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enigma, Hermes Trismegistus, or the medieval | the man (being a clever man) has a fair chance Prester John. Not only are most people unable to in the interim of rising to be Governor-General, solve the enigma, but they have no idea of what it we put it to your candour, Lord Barrington, is that they are to solve. I have to inform Schlos- whether it would be for the public service to hang ser that there are three separate questions about his excellency ?” In fact, he might probably have Junius, of which he has evidently no distinct been Governor-General, had his bad temper not knowledge, and cannot, therefore, have many overmastered him. Had he not quarrelled so vi. chances to spare for settling them. The three ciously with Mr. Hastings, it is ten to one that he questions are these : -- A. Who was Junius? might, by playing his cards well, have succeeded B. What was it that armed Junius with a power him. As it was, after enjoying an enormous sa80 unaccountable at this day over the public lary, he returned to England—not Governor-Genemind ? C. Why, having actually exercised this ral, certainly, but still in no fear of being hanged. power, and gained under his masque far more Instead of hanging him, on second thoughts, Gothan he ever hoped to gain, did this Junius not vernment gave him a red ribbon. He represented a come forward in his own person, when all the borough in Parliament. He was an authority upon legal danger had long passed away, to claim a Indian affairs. He was caressed by the Whig distinction that for him (among the vainest of party. He sat at good men's tables. He men) must have been more precious than his toasts-Joseph Surface sentiments at dinner heart's blood ? The two questions, B and C, I parties—" The man that betrays" (something or have examined in past times, and I will not other]—"the man that sneaks into” (other men's here repeat my explanations further than to say, portfolios, perhaps) —"is”-aye, what is he? Why with respect to the last, that the reason for the he is, perhaps, a Knight of the Bath, has a sumpauthor not claiming his own property was this, tuous mansion in St. James's Square, dies full of because he dared not ; because it would have years and honour, has a pompous funeral, and been infamy for him to avow himself as Junius; fears only some such epitaph as this—“Here lies, because it would have revealed a crime and pub- in a red ribbon, the man who built a great proslished a crime in his own earlier life, for which perity on the basis of a great knavery." many a man is transported in our days, and for plain heavily of Mr. Taylor, the very able less than which many a man has been in past unmasquer of Junius, for blinking the whole days hanged, broken on the wheel, burned, questions B and C. He it is that has settled the gibbeted, or impaled, To say that he watched question A, so that it will never be re-opened by and listened at his master's key-holes, is nothing. a man of sense. A man who doubts, after really It was not key-holes only that he made free with, reading Mr. Taylor's work, is not only a blockbut keys; he tampered with his master's seals; head, but an irreclaimable blockhead.
It is true he committed larcenies ; not, like a brave man, that several men, among them Lord Brougham, risking his life on the highway, but petty lar- whom Schlosser (though hating him, and kicking cenies-larcenies in a dwelling-house-larcenies him) cites, still profess scepticism. But the reason under the opportunities of a confidential situa- is evident : they have not read the book, they have tion — crimes which formerly, in the days of only heard of it. They are unacquainted with the Junius, our bloody code never pardoned in villains strongest arguments, and even with the nature of of low degree. Junius was in the situation of the evidence,* Lord Brougham, indeed, is geneLord Byron's Lara, or, because Lara is a pla- rally reputed to have reviewed Mr. Taylor's book. giarism, of Harriet Lee's Kraitzrer. But this That may be : it is probable enough : what I am man, because he had money, friends, and talents, denying is not at all that Lord Brougham teinstead of going to prison, took himself off for a
viewed Mr. Taylor, but that Lord Brougham read jaunt to the continent. From the continent, in full Mr. Taylor. And there is not much wonder in security and in possession of the otium cum dig- that, when we see professed writers on the subject nitate, he negotiated with the government, whom —bulky writers—writers of Answers and Refutahe had alarmed by publishing the secrets which tions, dispensing with the whole of Mr. T.'s book, he had stolen. He succeeded. He sold him
* Even in Dr. Francis's Translation of Select Speeches self to great advantage.
Bought and sold he from Demosthenes, which Lord Brougham naturally used was ; and of course it is understood that, a little in his own labours on that theme, there may be if you buy a knave, and expressly in conside- traced several peculiarities of diction that startle us in
Junius. Sir P. had them from his father. And Lord Brougration of his knaveries, you secretly under ham ought not to have overlooked them. The same thing take not to hang him. “Honour bright !" may be seen in the notes to Dr. Francis's translation of Lord Barrington might certainly have indicted Horace. These points, though not independently of mueb
importance, become far more so in combination with Junius at the Old Bailey, and had a reason for others. The reply made to me once by a publisher of wishing to do so ; but George III., who was a some eminence upon this question, was the best fitted to party to the negotiation, and all his ministers, long history of the dispute. “I feel,” he said, "the im
lower Mr. Taylor's investigation with a stranger to the would have said, with fits of laughter—“Oh, pregnability of the case made out by Mr. Taylor. But the come now, my lord, you must not do that. For, misfortune is, that I have seen so many previous imsince we have bargained for a price to send him pregnable cases made out for other claimants."
that would be unfortunate. But the misfortune for this out as a member of council to Bengal, you see repartee was, that I, for whose use it was intended, dot clearly that we could not possibly hang him before being in the predicament of a stranger to the dispute, we had fulfilled our bargain. Then it is true we
having seen every page of the pleadings, knew all (except
Mr. Taylor's) to be false in their statements; after which might hang him after he comes back. But, since their arguments signified nothing.
single paragraphs of which would have forced you dream, dotard, that this baby's rattle is the them to cancel their own. The possibility of thing that keeps us from sleeping ? Our eyes scepticism, after really reading Mr. T.'s book, are fixed on something else : that fellow, whoever would be the strongest exemplification upon record he is, knows what he ought not to know; he has of Sancho's proverbial reproach, that a man had his hand in some of our pockets : he's a good “wanted better bread than was made of wheat—" | locksmith, is that Junius ; and before he reaches would be the old case renewed from the scholastic Tyburn, who knows what amount of mischief grumblers “that some men do not know when he may do to self and partners ?” The rumour they are answered.” They have got their quietus, that ministers were themselves alarmed (which and they still continue to “maunder” on with was the naked truth) travelled downwards ; but objections long since disposed of. In fact, it is the why did not travel; and the innumerable not too strong a thing to say—and Chief Justice blockheads of lower circles, not understanding the Dallas did say something like it—that if Mr. real cause of fear, sought a false one in the Taylor is not right, if Sir Philip Francis is not supposed thunderbolts of the rhetoric. OperaJunius, then was no man cver yet hanged on house thunderbolts they were : and strange it is, sufficient evidence. Even confession is no abso- that grave men should fancy newspapers, teeming lute proof. Even confessing to a crime, the man (as they have always done) with Publicolas, with may be mad. Well, but at least secing is believ- Catos, with Algernon Sydneys, able by such ing: if the court sees a man commit an assault, trivial small shot to gain a moment's attention will not that suffice ? Not at all : ocular from the potentates of Downing Street. Those delusions on the largest scale are common. who have despatches to write, councils to attend, What's a court ? Lawyers have no better eyes and votes of the Commons to manage, think than other people. Their physics are often out little of Junius Brutus. A Junius Brutus, that of repair, and whole cities have been known to dares not sign by his own honest name, is preseo things that could have no existence. Now, sumably skulking from his creditors. A Timoleon, all other evidence is held to be short of this blank who hints at assassination in a newspaper, one seeing or blank confessing. But I am not at all may take it for granted, is a manufacturer of sure of that.
Circumstantial evidence, that begging letters. And it is a conceivable case thata multiplies indefinitely its points of internexus with £20 note, enclosed to Timoleon's address, through known admitted facts, is more impressive than the newspaper office, might go far to soothe that direct testimony. If you detect a fellow with a great patriot's feelings, and even to turn aside large sheet of lead that by many (to wit 70) salient his avenging dagger. These sort of people were angles, that by tedious (to wit 30) reëntrant angles, not the sort to frighten a British Ministry. One fits into and owns its sisterly relationship to all langhs at the probable conversation between an that is left of the lead upon your roof—this tight old hunting squire coming up to comfort the First fit will weigh more with a jury than even if my Lord of the Treasury, on the rumour that he was lord chief justice should jump into the witness-box, panic-struck. "What, surely, my dear old friend, swearing that, with judicial eyes, he saw the you're not afraid of Timoleon ?" First Lord. vagabond cutting the lead whilst he himself sat Yes, I am.” C. Gent.—“ What, afraid of an at breakfast; or even than if the vagabond should anonymous fellow in the papers?" F. L.-"Yes, protest before this honourable court that he did dreadfully." C. Gent.--"Why, I always undercut the lead in order that he (the said vagabond) stood that these people were a sort of shamsinight have hot rolls and coffee as well as my lord, living in Grub Street-or where was it that Popo tho witness. If Mr. Taylor's body of evidence used to tell us they lived ? Surely you're not does not hold water, then is there no evidence ex- afraid of Timoleon, because some people think tant upon any question, judicial or not judicial, he's a patriot ?" F. L.—“No, not at all ; but that will
I am afraid because some people think he's a But I blame Mr. Taylor heavily for throwing housebreaker!” In that character only could away the whole argument applicable to B and Timoleon become formidableto a Cabinet Minister; C ; not as any debt that rested particularly upon and in some such character must our friend, him to public justice ; but as a debt to the integrity Junius Brutus, have made himself alarming to of his own book. That book is now a fragment; Government. From the moment that B is proadmirable as regards A; but (by omitting B and C) perly explained, it throws light upon C. The not sweeping the whole area of the problem. There Government was alarmed-not at such moonshine yet remains, therefore, the dissatisfaction which is as patriotism, or at a soap-bubble of rhetoric—but always likely to arise—not from the smallest because treachery was lurking amongst their own allegatio falsi
, but from the large suppressio veri. households ; and, if the thing went on, the conseB, which, on any other solution than the one I quences might be appalling. But this domestic have proposed, is perfectly unintelligible, now be treachery, which accounts for B, accounts at the coines plain enough. To imagine a heavy, coarse, same time for C.
The very same treachery that hard-working government, seriously affected by frightened its objects at the time by the consesuch a bauble as they would consider performances quences it might breed, would frighen its author on the tight rope of style, is mere midsummer afterwards from claiming its literary honours by madness. “Hold your absurd tongue," would the remembrances it might awaken. any of the ministers have said to a friend descant- tcrious disclosure of official secrets, which had ing on Junius as a powerful artist of style—" do once roused so much consternation within a TOL, X
limited circle, and (like the French affair of the cases, this prosperous crime subsequently avenged diamond necklace) had sunk into neglect only itself. By a just retribution, the success of Junius, when all clue seemed lost for perfectly unravelling in two senses so monstrouslyexaggerated—exaggeit, would revive in all its interest when a dis- rated by a romantic over-estimate of its intellectual covery came before the public, viz., a claim on the power through an error of the public, not adpart of Francis to have written the famous letters, mitted to the secret—and equally exaggerated as which must at the same time point a strong light to its political power by the government in the upon the true origin of the treacherous disclosures. hush-money for its future suppression, became the Some astonishment had always existed as to Fran- heaviest curse of the successful criminal. This cis—how he rose so suddenly into rank and station : criminal thirsted for literary distinction above all some astonishment always existed as to Junius, other distinction, with a childish eagerness, as for how he should so suddenly have fallen asleep as the amreeta cup of immortallity. And, behold! a writer in the journals. The coincidence of this there the brilliant bauble lay, glittering in the sudden and unaccountable silence with the sudden sands of a solitude, unclaimed by any man ; and unaccountable Indian appointment of Fran- disputed with him if he chose to claim it) cis; the extraordinary familiarity of Junius, which by nobody; and yet for his life he durst not had not altogether escaped notice, with the secrets touch it. He stood—he knew that he stoodof one particular office, viz., the War Office ; in the situation of a murderer who has dropt an the sudden recollection, sure to flash upon all inestimable jewel upon the murdered body in the who remembered Francis, if again he should death-struggle with his victim. The jewel is his! become revived into suspicion, that he had held Nobody will deny it. He may have it for aska situation of trust in that particular War Office; | ing. But to ask is his death-warrant. " Oh all these little recollections would begin to take yes!” would be the answer, “here's your jewel, up their places in a connected story: this and wrapt up safely in tissue paper. But here's that, laid together, would become clear as day- another lot that goes along with it—no bidder light; and to the keen eyes of still surviving can take them apart-viz, a halter, also wrapt enemies—Horne Tooke," little Chamier,” Ellis, up in tissue paper." Francis, in relation to the Fitzroy, Russell, and Murray houses—the Junius, was in that exact predicament. 66 Yoa whole progress and catastrophe of the scoundrel- are Junius? You are that famous man who ism, the perfidy and the profits of the perfidy, has been missing since 1772? And you can would soon become as intelligible as any tale of prove it? God bless me ! sir ; what a long time midnight burglary from without, in concert with you've been sleeping : every body's gone to a wicked butler within, that was ever sifted by bed. Well, then, you are an exceedingly clever judge and jury at the Old Bailey, or critically re- fellow, that have had the luck to be thought ten viewed by Mr. John Ketch at Tyburn.
times more clever than really you were.
And Francis was the man. Francis was the wicked also, you are the greatest scoundrel that at this butler within, whom Pharaoh ought to have hour rests in Europe unhanged!”—Francis died, hanged, but whom he clothed in royal apparel, and made no sign. Peace of mind he had parted and mounted upon a horse that carried him to a with for a peacock's feather, which feather, living curule chair of honour. So far his burglary or dying, he durst not mount in the plumage of prospered. But, as generally happens in such his cap.
TO TIE RIGHT HON. TI E EARL OF
AN HUMBLE EPISTLE TOUCHING SCORN OF LOW BIRTH,
No diplomatic cheat can I,
My race's glory show
My fathers knew not how to lie
I'm low, my lord, I'm low,
No unearned heritage I own
Of park and ancient hall,
My hard-won wages, lord, alone
My own of wealth I call;
I cannot claim the bought respect
That want to wealth must show
I am but honoured for my worth-
I'm low, my lord, I'm low.
Of honest men I'm not the scorn
I never, lord, have striven
To prostitute to my own gain
Power by the nation given ;
The records of my life, my lord,
No corn-tax votes can show
My luxury never started the poor-
I'm low, my lord, I'm low..
No lackey dogs me with respect,
That upright, spite of poverty,
To no man aught I owe ;
That duns and debts are yours, not mine,
Though I, my lord, am low.
I'm proud in honest labour, lord,
My useful days go by ;
That no white, weak, unhorned hand,
No silken palm have I ;
That for the right I've ever stood,
As far as right I know;
Nor urged a wrong for privato gain-
Though I, my lord, am low.
These things are poor in your esteem ;
And yet I rank them more
In mine, ay, than the proudest namo
That Norman blood e'er bore;
Nor would I, for your worthlessness,
My scorned worth barter, though
Ten times your vaunted rank I won-
Though I, my lord, am low.
No, keep your pure-your Norman blood,
Your coroneted shame,
Light weigh a hundred coats of arms
Against an honest name;
Despite your scoffs, despito your scorn,
Poor worth, I've learned to know,
May well look down on titled shame
Ay, though, my lord, 'tis low.
W. C. BENXET.
feels bound to speak with much modesty of his own laThat Mechanism is getting exhausted, and intellec-bours. A bold dogmatism is not only the prerogative, tuality expanded, is the excuse of the anthor for the pro- but ought to be tho property of a writer who sets up as duction of this work. The appearance of a second edition, the valuator of philosophical opinion; and it is disagreewithin a very short time, proves the validity of that ex- ablo to find, or even suspect him, “ in verba magistri cuse, even beyond the author's expectations. He frankly jurasse.” Dr. Tholuck,* and the late Dr. Chalmers, t admits that he “ did not give credit to the British public appear, however, to regard the author as too implicitly at largo for sufficient interest in the abstruser questions following Cousin, whose French electicism is not just tho of philosophy.” Agreeably deceived in this opinion, he philosophy of which we think the English revival should has again offered his work to the public, " in an improved avail itself. “The reason,” says Mr. Morell, in his new and more legitimately historical form.” And the proof preface, I“ I have followed, in the main, Cousin's critithus afforded of the demand for a book, more like an
cisms is, primarily, because I consider them very near emanation of German than of English literature, favours the truth; and, secondly, because they present the subthe supposition that the interest in speculative philosophy ject in a form best calculated for giving a popular view of is reviving. Saving Tenneman's “Manuel of the History the whole question.” But there is, we suspect, another of Philosophy”—of which an Oxford translation, by the reason, in the force of which Mr. Morell may be selfRev. Arthur Johnson, has been for a dozen years in deluded—that sort of admiration which attaches to the scholastic use—and Mr. G. H. Lewes's popular “Bio- teaching of Cousin as the last master under whom tho graphical History of Philosophy,” we have no English author appears to have studied. account of modern philosophy beyond what may be found “Whilst going through a systematic course of study,” in the celebrated “ L'issertation" of Dugald Stuart, pre- what undefined idea of the importance of the subject,
he states, “in London, I was induced, from a somefixed to the “Encyclopædia Britannica."
to take up • Locke's Essay on the Human UnderstandIn this state of matters there was room for Mr. Mo-ing.' The perusal of that immortal work seemed to open rell's History. It were, perhaps, to have been wished a region of surpassing grandeur ; but, at the same time, that his pretensions to authorship had been previously gave few results mpon which it was possible to rest with
calmness and satisfaction. I next betook myself to the somewhat confirmed. Modern philosophy is, of all con
lectures of Dr. Thomas Brown, hoping to find there the ceivable subjects, the most critical on which “the first satisfaction I required. In this hope I was not, for the thoughts” an author ventures to intrude upon public time,, disappointed. The stylo was so captivating, the notice can be elaborated. And it scarcely compensates whole thing so complete, that I was almost insensibly
views so comprehensive, the arguments so acute, the sufficiently that, under such circumstances, the author borne along upon the stream of his reasoning and his elo
quence. Naturally enough, I became a zealous disciple ; An Historical and Critical View of the Speculative Philosophy of Europe in the Nineteenth Century. By J.
Literarischer Anzeiger. D. Morrell, A.M. " Second Edition. John Johnstone,
+ North British Review. London and Edinburgh, 1847; 2 vols.; pp. 590 and 666.
Preface to second edition, p. 20.
I accepted his mental analysis as almost perfect ; I do- philosopher in the cradle, spontaneously forming his fended his doctrine of causation ; with him I stood in as- acquaintance, and an extensive acquaintanco too, before tonishment at the alleged obtuseness of Reid; and, with tho cxception of his cthical system, was ready to consider emerging from the cloud of infancy, with the external “ipse dixit” as a valid argument for the truth of any world. The first man that reflected was the first specametaphysical dogma. Induced by the lively admiration had lativo philosopher. His text hardly contains the definiconceived for the Scottish metaphysics, I proceeded to the tion, althongh it gives an explanation of philosophy; and University of Glasgow, and studied philosophy in the class the only definition offered (in a note*) is one suggested rooms which had been honoured by the presence, and enlightened by the genius, of Reid and Smith. Here the venera- to tho author as comprehending every essential point: tion for Brown began to subside; I felt that there was a Philosophy is the science which reduces all things to depth in tho philosophy of Reid which I had not fully ap- the region of pure ideas, and then traces their connection preciated, and that the sensationaltendency of the former,
and unity.” though it added popularity to his thoughts, was an ill exchange for the incipient spiritualism of the latter. The objections against philosophy are grounded on the conHoping to probe the questions relating to the foundation finement of our knowledge to sensible phenomena-on the of human knowledge more to the centre, I attempted to facts that the deepest thinkers come to opposite conread · Kant's Critick of Pure Reason,' and some few other continental works; but they, for the most part, clusions—that philosophy has no practical utility, and is opened a region so entirely now, that I felt quite unable superseded by revelation. To these four objections the to compare their results, as a whole, with those of the author deems it prudent to reply. Metaphysicians are Scotch metaphysicians. Desirous, however, of pursuing well convinced that the former is a fallacy. Many of our the subject still farther, I repaired to Germany ; I reard
If Brandis and Fichte expound German philosophy in their sensations have nothing external corresponding. lecture rooms, and spent some months in reading the colours arise by the separation of rays of light, and standard works of the great masters. The different sounds by pulsations of the air, we cannot pretend that systems which were hero contending for the proference anything exists without at all like the impressions of gradually became intelligible, but, alas! they stood alone ---in completo isolation ; but to compare their method, colours or sounds within. And if this be the case with their procedure, their aim, their results, satisfactorily some of our sensations, why not with all ? Again, for with those of our English and Scottish philosophy ap- the notions of self, of right and wrong, of cansation, &c., peared as yet almost impossible. To gain light, therefore, upon these points, I turned my attention to France;
we are certainly not indebted to our sensational faculty. the name of Eclecticism seemed too inviting to be turned With regard to the second objection, he compares the away, as it often is, on the charge of Syncretism or want contradictions of opinion in philosophy to the completely of profundity; and my hopes were not altogether decep: opposite views men of the greatest sagacity adopt in politire. I found, or thought that I found, in the writings of Cousin, and others of the modern eclectics, the gerins of ties, which are yet conducive to national prosperity ; and certain great principles upon which a comparison of all to the different forms founded on the common data of the philosophical systems of the present age could be ad- Christianity, without impairing the truth of the system. vantageously institutod, and saw that such a comparison He proclaims all crror, in fact, to be negative-a falling would be of very important service to one who should be anxious to travel, as I had done, over the brond field of short of the fact. Of such a thing as positive error, be European metaphysics. llow cagerly should I have denies the existence. Thus he is enabled to maintain welcomed such a directory myself while I was toiling to that philosophy in its past history has had a progressive get some clear light upon the conflicting systems of Ger; development. In answer to the third objection, Mr. many; how highly should I have valued a simple and definite statement of the foundation principle of the diffe- Morell beautifully illustrates what he terms the law of the rent schools ; how intensely rejoiced in a work which descent of thought ; from the first or highest order of should show the relations of the one to the other! It thinkers descending to those one degree below them, was with a view, therefore, of supplying the want which I had myself felt, that I began the sketch which has now losing at each descent something of the scientific form, swelled into these two volumes."
till it reaches the mass, in the shape of some admitted or
bare fact, which they appropriate to their own use, simply Such is the candid narrative in which the author shows
as being an acknowledged truth :cause for his undertaking. Ile is not, perhaps, the first
“ The first school-boy you meet would very likely tell who has undertaken to teach others by the process of you with some accuracy what is the rapidity of light; acquiring knowledge at the same time for himself. But but as to any observations on the occultations of Jupiter's ho is not unlike one of those voracious Irish guides who satellites, or on the phenomena of abbration, or any other accompany you to St. Kevan's Kitchen and Ded along such method of computing it, on these he has never be
stowed a thought. The commoncst seaman that has the loro and gloomy shores of Glendalough, requiring learned the use of his sextant, applies to his own purposes your implicit belief in the romantic miracles of which all the necessary formulas of trigonometry ; but, as to they show the localities, otherwise you could not attach the methods of investigating such formulas, such matter the slightest interest to a single spot of them all. The
lic entirely out of his reach." naïvetè of Mr. Morell's confidential candour has such a
Following up the analogy of theso mathematical formucharm, that how little soever we may be disposed to
las by the parallel case of historical formulas, and the adopt the principles of Cousin as the touchstone of the historical by formulas for the various theories of the fine philosophy of the present age, we are constrained, whilst arts, we are led insensibly to the conclusion that in like we bear him company, to resign ourselves to his guid
manner there are philosophical or metaphysical formulas, ance, reserving, however, for after-thought and' moro
acted upon hy thousands every day of their lives, to whom mature reflection, to determine the real value of his all metaphysical thinking is completely foreign. Thus in comparative estimate of modern philosophical systems.
the middle ages, when Aristotelianism completely moulded At the outset of his work the author is very careful to the minds of those who did think, i'ts results, mingled impress us with the simplicity of the thing called philo- up with the religious opinions of the day, reached the sopby, tracing its operations even in the mind of the little
# Page 4, vol. 1.)