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through the rocks, and, overhung by high banks, the waterfall, as they kept their onward progress, until passes occasionally into two ravines. The red, at length the sound so evidently betokened the fall of honey colour, and black jaspar, with the agate, an immense body of water, that they felt convinced abound in its channels, and though somewhat inferior that they should soon discover cataracts in the river. to those discovered in the Sone, are of considerable Nor were they disappointed. value. Its course, after passing through two mountain Emerging suddenly from the woody plain, the most ranges, is northerly, and at length falls into the Jumna, magnificent view of one of Nature's handiworks displayed after having flowed two hundred and thirty miles. It itself. Awed by the sublimity of the scene, the party is too rocky to be navigable, but is well stocked with paused to survey it in silent but wondering admiration. fish. Light boats, however, in the rainy season, have They had anticipated the sudden projection earthward proceeded up as far as Banda.

of a vast stream, but did not expect to behold the broad Near the village of Derdurra the Tonse takes its expanse of foaming waters, stretching far to the left rise, and being joined in its passage by innumerable and right, seven hundred feet in breadth, which bounded rivulets, flows on through the district of Rewah, in with deafening roar perpendicularly down a height of reality a portion of Bundelkund. The falls formed by four hundred feet, and plunged into a deep natural basin this river, though they have seldom been allu led to by eight hundred feet in diameter. The river flows over a the traveller, may be regarded as among the most mag- bed of rocks intersected by deep fissures, and in its nificent objects to be witnessed in any part of the onward course washes off the thin red soil which covers habitable globe, not even excepting the falls of Niagara, them. Suddenly arriving at an abrupt descent, the which have even been pronounced vastly inferior, both waters, swollen probably by the rains, project themselves in grandeur of outline and actual height.

in a vast column perpendicularly down, but some escape The existence of the Bundela falls, indeed, was only ing from the grand mass, rolling between banks a hunacknowledged after a considerable amount of amusing in- dred feet in height, force a way through the fissures, credulity had been manifested upon the subject. Some and gradually loosen on either side huge fragments of years ago a traveller in the district, on his return to rock, which roll with more than avalanchine grandeur Calcutta, transmitted to certain journals a brief account down into the excavations it forms below, awaking of the cataract of the Tonse, to which insertion was echoes which startle the inhabitants of the country given. And here the matter for the time dropped ; around, like loud roars of artillery. These granite but the editors of these papers subsequer.tly reflecting, masses violently falling one upon the other in their began to fancy that they must have been imposed upon weighty descent, shiver and splint the rocks below, and by some clever disciple of the Baron Munchausen. They now become wedged in between a divided crag. Great did not, could not calculate that it was possible for any unwieldy points protrude here and there from the deep but an American river to possess a fall, the hereditary basin, and now a slender fragment rests in an inclined tradition passing down from father to son, and which position against the huge sides. The waves, as they fixed Niagara as the only natural exhibition of the kind fall, leap, and sparkle, and dance like showers of crystal worth visiting, was respected, and accordingly, when balls, dashing from every rock and crag down the edges more full and satisfactory accounts were transmitted by of the vast column of waters, whose spray, dashing from subsequent travellers, no attention was paid to the the rocks, forms cloudlets tinged with every varied hue communication.

of the rainbow. This crystalline spray, it was now disIn 1813, an army encamped in Rewan during the covered, caused the vapours discerned by the camp, and campaign, at no great distance from Sumarenli, the so often admired by them, capital of the country, at that period ruled over by The vista obtained of the country beyond is beautiful Jugat Mohun Singh. The officers as well as men were beyond description. These attractions are, however, wholly unconscious of their near proximity to the falls, scarcely noticed until the eye has ceased to be riveted with whose existence, indeed, they were unacquainted, upon the grander fascinations which majestically rear those of the Behar being ten miles distant from the Tonse themselves before it. When the first enthusiastic falls, and eight from those of Chycheya.

burst of rapture is over, the gaze wanders to the softer As surely, however, as the wind blew in the direction beauties of the scene. The verdure of the grass is so of the camp, a strange and incomprehensible noise came bright, so brilliant, that when attempted to be pourborne upon the breeze, resembling the heavy, sullen trayed on canvass the colour appeared too fresh and roar of waters, or the muttered rumbling of thunder in green to be natural. Every plant around moulds the distance. During the rains, beautiful white hazy itself into a nosegay of fragrant blossoms—no shrub clouds, reflecting on their edge the golden beams of the without a perfume, no plant without a flower. The rising sun, sometimes floated upwards, now wavering gently wild vine climbs and clings round the rocks, entwines to and fro, now appearing stationary, or seeming to dis- itself into each fissure, and creeps up the

craggy

sides, solve in the air around. The whole camp were struck laden with a profusion of rich black grapes. A small with these singular appearances, and made them the lily, like that of the valley, clusters, with its white subject of incessant conversation.

flowers, at the foot ; but amid all the blooming shrubs One morning, a small foraging party, under the com- around, the superba gloriosa stands foremost in its loremand of an enterprising officer, set out for the purpose liness. Passing on, the river falls into a bed from two of reconnoitering along the banks of the Tonse river, to three hundred feet in depth, and about two hundred in order to discover the cause of those appearances yards broad. The banks are too steep to permit of a which had excited so much curiosity in the camp. As descent close to its edge. Very great numbers of they advanced, the unceasing murmur swelled gradually springs, tanks, and reservoirs, are scattered over the upon the car. Nearer and nearer came the music of | surfuce of the province, which proves the fallacy of the

notion that irrigation is unnecessary. If the necessity | above described, and four more occupied by the miners for it had not existed, the tanks which we encounter at in digging out the Khakroo or gravel in which the diaevery turn would never have been constructed at so monds are found. The work is then deferred until the large an expense.

rainy season comes round, when abundance of water is Of the towns scattered over Bundelkund we shall furnished for the purpose of washing the gravel, which merely notice the principal. Banda, the capital, built is thrown into shallow ponds filled for that purpose. by Rajah Goomah Singh, is famous as an extensive When the sandy part disappears, the remaining pebbles cotton mart, and remarkable for a curious well stationed are spread upon the ground, levelled and smoothed, and about a kos from the city, on the road to Pannah. It the diamond workers then proceed to separate the useless is thirty-seven feet in diameter and fifty-two deep. Two pebbles with their hands, eight or ten at a time, so that fights of stairs run from each side round the interior. no diamond can escape their notice. Contrary to the

Kalpee, the ancient seat of government, is a large generally received opinion, the labourers do distinguish town stationed on the left bank of the Jumna, and now the precious stones by their sparkling beneath the rays of chiefly remarkable as being the centre of the cotton the sun. Many days are frequently spent in useless trade. The plant flourishes luxuriantly round it. search, but a comparatively small number serves amply to Khurroa, the coarse red cloth used for camp equi- repay all the trouble taken to secure them. The precipage, is manufactured in this place, and a kind of ous gems never adhere to any other stone or pebble, and sugar-candy, equal to that of China.

may be distinguished generally by their peculiar conPannah stands in the midst of a rocky plain, enclosed formation. The workmen are paid in proportion to the by a ridge of hills, clothed to their summits in dense value of the diamonds they discover. foliage, and sweeping round so as to form a sort of It is supposed by some that the mines about Pannah amphitheatre. The town is neat and novel in its ap- have ceased to be productive ; but this is a complete falpearance, most of the houses being constructed of grey lacy. There is, indeed, a tradition that the precious stone, several dwellings of large size, with numerous stones are only to be found at the distance of ten kos temples, one of which is reported to contain the images round the town ; but this fable was, doubtless, invented of Kishnu and Vishnu, whose eyes are formed of dia- by the Rajahs, for the purpose of deterring speculators monds of extraordinary size and immense value. llere, from opening new mines, and deteriorating the value of by the side of an extensive sheet of water, covered with the article by overloading the market. We, ourselves, blooming lotus, and filled with alligators and crocodiles, entertain no doubt whatever of the existence of an inexstand the ruins of the palace where dwelt Rajah Chutter haustible strata of diamonds, which only require to be Saul, the hero of Bundela history, and the fame of worked to yield an inconceivable amount of wealth to the whose deeds rises above that of all his descendants and Government, since the process of production is everlastancestors. Two small forts, linked together by a stone ingly going on. It is certain that some mines do exist wall, protect it in the front and in the rear—the lake which have not been worked at all. Captain Poyson, stretching before renders approach in that direction during his residence in the country, opened a mine about almost impossible. Approaching Pannah from Banda three miles from Kalinghur, and penetrated so far as to the way lies over a level cultivated country, entirely discover “the brother of the diamond," as it is styled free from rocks and hills.

by the natives, viz., the small angular stones of a greenWhen the traveller arrives near the renowned Dia- ish hue, like grains. These are always considered as cermond district, his attention is attracted by a number of tain forerunners of the diamonds themselves. Animated pits, from three to twelve feet in depth, scattered over by this assurance, Captain Pogson resumed his work with the face of the country. These are the celebrated dia- vigour, but on digging below the level of the rivulet, mond mines, but the whole of the gravelly plains, stretch- and removing some large stones, a spring burst upon the ing around the town for several miles, is said to produce disappointed labourers, and filled the mine with water, diamonds of four several descriptions—the mohi chul of The Pindaree war breaking out at the time, the Captain a clear brilliant whiteness, the manih of a greenish hue, joined his army, and circumstances prevented him from the pannae tinged with orange, and the bunspuit of a ever again resuming the undertaking, blackish colour. Others, again, resemble pearls. The On the flooding of the Bhagur Nudee diamonds are mines are worked, for the most part, near the village of frequently discovered. These mines are situated on the Lukareneti, about twelve miles from Pannah, and the banks of the stream, a short distance within the hills, diamonds are there found below a stratum of rock from which rise abruptly, on either side, clad with verdure of fifteen to twenty feet in depth. To cut a way down is, every hue to their summits, while the rippling stream, for the natives, a labour of months and even of years. flowing over an uneven bed, and falling at intervals The following is the process :

over descents of two or three feet, forms gentle cascades, The soil having been cleared from a certain space of which add greatly to the picturesque nature of the scenground, the rock is cut with chisels, or broken by ham- cry around. mers, while a large fire, kindled every night upon the Scattered through the hills are found blocks of rock spot, is supposed to render the stone more friable. The with veins of crystalizations as brilliant, frequently, as appearance is then singularly picturesque. The tra- the diamonds themselves. Some again are occasionally veller, approaching Pannah, after darkness has fallen discovered containing various kinds of sparkling particles, upon the surrounding landscape, may perceive from a and others with pink, green, and purple veins. Discodistance several of these large fires sending up pyramidal veries of whole hills of marble are constantly taking place, flames, and illumining with their vivid Aashes the gloom and porphyry is also occasionally found. The Ken mines, around,

flowing on in its northerly course, form a line of separaSix months are employed by the natives in the labour tion between the diamond and iron mines. The latter

are supposed to be inexhaustible, and would of them- ing the ramparts. Two companies were ordered to return selves serve to render the province a highly valuable pos- the money to Colonel Meisselback, and to convey at the session,

same hour the intelligence, that if he did not immediate Kitteans is about a mile and a half in length, and the ly effect a retreat, the fort would fire upon him. Colonel same in breadth. It stands by the side of a lake, and Meisselback consequently perceiving the impossibility, in is surrounded by a stone wall furnished with gates. his present position, of securing Ujee Ghur, struck his From a hill near the town we obtain an extensive view camp and retired five kos distance. of the country round. The inhabitants are robust and Another attack, presenting many similar features to warlike.

the above, was subsequently made upon Ujee Ghur, and Tehrea, a less populous town than the preceding, is though the result was very different, it was one only arsituated upon the western boundaries of Bundelkund, rived at by the loss of many brave officers and men. about fifty-one miles from Chatterpoor.

About ten miles from the fort stands Rajolia a fortified The forts scattered over the province of Bundelkund hill, the ascent to which is by steep and narrow paths, constitute some of its most attractive features. They overhung by projecting rocks which afforded shelter from are built on portions chosen with that singular tact the enemy's fire, who fired upon the British troops as which seems to guide the nations of the East in the they passed under cover of the jungle, and committed selection of their places of defence. The most remark- considerable ravages. Driven from their position, howable are the two to which we have before alluded, and of ever, the enemy retreated to the summit of the hill, which we here now give a brief description.

where they hastily constructed parapet walls, behind Ujee Ghur stands about a thousand paces from the which they made a resolute stand. As no ladders could ridge sweeping round Bundelkund, on an elevated hill on be procured to scale the walls, the assailants were recalled which formerly stood three Hindoo temples, built of and preparations made for renewing the attack on the stones laid without cement, but fitted with the greatest morning, but the enemy gave them no further trouble, precision one within the other, and adorned on both sides evacuating the post during the night, and the next day with sculptures of the most chaste design and exquisite Ujee Ghur surrendered voluntarily to the British. workmanship, and covered besides with inscriptions in One young officer, whose name has now unfortunately unknown languages and characters. The erection of escaped our recollection, brought himself prominently these buildings can be fixed to no precise date. Anti- forward on this occasion. He exposed himself fearlessly quity, the most profound, enshrouds their origin. It is, on the heights, and fell at length mortally wounded. however, related that an ancient Rajah, named Ujee He was buried the next day by his brother officers, and Gopaul caused a fortress to be built round these splendid a stone placed over his grave, on which an inscription is mines, and bestowed his name upon it, so that ever after traced, which records, that at the age of twenty-five he the place was called Ujee Ghur, or the fort of Ujee. It fell covered with wounds in the service of his country. once resisted stoutly a ten months' siege, and was at last The fortress of Kalingur is situated about twenty miles only reduced by famine, but in the year 1800 Ujee Ba- south of Banda, half that distance from the first range oador obtained possession. Subsequently the British of hills, and stands upon an immense elevation, rising ordered it to be evacuated, and despatched a force under nine hundred feet above the level of the plain, with a Colonels Meisselback and Zugum Shah to take posses- basis ten or twelve miles in circumference. The mounsion, which journeyed on without interruption until ar- tains, or rather the vast rock on which it is erected, afrived near the hill of Deogaru, five miles from the fort. fords remarkable security to those once possessed of the Here they were suddenly surprised by the enemy under stronghold. A large extent of level table-land, five miles the command of Luckman Dorecuh, who, with part of in circumference, extends over the summit, terminating his followers, was secretly posted in one of the deep ra- in a crest of black crag, forming the basis of the wall, vines that yawn round the fort, while others were distri- which sweeps round the whole summit, and overhanging buted through the dark forests spreading far on either a steep abrupt descent, down which are cut numerous side. A skirmish ensued, during which some of our roads and pathways leading to the plain below. The guns fell into the hands of the enemy. Confusion among fort is built within the enceinte of the wall. Starting the camp followers ensued, the baggage was thrown down, from the valley we ascended by a broad winding road, cut and Colonel Meisselback, in desperation, charged in the along the eastern face of the rock, to a height of a hun. rear, rushed on the enemy with fixed bayonets, completely dred feet above the level of the plain, and here found our routed them, and the reward of his exertions was the progress obstructed by the first of the seven gateways, recapturing of the guns without the loss of a man. The which, in reference to the seven planets, have to be passed army thus advanced and encamped close to Ujee Ghur. through before reaching the summit; it is called the pass of which the guilidar agreed to evacuate upon the receipt of Hogs. A little to our right lies the town of Kalinghur, twelve thousand rupees. The money was accordingly surrounded by a ditch, and a wall twenty-five feet thick, sent up under the charge of two brigadiers, and Colonel and composed of huge projecting points of rock fitted, withMeisselback was immediately, nominally, put in possession out cement, one into the other. From the first to the second of the fort. Luchman Doreeuh, however, determined gate, named the Kafir Ghautie or the Gate of Infidels, the not to take his defeat so easily; as soon as night came on ascent is rugged, stony, and difficult. And thence by a vakeel was secretly despatched to the guilidar, tempt- steps to the third gate, called the Surg Rojun, over which ing him with the promise of a sum of eighteen thousand lies a large reservoir of clear limpid mineral water, prerupees if he would allow him to occupy the fort instead sided over by a huge image, carved in the solid wall, of the British. These terms were not of a nature for the and remains of other sculptures of divinities. To a cupidity of the man to withstand ; he not only gave the doorway leading to the left, outside the rampart, carts desired permission, but even assisted Luchman in escalad- I were once said to be brought, but it is now closed, owing to the incursions of the tigers and leopards, who, emerg- , bough, from tree to tree, and express their terror by ing from the jungle covering the slopes of the hills in yells and screams. These creatures are esteemed as dense masses, lie in wait for prey, and springing on the sacred, and may be seen daily in the forest, bounding passer-by, devour him, or carry him into the heart of with surprising vigour and agility from battlement to the wood. Passing through the last gate we enter the battlement. fort, and the eye is immediately attracted by numerous Further on is a flight of steps, descending to an exHindoo figures scattered here and there. The next ob-cavation under a shelving portion of the rock, on the ject which claims attention is a large gun, formed of face of which are inscriptions, denoting the dates when bars of iron, compressed together with hoops of the same pilgrims arrived from afar, performed here their devometal, lying without any carriage, upon an elevated tions, and departed again. bed of stones. Other ancient guns, composed of silver We now arrive at a ruined portion of the wall ; it is and copper mixed, are to be found in several parts of the place where the breach was once attempted. Oppothe fort. Wild custard-apple trees grow thickly over site to it stands the little hill of Kalinjaree, which rises the fertile soil, laden with delicious fruit of a surprising nearly to a level with the fort, but is, however, distant size. The puppyah, the tamarind, the peepul, thrive from it 825 yards. In their endeavour to break through luxuriantly, and reach to an enormous height, and form, the wall of Kalinjaree many brave officers and men fell, with their dense and brilliant foliage, shady places, clus- but were killed chiefly by the stones rolled down from tering round the walls overgrown with wild balsams. the garrison. Their tombs scattered near the Bhagur

The fertility of the soil is great, and resembles that Nudee, two miles from the fort, stand as mementoes of found in the diamond districts near Pannah, and trans- an ineffectual attempt on the fort, rendered so by an parent chrystalline pebbles glisten here and there over obstacle opposed by nature, in the shape of a huge perthe sand.

pendicular rock. Passing out of the Bunsahir Gate, Turning round, and descending a flight of steps to named by Colonel M Morra the Pannah Gate, guarded the left of the main gate, we reach the ramparts, which by two others on the outside, and turning to the left, are seven feet in height, and built in the form of mitres, we arrive at an ever-flowing spring, which the waterwith embrasures between each, about eighteen inches carriers are deterred from visiting, owing to the incurwide, continued all round the fort, a mile and a half in sions continually made by the leopards and hyenas. The diameter. Walking on a little further we come to a next object of attention is another spring of cold transspring, which depends for its moisture upon the rains, lucent water, constantly dropping, and sometimes flowsince it is dry in the hot season. Few paces beyond is ing, from a stratum of rock. Proceeding further, we placed the curious Patal Gunga, or subterranean Ganges, find a black marble image of a hog. Here we must which can only be examined by the light of torches, and pause, and, before hurrying on into the temple of the small earthen lamps called churajs ; descending Neelknuth, standing on the south of Kalinjur, cast a carefully an abrupt and rugged flight of steps we ob- glance at the surrounding landscape which stretches, tain, as we pass through little apertures in the rock, like a huge panorama, beyond. glimpses of a fearful precipice without, descending per- Immediately in the vicinity of Kalinjur the country is pendicularly down to the depth of eight hundred feet. low, flat, and marshy, until the middle of the cold seaForty feet below the level of the rock the termination of son. The hills on which the fort is built descend, clothed the steps is reached, and the traveller finds himself in a with verdure, to the plain, now stretching out into a care of impenetrable darkness, which the light of the sort of terrace, now abruptly descending ; now we behold torches fails sufficiently to illumine. When the eye be-slopes covered with jungle and its festooning creepers ; comes more accustomed to the dim light, a reservoir of and now groves of peepul or tamarind trees, with their water is perceived, which, though doubtless somewhat waving blossoms, on the boughs of which the baya and enlarged by manual labour, was first formed by water other birds, of every variety of plumage, cluster and dropping from the rock. It is cold, clear, limpid, and warble their songs through the air. On the plains the deep. By rufling it with the hand into tiny waves the cattle feeding seem, from the elevated position from lamps are floated over its surface to the furthest ex- which the view is obtained, as no larger than sheep, and tremity, and thus a perfect view is obtained of the in- the Bundelas tending them like a pigmy race. Fields terior of the cave, to the roof of which the bats cling, of the cotton plant, waving their white blossoms to the or whiz and flutter overhead, and, by their nauseous fanning breeze, spread like broad sheets of water hero effluvia, send one back again as soon as possible up the and there. The forest rises abruptly from the plain ; flight of steps.

and here, again, the vision is bounded by a narrow chain Passing on yet further along the wall, through ruined of hills, and here a lake sparkles in the rays of the sun. openings here and there, we obtain glimpses of dizzy Withdrawing our gaze from the country, we pursuo heights, descending precipitously to the plains. Dis- our course without the ramparts. Descending a flight lodging a large stone of about one hundred-weight, and of steps cut from the rock, we perceive, on our passage rolling it down the hill, it is amusing to mark its course down, numerous inscriptions and ancient sculptures, and as it rushes madly on, bounding, rebounding, and bound-at length arrive at a subterraneous reservoir, hewn, after ing again, from shelf to shelf, finding no resting-place considerable labour, from the rock, of which the pillars on the abrupt side of the hills, dashing out a sheet of are left to support the upper part. It extends further fire at each collision with the rock, until it rumbles into than the eye can reach. The water is very deep, and the forest below, rousing up a succession of echoes, and drips constantly over the temple, which is below. Defrightening with its fearful noise the black monkeys, scending another flight of steps, we meet with a huge whose agitation is discernible by the uneasy motion of mutilated sculpture. The temple of Neelknuth is a the trees, as in their dismay they leap from bough to semicircular cave, about twenty-eight feet in diameter,

excavated in the solid rock. The figure of Neelknuth | abruptly, he retired into the thickets above the first is a large hyena painted black, with two ill-shaped range of hills, in which he concealed himself, and with silver eyes, about three feet in height, and two in cir- his followers from time to time made inoursions below, cumference. In front is a slab of black marble, on which rushing down upon the plains, spreading confusion and is a Sanscrit inscription, rendered partly illegible by the dismay around, and then suddenly retreating and grains having been macerated upon it. It is supposed taking refuge in the rugged valley between the first and to commemorate the deeds of Rajah Purmaul, and ap- second range of the Vindyan hills. The marauding pears to have been engraved 669 years ago. Many attacks of Gopal Singh continued at intervals to disturb sentences and proverbs can, however, still be de- the quiet, and delay the pacific settlement of the ciphered.

country. After retiring now and then, suddenly We now find ourselves again near the main gate, by attacking the enemy opposed to him, and making the which we entered, and passing onward, come to the most audacious enterprises, and being pursued up the ancient palace of Rajah Chuttur Saul, which is now con- hills, he was at length surprised in his hiding-place by verted into a powder magazine. At a short distance Captain Wilson, with a squadron of native infantry, stands a Hindoo temple, with a dome, surrounded by three first battalions of the 16th native infantry, and capolas and ancient gateways. The Koth Teeruth, an three companies of the 7th, &c., in the second range immense reservoir of water, about a hundred yards above the Ghauts. He contrived, however, to escape, and long, and forty broad, lies near here. It is excavated retired to the south, where he was again pursued, his from the rock, and supplied by copious springs. Near followers routed and dispersed, while he contrived to this is another tank, also hewn from the rock. The escape into the jungle, where he remained with his waters are, however, mineral, and unwholesome. Be- men. Still unsubdued, soon after he emerged again sides this, numerous other tanks are distributed through from his hiding-place, and continued to descend from the fort.

the hills, but was once more compelled to retreat, Kalinjur, on which so much patient labour has been Colonel Brown being apprised of his position, secretly expended, will probably never again be required for the moved near him, and came suddenly upon the enemy's purposes of war, since it requires far too considerable a camp, pitched at the head of the Dowani Pass, in the force to garrison it. It stands a glorious ruin, belong- Marao hills, on the bed of what was once a swamp, ing to the past, and will long constitute at once an ob- protected by a thick wood on either side, and only to be ject of curiosity and admiration to travellers. The reached by ascending steep and narrow defiles. A height on which it is erected—the precipices by which volley suddenly fired upon the camp, first warned the it is surrounded—the far landscape over which the eye enemy of the vicinity of their pursuers. They rose and can roam—the excavations—the palaces—the subter- fled, without attempting resistance. Gopal Sing, stripranean caverns—the images of idols and pagan gods-ped of all his resources, a solitary fugitive, his followers all suggest boundless themes for meditation, and days routed and dispersed, at length became weary of the might, therefore, be spent in wandering about its ruins. desperate life he had been leading, and now proffered his Kalinjur, after once resisting a brilliant attack, was at submission to the British, who granted him a jaghir in length ceded to the British, and the stronghold whose the district of Panwari, which is still occupied by his walls had resisted Mahmood of Ghuzni, and sustained a descendants. siege of ten years from Ali Bahadur, thus became a Bundelkund, possessing few marauders of its own, British possession. However, after a brief occupancy as from its exposed position, seems to invite aggressions a military post, it was finally abandoned.

from those of neighbouring States. The deeds of these There is, besides, & magnificent fortress, built upon a gentlemen, whether under the denomination of Thugs et small projection of the Vindyan range, overlooking, any other name, have been the theme of travellers on either side, two enormously deep glens, through for ages. Instances are continually narrated illustra which the two branches of the Dussera river deseend tive of their extraordinary patience, perseverance, cutover the table-lands of Bundelkund. This fort cost ning, and the daring with which they often commit more than a million pounds sterling in constructing their crimes in the very midst, sometimes, of armed The works form an acute triangle, with the base to- men, and carry off their prey under the most perilous wards the table-land, and the two ends hanging perpen- circumstances. They prevail more or less all ovet dicularly over the glen, with the apex pointing to the India, and in Bundelkund peculiar facilities are course of the stream, as they again unite and pass afforded in its forests, rocks, and caves. In spite of through a deep chasm into the plains. The place is now their oil-rubbed slippery bodies, however, they are fredeserted, and the town occupied only by a police to keep quently outwitted and caught. The night-watchers off marauders.

spring mostly from the same class, and though aeeusBundelkund has not been so much infested by orga- tomed in their youth to the practice of thieving, yet nised bands of freebooters as some other neighbouring when reclaimed, display extraordinary faithfulness, and provinces. It is not, however, wholly free from them. execute their task of chasing and catching the robbet Gopal Singh, the military adventurer who usurped the very cleverly, thus aptly illustrating the old proverb district of Kotra, the lawful inheritance of Rajah Bakht “ Set a thief to catch a thief.” On a dry arid plain Sing, the descendant of Chutter Saul, has been a the traces of their footsteps are scarcely discernible, source of infinite annoyance and trouble. The British save to those accustomed from their youth to catel such took the part of the Rajah, and despatched a detach- signs of visitation. ment to put him again in possession of his rights. A night-watcher was once employed to cateh a thief Gopal Singh came into camp, hastily proffered submis- who had committed some depredations, and carried off sion, and as hastily repented again, for, departing the plate-service of some officers in garrison at Kotra; He

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