, in coincidences !—but the limits of this slight sketch Madame la Duchesse de Praslin's name was Champagne, of the antécédens, as the French call it, of the and she had brought her husband more than 150,000 Praslin family, will not permit more than the livres a-year.”+ following extracts, translated from the “Memoires
The next extract records the Duke's connexion Secrets,” touching the will of the Duchess (great with Mademoiselle Dangeville, as follows :grandmother to the late Duke), and a reference to those irregularities of her husband, that may have
“ 16th November, 1785.- The Duke of Praslint is
just dead ; Mademoislle Dangeville is inconsolable for this warped her judgment and changed her heart :
loss. They had lived together for more than half a “ 11th April.*- The Duchess of Praslin, who died on
century. He was an honorary member of the Academy the 27th December, 1783, has left an olographe testa
of Sciences. It is not known whether he leaves any me. ment, at once singular and unnatural, by which, although sand livres, in gold, were found in his possession at his
morials of his talents, but a million, one hundred thouleaving children and grandehildren, she names as sole logatee a stranger to her blood, the Marechal Prince de death—at least so rumour says.” Soubisse, and in case of failure, the youngest son of the Princess liuémené. The Prince of Soubise yielded up * The Vicomte de Choiseul's attempted crime in Italy his claim at once ; but young Guémené, being as yet a did not take place before 1768, two ears later, so that
her prejudice was even anterior to his transgression.
+ This was more than the present franc. # Vol. xxv., page 222, of the “Memoires Secrets."
Great-grandfather to the late Duke.
and severe than at any period for many years. The Tus currency will be discussed early in the next ses- facts are plain, and their causes alone are disputed. sion, and under many disadvantages. The leading states. The organs of the London monied interest ascribe men in the House of Commons are pledged to the present the prevalent embarrassment to two causes. They system. Two of the principal organs of opinion in say that we have over-speculated in railways, and we the London press support it. The power of the monied have been obliged to buy large quantities of corn from interest in its struggle with industry is great, and foreign countries. And they add, that these form the incrcased by the ignorance prevaleut on the subject. only reasons for the existing scarcity and dearth of money. There can be no doubt that commercial distress exists. The same journals that ascribe our embarrassments to There can be no question that it is more intense the corn speculations madly urged them. They proclained to the world everywhere our starvation state. ! By the Act, 1844, the currency is limited, 1st, to the Thus they induced extensive and wealthy farmers to storo fixed issues of the Bank of England, and the banks existpast their grain on speculation. That has been done , ing previously to the date of the Act ; 21, to such notes as to a considerable extent. They parsuaded importers to they may issue on the security of gold absolutely in their retain their stocks until prices were forced up here, and possession ; and 31, to bullion. This Act provides, 1st, raised, of course, elsewhere, over their necessary level. that as gold is exported, the paper currency shall be con In this way three to four millions, at least, were paid by tracted for every sovereign exported, a bank note is withthe nation, more than should have been given, or than drawn; 21, that no new banks of issue shall be formed, it was really necessary to give for the corn that we re- even to replace those that may resign business, after the quired to import.
date of the Aet; 31, that the amount of currency shall It is next alleged that the construction of railways has oscillate with the price of provisions; but 4th, that it employed capital largely, and induced a scarcity of the cir- shall move in an adverse direction ; for while, as wheat culating medium. That is the statement, and it is contra- rises, a greater circulating medium is required for its dictory. It proceeds on the common mistake that capital exchange, the Act provides for the reduction of the currency, and currency is capital--that the two terms mean latter ; and as wheat fills in price, and a less circulating precisely the same thing; whereas the circulating medium medium is necessary in its sale and purchase, the Act proeither may be capital itself, or its representative. In this vides for the increase of the latter; as if the Legislatura country the currency is composed partly of real capital, were delighted by the occurrence of exigencies, and and partly of its representative; and the questions regard- found their amusement in the construction of panies. ing it rise out of the proportions in which real capital and its | The act, perhaps, was intended no illustrate the prorepresentation should be employed in the formation of the verbs of the country : “ It never rains but it pours." currency. The construction of railways has not reduced the Peel made that legislation. “Mistortunes seldom cona currency. It has not taken, and cannot have taken, one alone." Peel turned that into a statutc.
The improfrom the number of sovereigns or bank notes in circulation. vident man lights the candle at both ends." Peel furThe contractors neither piled their embankments with nished an example of the best means of accomplishing sovereigns, nor garnished them with bank notes. Every this feat, in 1844 and in previous years. This kind of shilling paid out by them has immediately gone into cir- work would form nice games for children, but the amuseculation and performed its usual functions, with the ex- ment is rathsr costly to be pursued by the legislature of ception of such sums as the labourers may have ret: ined the first commercial nation in the world. in their own possession, and they must come to a trivial The reasons assigned for the Act are, first, to secure summation.
the convertibility of the paper currency—that is to say, The deficiency at present is not in capital, but the solvency of the issues ; second, to prevent orer-tradin currency. Tho capital of the country may have ing; third, to secure the currency against depreciation. been reduced, but it has not suffered to an extent Ilas it answered any one of these objects? We shall see. competent to produce the existing embarassment. The It does not answer the first, viz., to secure the conver. highest calculation made of the payments for bread tibility of bank-notes; because neither the Bank of stufis to foreign countries is twenty millions. That | England, nor any other bank, could at this moment, or is considerably over the actual sum, whilo we have any other period, pay in gold if required. After all our to reckon, not the absolute payment, but the pay- sacrifices to accomplish that object, it is unattainable. ment orer the average of years, in estimating the When the people of Babel wanted to build a tower to weight of this importation as a cause of the existing dis- reach the skies, they sunk a great amount of capital and tress; but the highest calculation is, that twenty mil-labour, and certainly approximated their object, but for lions have been paid. We should, therefore, expect the all practical purposes they made no progress. Peel's capital of the country to be reduced twenty millions. bill brings us into a similar position. We are nearer an Of course that is the actual reduction, met in some part, unattainable object than we might be under imaginable if not entirely, by whatever profits may have been created. circumstances, but the object is still unattainable. The Take the twenty millions, however, as entire and abso- Legislature merely say that the circulation of Bank lute loss, and see how far that accounts for the depre- of England notes will never fall under, or probably even to, ciation of property during the year. The fall in the fourteen millions. This is merely saying that the holders value of funds or national stock since this date of last will always leave out fourteen millions for which they will year is 12} per cent. ; which, on the entire debt, is not demand gold. This is not providing for their conequal nearly to ninety-fi re millions sterling. The reduc- version ; but only presuming that the country will not at tions in the selling price of stock and shares in public any time ask more than a given number to be converted, companies is equal to a similar sum. In these departments We need scarcely say that other bankers are in a still of business alone, the depreciation of property may be worse position in this respect than the Bank of England. stated, in round numbers, at two hundred millions. liow, The idea of the convertibilty of bank paper is therefore then, can the expenditure of money for grain or on rail- fictitious. Its safety is based on the credit of the ways account for this vast loss? By forcing stock and issuers, and that credit is more likely to be promoted by shares into the market, their value has been reduced investing their capital on productive than unproductive farther than the precise loss that rendered their sale ne- securities ; but gold is unproductive. cessary. We admit that statement ; we acknowledge its Again, bankers generally hold much higher sums in truth ; but how has so wide a difference been established deposits than they have in circulation. The deposits of between the cause and effect? We can learn that in the the Scottish banks must exceed their circulation in the conditions of the present law,
proportion of twenty to one. There is ng security af
forded for the convertibility of these deposits by Act of -nothing to offer but Consols, quoted £0 0s. Od., for
preParliament. The public have their security in the con- sent cash. fidence placed in tire banks-yet are quito at ease re- What accrues to the Bank of England is the fate of all garding the repayment of their deposits, and would minor banks. They all hold Government stock. Their cheerfully accept the same security for the minor sum notes are Government bonds broken into divisions. A five that they hold for the major, if the Legislature would pound note is merely one of two hundred divisions of a avoid interference with their transactions.
thousand pound Exchequer bill. The value of the notes This bill, however, we are told was intended to prerent hangs greatly, therefore, on public credit. With the excepover-trading. Has it accomplished that object? Its tion of the notes of the Scotch banks, a few joint-stock sincerest advocates gire a decidedly negative reply. Mr. companies in England, and the north of Ireland banks, tho Charles Wood says there has been over-speculation. The shares of which are held by many partners, whose private Times assails the railway directors. All parties and property is liable for all the debts of the company, there everything, except the parties and the measure abso- is not the slightest doubt that all the paper currency, lutely liable, are accused of causing that crisis in which above the amount of gold actually on hand, is Governthe country is fixed. One thing is certain—the bill has ment stock broken down, and dependent for its value not accomplished its second object-has not prevented on the state of public credit. Farther, even those jointover-speculation and over-trading.
stock banks we have namcd, where erery penny belongThirdly, this bill is to prevent the depreciation of the ing to each shareholder is liable for the debts of the concurrency. It is on this topic that men talk the greatest cern, must be heavy losers by each depreciation of public nonsense. llere it is, always, at this very spot, that Peel stock. We apprehend that, if they had always taken the in triumph shouts- What's a pound ? Nobody answers. Government stock held by them in their balance sheet And yet the answer is easy. Peel might as wisely cry, during this Autumn at the money it would bring, What's a hundred weight? what's a yard? what's a mile ? the dividend had not been large, for all, or nearly They are all conventional terms for measures of space or of all, hold stock, and sometimes largely. weight. A yard is thirty-six inches, and a pound is twenty The cries of a depreciated and an inconvertible curshillings. The currency cannot be depreciated, and a rency should be thrown back on those who make them. pound note cannot bring less than twenty shillings, so long It is the Peels, the Woods, the Lloyd Jones's, the Times, as notes are convertible. They are, and will continue to be, and the Morning Chronicle, the monied interest, and its convertible while public credit stands ; and they will be- instruments, that threaten to give us again the infliction come inconvertible, and be depreciated, if ever public of a depreciated and an inconvertible currency. Matters credit be doubted. We beg, in reference to this delicate will go all very well if they can always pull up in timeaffair, to whisper a secret to the bullionists, as they are very well for them and very ill for all the industrious termed. They are bringing the currency into danger of classes. But they are on a slippery and dangerous depreciation. It is in danger at this moment. Should hill. They drive on a steep run, where one or two extra consols, which fell between 20th September, 1846, jolts would give them a higher interest for money, and a and 25th September, 1817, from £98 10s. to £86, greater depreciation of property than they either expect fall equally far before September 1818, the currency
or desire. They are getting on the descent, and may go may become depreciated. The difference in value on
farther than they bargained for. twelve months from September, 1847, to September,
They wish to protect the currency from depreciation, 1846, on.the Bank of England stock of fourteen millions, That, they say, is the object of their legislation. The for which it issues notes without a gold backing, is object is good ; but a guinea may be bought at too high £1,750,000. The bank has added one per cent. to its a rate.
In order to protect the currency, say thirty dividend, and a few hundred thousand pounds to its millions, from depreciation, they have actually succeeded rest; but there are often no partics blinder than capi- in depreciating Government stock within a single year talists. The shareholders are exulting in their dividend. by ninty-five millions ! They never contemplated bank They are chuckling over nine per cent. and their nominally notes at more than one-third under twenty shillings increased rest. Let them turn over the next page. There of silver, which gives a loss of ten millions ; and is one half of all the rest swept away by a single year's against the probability wo are protected at an absoluto depreciation of property. But you don't want to sell : sacrifice of ninety-five millions--thus losing in the market you don't need to sell, you say ; that is just as the public value of one description of property-after deducting the pleases. Your notes are convertible. Such is the object twenty millions paid out on foreign corn, a sum of seventyof all Peel's bill-making. Well, the public begin to think five millions, in order to save us from the probability of that your stock is reduced in value. They see the fiction losing ten millions, from which we are by no means of convertibility. Consols, we shall say, are seventy-five saved, although, in addition to this loss, we have to add or sixty-five. The change may happen. Louis Phillippe an equal sum on shares and other property. is not immortal. Queen Isabella is in bad hands, and These are the fruits of Government intervention to may die. Consols may be at seventy-five; and your rest dry.liurse and take charge of business. What right has exist on paper, and paper alone. The public see all the Legislature to keep protecting men from themselves, these transactions. They know their nature. They re- in any way or measure, above what may be fairly done member that gold is something exchangeable any where. by providing, for example, that weights shall be acThey recollect that he who comes first is served first. curate, that measures shall be just and for the public Where, then, is the convertibility of your notes, and how, convenience, that men who issue notes payable on dewe pray you, regarding their depreciation ? For how mand, expected to pass current in society, shall possess much would they sell when the bank had no more change property equivalent to their issue? They have no right
to make monopolies, and create exclusive privileges. I and power of the Italian States, they are frightful; to They have been abolishing corporate monopolies, and those in this country who will rejoice to hear of any proclaiming freedom of trade everywhere ; and yet they progress made towards constitutional freedom, they are endeavour to cramp and fetter the springs of trade gratifying, but not great. and the essential means of exchange. Their conduct is The Roman Pontiff has issued an amnesty to all politione of the most apparent pieces of self-contradiction cal offenders. The act was benevolent and politic in his that the Legislature has ever produced, and it is com- position. From a pontiff of opposite sentiments, it pelling the operatives of Manchester to beg for idleness would have been still more merciful, and perhaps equally now, that idleness in the winter months may be averted. politic. lle has even made a complete change in the SPAIN. Esecutive. Let us comprehend this. It means that he
That was na
has conferred place on his own friends. The deep and tortuous intrigues of the French King in tural. In this case it will be probably beneficial to the Spanish politics, are likely enough to be defeated. Ile people. It is also said that he has curtailed the expenses despatched Narvaez from Faris, with a list of a ministry of Government. This was necessary. The espenditure for the acceptance of the Queen. Resistance was not an- had gone above the income, and we really know not how ticipated; but yet the proposal was resisted ; Narvacz the credit of Rome stands on the Exchanges, but we and his list were declined, and another ministry formed. fancy it may be low. Ho has next armed the National The first act of the new Government was an amnesty Guards. We shall understand the phrase fully by saying which permits, and even invites, the return of Espartero. that he has called out the yeomanry : only they are not who has been restored to rank in the Spanish army; and
all mounted. This is the great offence to Austria. if the Government resist the pressure of Parisian gold, To avenge it Austria arms on the Po, and seizes which is said to be freely spent at Madrid, it is by no
the town of Ferrara. The fort of Ferrara was held means improbable that the disgraceful system of manage- | by Austria on treaty. Its claim on the town seems to ment which has imporerished the Peninsula may be have been by no means clear. The Pontiff demands the permanently reformed. The interest of this country in withdrawal of the Austrian forces from the town
The Spanish is more apparent than in Italian affairs.
King of Sardinia, and, we understand, the Duke of Tushare lent Spain orer forty millions sterling, and need the
cany, have joined in this demand, and in the protest money, or its interest, badly; but there is no rational hope ngainst the occupancy of Ferrara. The Austrians appear of recovery until the population be brought into a more
to give little regard to these protests, and keep the town. settled condition, and industry be protected. The debt In this dilemma one portion of the press work had to get is to private parties, but on that account not less a na
an armed intervention from this country. We have all tional object. The loss of twenty millions in grain and the common cut and dry phrases regarding constitupotatoes last harvest, though falling on individuals, was
tional rights, freedom, and so forth. Up to this date a national calamity; and we may remark that, when the
we have gathered nothing, and freedom has gained monicd interest, through their organs, impute so much little by our intervention in its name, and on its besuffering to the loss of twenty millions on the harvest, half, with the quarrels of foreign nations. In Greece, in or the investment of fifty millions on railways, it is South America, in Portugal, in Spain, even in Belgium, remarkably singular that they were silent on the loans to
what has freedom-what have mankind gained by our foreign states.
armed interference? The romance of politics would lure ITALY.
us into war with Austria for a mirage; because it is not After the Queen's agreeable visit to the Highlands liberty, but a mirage, when rulers use the name; but cling became stale, and the Praslin tragedy was fully discussed, to the censorship of the press, and refuse a representation Pope Pius the Ninth and Prince Metternich camo gals of the people. This quarrel may promise very fairly for lantly to the rescue of the daily press. The Roman Pon- a revolution. Any quarrel between the head of the tiff, the Duke of Tuscany, and the King of Sardinia, con- empire and the head of the church must be useful to their templated some reforms in their various states. These subjects. Meanwhile, it is a matter regarding the bathree powers together give a population of ten millions, lance of power on the Continent; and experience may with whom all the Italians sympathise. The reforins con- teach us to look on without striking into the mclee, until templated appear to be on the smallest scale. They are it has a somewhat higher object. Sanguine and rornanproclaimed through the press as matters of great impor- tic politicians would have our fieet in the Adriatic, beforo tance. To Austria they are, to Britain they are not im- they even knew the purpose for which it was to fight, or portant. To the Emperor, who fears the rising unity had made a single stipulation for the Italian people.
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