Puslapio vaizdai

freedom of conversation by a few simple instincts of the line of my duties to nourish any moral of real good breeding. Good breeding—what is anxiety in that direction. To talk seemed then in it? There is no need in this place to answer that the same category as to sleep; not an accomplishquestion comprehensively; it is sufficient to say, ment, but a base physical infirmity. As a moralthat it is made up chiefly of negative elements; ist, I really was culpably careless upon the whole that it shows itself far less in what it prescribes, subject. I cared as little what absurdities men than in what it forbids. Now, even under this practised in their vast tennis courts of conversalimitation of the idea, the truth is—that more tion, where the ball is flying backwards and forwill be done for the benefit of conversation by the wards to no purpose for ever, as what tricks Engsimple magic of good manners (that is, chiefly lishmen might play with their monstrous national by a system of forbearances), applied to the beset- debt. Yet at length what I disregarded on any ting vices of social intercourse, than ever was or principle of moral usefulness, I came to make an can be done by all varieties of intellectual power object of the profoundest interest on principles of assembled upon the same arena. Intellectual | art. Betting, in like manner, and wagering, graces of the highest order may perish and con- which apparently had no moral value, and for found each other when exercised in a spirit of ill that reason had been always slighted as inconsitemper, or under the license of bad manners: derable arts (though, by the way, they always whereas, very humble powers, when allowed to had one valu ble use, viz., that

evading quarexpand, themselves colloquially in that genial rels, since a bet summarily intercepts an altercafreedom which is possible only under the most tion), rose suddenly into a philosophic rank, when absolute confidence in the self-restraint of your successively, Huyghens, the Bernoullis, and De 'collocutors, accomplish their purpose to a cer- Moivre, were led by the suggestion of these trivial tainty, if it be the ordinary purpose of liberal practices amongst men, to throw the light of a high amusement, and have a chance of accomplishing mathematical analysis upon the whole doctrine it, even when this purpose is the more ambitious of Chances. Lord Bacon had been led to remark one of communicating knowledge or exchanging the capacities of conversation as an organ for sharpnew views upon truth.

ening one particular mode of intellectual power. In my own early years, having been formed by Circumstances, on the other hand, led me into nature too exclusively and morbidly for solitary remarking the special capacities of conversation, thinking, I observed nothing. Seeming to have as an organ for absolutely creating another mode eyes, in reality I saw nothing. But it is a matter of power. Let a man have read, thought, studied, of no very uncommon experience—that, whilst the as much as he may, rarely will he reach his posmere observers never become meditators, the mere sible advantages as a ready man, unless he has meditators, on the other hand, may finally ripen exercised his powers much in conversation—that into close observers. Strength of thinking, through was Lord Bacon's idea. Now, this wise and uselong years, upon innumerable themes, will have the ful remark points in a direction, not objective, effect of disclosing a vast variety of questions, to but subjective—that is, it does not promise any which it soon becomes apparent that answers are absolute extension to truth itself, but only some lurking up and down the whole field of daily ex- greater facilities to the man who expounds or difperience; and thus an external experience which fuses the truth. Nothịng will be done for truth was slighted in youth, because it was a dark cipher objectively that would not at any rate be done, but that could be read into no meaning, a key that subjectively it will be done with more fluency, and answered to no lock, gradually becomes interest- at less cost of exertion to the doer. On the coning as it is found to yield one solution after an- trary, my own growing reveries on the latent other to problems that have independently ma- powers of conversation (which, though a thing tured in the mind. Thus, for instance, upon the that then I hated, yet challenged at times unaspecial functions of conversation, upon its powers, voidably my attention) pointed to an absolute its laws, its ordinary diseases, and their appro- birth of new insight into the truth itself, as inpriate remedies, in youth I never bestowed a separable from the finer and more scientific exerthought or a care. I viewed it-not as one cise of the talking art. It would not be the brilamongst the gay ornamental arts of the intellect, liancy, the ease, or the adroitness of the expounder but as one amongst the dull necessities of business. that would benefit, but the absolute interests of Loving solitude too much, I understood too little the thing expounded. A feeling dawned on me the capacities of colloquial intercourse. And of a secret magic lurking in the peculiar life, thus it is, though not for my reason, that most velocities, and contagious ardour of conversation, people estimate the intellectual relations of conver- quite separate from any which belonged to books ; sation. Let these, however, be what they may, one arming a man with new forces, and not merely thing seemed undeniable that this world talked with a new dexterity in wielding the old ones. I a great deal too much. It would be better for all felt, and in this I could not be mistaken, as too parties, if nine in every ten of the winged words, certainly it was a fact of my own experience, that fying about in this world (Homer's epea ptero- in the electric kindling of life between two minds, enta) had their feathers clipped amongst men, or and far less from the kindling natural to conflict even amongst women, who have a right to a larger (though that also is something), than from the allowance of words. Yet, as it was quite out of kindling through sympathy with the object dismy power to persuade the world into any such cussed, in its momentary coruscation of shifting Belf-denying reformation, it seemed equally out phases, there sometimes arise glimpses, and shy

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revelations of affinity, suggestion, relation, ana- reader. In this power, which might be illustrated logy, that could not have been approached largely from the writings of Burke, is seen somethrough any avenues of methodical study. thing allied to the powers of a prophetic seer, who Great organists find the same effect of inspiration, is compelled oftentimes into seeing things, as the same result of power creative and revealing, unexpected by himself as by others. Now in in the mere movement and velocity of their own conversation, considered as to its tendencies and voluntaries, like the heavenly wheels of Milton, capacities, there sleeps an intermitting spring of throwing off fiery flakes and bickering flames; such sudden revelation, showing much of the same these impromptu torrents of music create rapturous general character ; a power putting on a characfioriture, beyond all capacity in the artist to regis- ter essentially differing from the character worn ter, or afterwards to imitate. The reader must by the power of books. be well aware that many philosophic instances If, then, in the colloquial commerce of thought, exist where a change in the degree makes a there lurked a power not shared by other modes .change in the kind. Usually this is otherwise; of that great commerce, a power separate and the prevailing rule is, that the principle subsists sui generis, next it was apparent that a great art unaffected by any possible variation in the amount must exist somewhere, applicable to this power; or degree of the force. But a large class of ex- not in the Pyramids, or in the tombs of Thebes, ceptions must have met the reader, though, from but in the unwrought quarries of men's minds, so want of a pencil, he has improperly omitted to many and so dark. There was an art missing. write them down in his pocket-book-cases, viz., If an art, then an artist missing. If the art (as where upon passing beyond a certain point in the we say of foreign mails) were “ due," then the graduation, an alteration takes place suddenly artist was “due.” How happened it that this in the kind of effect, a new direction is given to great man never made his appearance ? But the power. Some illustration of this truth occurs perhaps he had. Many people think Dr. Johnson in conversation, where a velocity in the movement the exemplar of conversational power. I think of thought is made possible (and often natural), otherwise, for reasons which I shall soon explain, greater than ever can arise in methodical books ; and far sooner I should look for such an exemplar and where, 2dly, approximations are more ob- in Burke. But neither Johnson nor Burke, vious and casily effected between things too however they might rank as powers, was the remote for a steadier contemplation. One re- artist that I demanded. Burke valued not at all markable evidence of a specific power lying hid in the reputation of a great performer in converconversation may be seen in such writings as sation : he scarcely contemplated the skill as have moved by impulses most nearly resembling having a real existence; and a man will never be those of conversation ; for instance, in those of an artist who does not value his art, or eren reEdmund Burke. For one moment, reader, pause cognise it as an object distinctly defined. Johnupon the spectacle of two contrasted intellects, son, again, relied sturdily upon his natural Burke's and Johnson's; one an intellect essen- powers for carrying him aggressively through all tially going forward, governed by the very neces- conversational occasions or difficulties that sity of growth-by the law of motion in advance; English society, from its known character and the latter, essentially an intellect retrogressive, composition, could be supposed likely to bring retrospective, and throwing itself back on its own forward, without caring for any art or system of steps. This original difference was aided acci- rules that might give further effect to that power. dentally in Burke by the tendencies of political If a man is strong enough to knock down ninetypartisanship, which, both from moving amongst nine in a hundred of all antagonists, in spite of any moving things and uncertainties, as compared advantages as to pugilistic science which they with the more stationary aspects of moral philo- may possess over himself, he is not likely to care sophy, and also from its more fluctuating and for the improbable case of a hundredth man fiery passions, must unavoidably reflect in greater appearing with strength equal to his own, superlife the tumultuary character of conversation. added to the utmost excess of that artificial skill The result from these original differences of in- which is wanting in himself. Against such a tellectual constitution, aided by these secondary contingency it is not worth while going to the differences of pursuit, is, that Dr. Johnson never, cost of a regular pugilistic training.

Half & in any instance, Grows a truth before your century might not bring up a case of actual call eyes, whilst in the act of delivering it, or mov- for its application. Or, if it did, for a single ing towards it. All that he offers up to the extra case of that nature, there would always be end of the chapter he had when he began. But to a resource in the extra (and, strictly speaking, Burke, such was the prodigious elasticity of his foul) arts of kicking, scratching, pinching, and thinking, equally in his conversation and in his tearing hair. writings, the mere act of movement became the The conversational powers of Johnson were principle or cause of movement. Motion propa- narrow in compass, however strong within their gated motion, and life threw off life. The very own essential limits. As a conditio sine qua non, violence of a projectile, as thrown by him, caused he did not absolutely demand a personal contrait to rebound in fresh forms, fresh angles, dictor by way of “stoker" to supply fuel and keep splintering, coruscating, which gave out thoughts up his steam, but he demanded at least a subject as new (and that would at the beginning have teeming with elements of known contradictory been as startling) to himself as they are to his opinion, whether linked to partisanship or not.

His views of all things tended to negation, never / selves indifferent. And the reason that he felt to the positive and the creative. Hence may be thus careless was the desponding taint in his explained a fact, which cannot have escaped any blood. It is good to be of a melancholic temperakeen observer of those huge Johnsonian memora- ment, as all the ancient physiologists held, but bilia which we possess, viz., that the gyration of only if the melancholy is balanced by fiery aspirhis flight upon any one question that ever came ing qualities, not when it gravitates essentially to before him was so exceedingly brief. There was the earth. Hence the drooping, desponding chano process, no evolution, no movements of self-racter, and the monotony of the estimate which conflict or preparation ;-a word, a distinction, a Dr. Johnson applied to life. We were all, in his pointed antithesis, and, above all, a new abstrac view, miserable, scrofulous wretches; the strumous tion of the logic involved in some popular fallacy diathesis” was developed in our flesh, or soon or doubt, or prejudice, or problem, formed the would be ; and but for his piety, which was utmost of his efforts. He dissipated some casual the best indication of some greatness latent within perplexity that had gathered in the eddies of con- him, he would have suggested to all mankind versation, but he contributed nothing to any a nobler use for garters than any which reweightier interest ; he unchoked a strangulated garded knees. In fact, I believe, that but for sewer in some blind alley, but what river is his piety, he would not only have counselled there that felt his cleansing power. There is hanging in general, but hanged himself in no man that can cite any single error which Dr. particular. Now, this gloomy temperament, not Johnson unmasked, or any important truth which as an occasional but as a permanent state, is fatal he expanded. Nor is this extraordinary. Dr. to the power of brilliant conversation, in so far as Johnson had not within himself the fountain of such that power rests upon raising a continual succespower, having not a brooding or naturally philo- sion of topics, and not merely of using with lifesophic intellect. Philosophy in any acquired less talent the topics offered by others. Man is sense he had none. How else could it have hap- the central interest about which revolve all the pened that, upon David Hartley, upon David fleeting phenomena of life : these secondary inHume, upon Voltaire, upon Rousseau, the true or terests demand the first; and with the little knowthe false philosophy of his own day, beyond a per- ledge about them which must follow from little sonal sneer, founded on some popular slander, he care about them, there can be no salient fountain had nothing to say and said nothing? A new world of conversational themes. Pectusid est quod was moulding itself in Dr. Johnson's meridian disertum facit. From the heart, from an interest hours, new generations were ascending, and “other of love or hatred, of hope or care, springs all perpalms were won.” Yet of all this the Doctor manent eloquence ; and the elastic spring of suspected nothing. Countrymen and contempo- conversation is gone, if the talker is a mere showy raries of the Doctor's, brilliant men,

man of talent, pulling at an oar which he detests. think) trifling men, such as Horace Walpole and What an index might be drawn up of subjects Lord Chesterfield, already in the middle of that interesting to human nature, and suggested by eighteenth century, could read the signs of the the events of the Johnsonian period, upon which great changes advancing, already started in hor- the Doctor ought to have talked, and must have ror from the portents which rose before them in talked, if his interest in man had been catholic, Paris, like the procession of regal phantoms be- but on which the Doctor is not recorded to have fore Macbeth, and have left in their letters re- uttered one word ! Visiting Paris once in his life, cords undeniable (such as now read like Cassan- he applied himself diligently to the measuringdra prophecies) that already they had noticed of what? Of gilt mouldings and diapered panels ! tremors in the ground below their feet, and sounds Yet books, it will be said, suggest topics as well in the air, running before the great convulsions as life, and the moving sceneries of life. And under which Europe was destined to rock, full surely Dr. Johnson had this fund to draw upon ? thirty years later. Many instances, during the last No : for though he had read much in a desulwar, showed us that in the frivolous dandy might tory way, he had studied nothing ;* and, withoften lurk the most fiery and accomplished of out that sort of systematic reading, it is but a aides-de-camp; and these cases show that men, rare chance that books can be brought to bear in whom the world sees only elegant roués, some effectually, and yet indirectly, upon conversation ; times from carelessness, sometimes from want of whilst to make them directly and formally the opening for display, conceal qualities of penctrat- subjects of discussion, pre-supposes either a learned ing sagacity, and a learned spirit of observation, audience, or, if the audience is not so, much pesuch as may be looked for vainly in persons of dantry and much arrogance in the talker. more solemn and academic pretension. But there was a greater defect in Dr. Johnson, for purposes

* " Had studied nothing :"-It may be doubted whether of conversation, than merely want of eye for the Dr. Johnson understood any one thing thoroughly, except social phenomena rising around him.

He had no

Latin; not that he understood even that with the elaborate

and circumstantial accuracy required for the editing critieye for such phenomena, because he had a som

cally of a Latin classic. But if he had less than that, he nolent want of interest in them; and why? be- had also more : he possessed that language in a way that no cause he had little interest in man. Having no

extent of mere critical knowledge could confer. He wrote it

genially, not as one translating into it painfully from sympathy with human nature in its struggles, or English, but as one using it for bis original organ of faith in the progress of man, he could not be sup- thinking. And in Latin verse he expressed himself at posed to regard with much interest any forerun

times with the energy and freedom of a Roman. With

Greek, his acquaintance was far more slender, and had not ning symptoms of changes that to him were them- | been much cultivated after his youthful days.

but (as many


INDIA, considered as one magnificent whole, now fills turn was removed by the poinard of the assassin, or the a large place in the public mind, yet it is only when poisoned chalice of a rival, or fell in battle against the insurrections, sanguinary battles, or fierce intestine dis- ruler of some neighbouring district. The forts scattered cords, imperatively demand our interference, that its over the face of the province are themselves chroniclers, several parts are subjected to a minute and detailed sur- which, with their origin buried in profound antiquity, vey. Affyhanistan, while our occupation of the pro- testify at once to the early date of the battles fought, and vince was debated—Gwalior, when it placed the peace of the continual apprehension in which princes must hare India in jeopardy--and Scinde, during that period in existed, who required strongholds so stupendous to prowhich the cause of its Ameers was espoused by so many tect them from the incursions of the enemy. Quixotic politicians—became each in its turn an object British rule has at length established peace, by dividof all-absorbing interest ; and now the Punjaub, from the ing the province into small principalities or jaghirs, unlong series of intrigues, murders, assassinations, and der so many petty rajahs. glorious victories, won by British valour, of which it has Inquiry into Bundela history was first prompted ty been the scene, challenges the attention not only of poli- the remains of the forts of Kalinghur and l'jee Ghur, ticians but of all Christendom.

which were supposed to contain antiquities belonging to Bundelkund possesses at the present moment no such a very remote period. The most diligent account enclaims upon our notice. It has relapsed, after centuries tered upon with enthusiasm for some time, appeared of internal and external warfare, into a state of repose ; destined to be attended with little or no success, yielding, but for that very reason we have seized upon this inter- as it did, information of a vague and doubtful character, val of tranquility to take a calm survey of its aspect and which scemed rather to excite than allay curiosity. An condition. For, from the recent events in the East, we ancient manuscript, termed the Kshurl Purk-ash, at are convinced that the necessity exists of drawing more length came to light, which recorded at once the succesimmediately within the sphere of the general reader's ob- sion of the carly rajahs, and the wars in which they were servation, not only those provinces which, having lately engaged, thus affording a brilliant opportunity for the been the scene of turbulence and anarchy, are, by this bard Lal to expatiate in glowing terms on the intrepemeans, as it were, forced upon our notice, but those also dity and heroism of the brave Bundelas, whose valour, lying farther removed from the beaten track, but which however, has for ages been expended in the internal may, and that at no distant day, perhaps become them- quarrels periodically arising among its various rulers, selves objects of interest, by being converted into the and the resistance of incursions made by marauders from field of important industrial operations.

the neighbouring districts, and to which the country has I'rom the moment when Colonel Goddard, with his long been subject. army, marched through Bundelkund to effect a diversion Bundelkund is an elevated table-land, lying between in favour of the government of Bombay, then engaged the 24th and 26th degrees of north latitude, extending in war with the Peshwâ, this province has, in some over a space of eleven thousand square miles, bounded ly way or another, proved a constant source of uneasiness the river Jumna to the north, by portions of the great to our British rulers. It has been found necessary to Vindyan chain on the south and south-east, with Male put down rebellion after rebellion, to crush outbreak wah to the west, and Allahabad to the east. It is after outbreak, to depose first one rajah and then an- watered by the Jumna, the Sone, the Betwah, the other, while each succeeding year has ushered in, with its Tonse, and the Ken, which intersect the whole district advent, fresh anarchy and renewed scenes of lawless dis- in a northerly but meandering course.

Four parallel turbances.

ranges of the Vindyan hills, each successively supportThe cession of Bundelkund by the Peshwâ did not at ing a table-land rising one above the other, and separated once sufice to restore tranquility. Nor can we feel by narrow valleys and slips of cultivated country, sweep much surprise at the difficulty experienced by a state so in an irregular course round Bundelkund proper, which long the hotbed of intrigue, and which has passed forms the valley at their feet, and undergoing, as it prothrough so lengthened an ordeal of misrule, in accom-ceeds, several changes of name, the grand chain being modating itself to so entirely a new order of things. called the Tamean hills, from Talada to Belehrea, while Peace could only be established when the tribes, weary thence eastward it takes the appellation of Kinwarra. of warfare, determined to apply themselves to the pur- The aspect presented by these mountains, viewed from suits of agriculture, and guide the plough over the fer- the table-lands of Bundelkund, is bold and striking in tile valley, instead of wielding the sword in defence of the extreme, reminding us of a fine sea-coast landscape. predatory chiefs or turbulent rajahs.

The eye rests upon a succession of mural precipices, Our intention is not just now to dwell upon the events towering to the height of seven hundred feet above the of Bundela history. Suffering our eyes, however, to re- valley, in so abrupt and perpendicular an ascent, that a vert for a moment to the past, and setting aside the man possessed of a steady eye, and boasting a tolerat le fables which are entangled in the early history of Bun- amount of nerves, might stand on the summit and susdelkund, we discover the same string of revolts, dethrone- pend a plummet in his hand that would reach the botments, assassinations, insurrections, rebellions, family tom uninterrupted in its course by any projecting cliff. contentions, intestine discords, and petty intrigues, which | Occasionally the rocks receding from the main line form more or less mark the annals of all eastern provinces. in their course onward a rugged bay, others again sudRajah after rajah ascended the musnud, and each in his denly stretch forth towards the table-lands, a point of roek which resembles a rude promontory. Here and there | leums and temples, whose domes glitter in the sunbeams. the continuity of the range is disturbed by the rending The most valuable commodity of the province, its suin twain of a giant crag almost from the summit perb cotton, in full bloom, waves its white blossoms in to its roots, thus forming a huge chasm, apparently the wind. At intervals, a stupendous mountain rises split by some sudden eruption of waters from the country abruptly out of the cultivated land, and majestically lying beyond, which, having as suddenly subsided, left towers aloft, cased in jungle, with its heights crowned traces alone in the shape of yawning gulphs. The sum- by a fringe of brambles and bushes, straggling over the mit line of the mountains is, in general, neither very black rock encircling its rugged head. broken nor very irregular ; occasionally gradual descents These solitary hills are thickly strewn over the pormay be seen, but, for the most part, the hills abruptly tion of Bundelkund contiguous to the Vindyan range ; terminate in small level plains, fringed with overhanging some lying to the left, others to the right; some scattered black rocks, as though by some convulsion of nature the apart; others, again, standing close to each other, thus cones had been carried away.

forming narrow rounding defiles, and now offering to view The isolated mountains and solitary hills, which rear a chasm, through which we obtain glimpses of more their heads at intervals in the midst of green cultivation, tranquil scenery beyond ; green plains, rich slopes, cotare extremely picturesque. They seem, indeed, to be ton plantations, wheat and barley fields, lakes and rivers entirely unconnected with any other mountains, but this -on whose banks are strewed towns, filled by a bold and appearance is deceptive, for they constitute, in fact, por- daring race of men, and villages, in which the several tions of ranges stretching out to the north, which processes of industry are carried on. Permitting our alternately disappear and emerge again, sometimes in thoughts to wander further, and allowing our imagination continuous chains, diverging from the apex of the bay, to penetrate into these hamlets, we behold, as sunset like the rays of a star, or, to use a more familiar expres- melts over the landscape, the children at play beneath sion, like the spokes of a wheel.

the trees, on whose boughs the beautiful baya bird, with On two of the most stupendous mountains detached its rich plumage, nestles unmolested within the reach from the Vindyan range are erected the celebrated forts of the hands of these youthful Bundelas. We hear, in of Ujeeghur and Kalinghur.

t'se hush of twilight, the sweet tones of the guitar, * In this province the variety of scenery is infinite. blended with a rich mellow voice, above which occasionCasting a hurried glance around, as we pause in our ally rises the roar of the tiger in some neighbouring descent down the hill on which Dhamonee with its for- jungle, the scream of the monkey, the thrilling notes of tress is erected, the eye wanders over scenes of extreme the forest birds, or the ceaseless murmur of the distant loveliness, unshaded by mist or floating vapours, but waterfall. standing forth in that rich distinction of outline so This fertile province is irrigated by several large peculiar to Indian landscape. Our imagination is now rivers, and innumerable rivulets, which, taking their awed by the majesty and grandeur developed on one rise on the hill sides, are met in their passage down by side, and fascinated by the sylvan pictures unfolding numberless smaller tributaries triekling over the rocks. themselves on another. To our right and to our left, Uniting together, these mountain torrents form a stream immediately below, we gaze down into two deep glens, of moderate size, which, flowing out over the rich loamy in which the murmuring sound of gushing waters makes soil, serves to increase its productiveness, and, it has a continual music, as it rolls on its sullen course to join been supposed by some, to render the labours of irrigathe river on the plain. The cool freshness constantly tion almost unnecessary. In some parts of the province, maintained in these recesses, seldom, if ever, visited by however, this method of fertilising the earth is certainly the sun's rays, favours the growth of plants and vegeta- carried on to some extent. tion which would not thrive in more exposed positions. The Jumna takes its rise in the vast Himalayan A rich cultivation consequently extends over the strip of range, and, running in a parallel line with the Ganges, level country running on either side, down to the very skirts the northern side of Bundelkund. Many tributary verge of both branches of the Dussera river, which, streams swell its waters as it rolls on; amongst others, after passing through the glens, again unite and pass the Chumbul, a river of some size. After a winding onwards through a deep chasm to water the plain of course of 780 miles, in a bed deeper and broader than Bundelkund.

that of the Ganges, the Jumna unites near the city of Everywhere evidences of the care bestowed upon the Allahabad with the holy stream, which henceforth abprocesses of agriculture, the attention given to cultiva- sorbs its name. tion, manifests itself. the slopes of the smiling The Sonar river intersects the whole province in a valleys, formed by the undulating surface of the country, northerly direction, passing near the town of Banda, foliage of the richest and brightest hues may be seen. and finally projecting itself into the Ken. The source The lively green of the small coppice wood and stunted of the latter river is in a portion of the Vindyan range, bushes melts away into the darker shades of the jungle, near the village of Mohar, and about twenty-five miles extending in patches over a great portion of the pro- from the Nerbudda. It meanders in a north-easterly vince. Every now and then a meandering rivulet course, passing through the Banda hills, and forming a sparkles as the sun shines upon it, and winds its glittering cataract near Ripariya. Its course is then westerly, course, like a thread of gold, through valleys, and woods, until joined by the Pahil Bearma and Mirhassya rivers, and forests, at whose feet often stretches a broad clear the united streams are precipitated over a cataract sheet of water, partially covered with the red lotus, and near the village of Senghora. The Ken foams fringed at its edges with delicate shrubs, fragrant and henceforward through a deep narrow channel, worn beautiful beyond description. Mango groves cluster beyond, and from above their rich foliage peep forth mauso- * A favourite instrument among the Bundelas.

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