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are said to be eighteen thousand qualifications. I nearly one-third of the Scotch, are new men. In Some of them may be held by females. In other England the proportion is very great. They are instances different premises may be held by the therefore powerful, and must be cautiously critisame individual. It is, however, obvious that cised. At one time Mr. O'Connor was particuthe constituency should number thirteen thou- larly pungent, but latterly his agitations hare sand to fifteen thousand persons; the largest in taken the shape greatly of home colonisation, and Scotland, where there are no voters except on we really need a few men in the House of Comthe qualification of the Reform Bill—no freemen, mons who will advocate the claims of men against and where, consequently, tlie electoral bodies are sheep, deer, and muir-fowl, to a portion of this numerically smaller than in England. The Glas- habitable earth in exchange for payment. Mr. gow election was, however, decided by four thou- Thompson is an eloquent popular speaker ; but sand votes. Four thousand individuals asked so have been others who were never distinguished enrolment as voters, but they were too late for in the House of Commons when they got there. the last contest. Other, six thousand value the He will have to fight a stiff battle with a prejuelectoral privilege at less than half-a-crown; diced audience on some of his favourite topics-a and will not eren take it for nothing, which they struggle that needs nerve. Mr. Pearson is, we might do, since in Glasgow the shabby fashion presume, a good man of business, necessarily acseems to prevail of allowing the candidates to pay quainted with city corruption. the expense of registering their supporters-a These three new members are counted amongst small bribe, certainly, compared with the expen- the Liberal supporters of the ministry by an diture in many English towns, but still a bribe of error, or rather by the want of a column, which two shillings and sixpence.

applies to many other members.

This deficiency The English elections presented a few returns, is one cause of the difficulty which exists in ascalculated to overset altogether the calculations certaining the precise strength of parties ; beand equanimity of trading politicians. Ministerial cause one can scarcely say how many members newspapers declared that official personages would classed as Liberals may ultimately vote. always be selected from the representatives of The spontaneous election of Mr. Villiers for small boroughs, because Lambeth, the Tower South Lancashire, and Mr. Cobden for the Hamlets, and Nottingham, preferred private gen- West Riding of Yorkshire, in the absence of the tlemen to members of the Government. Mr. former gentleman from the hustings, and of the Hawes had represented Lambeth for several latter from the country, have told most emphatiParliaments. General Fox considered himself cally the opinion of these great constituencies. secure in the Tower Hamlets. Sir John Cam Whether Mr. Villiers will abandon his old supHobhouse confided in Nottingham as heritable porters of Wolverhampton, and Mr. Cobden preproperty. All wero disappointed. Lambeth fer the West Riding to Stockport, are questions preferred Mr. Pearson. The Tower Hamlets to be solved. In whatever way they decide two were quite decided for George Thompson. Not- seats have to be filled. They will be eagerly tingham said Feargus O'Connor. The officials sought by some of the gentlemen who are left were displaced by men who are not likely to be out. It has been said that the blacksmiths of oflicials. The Government was beaten by the Wolverhampton intend to correct the error of the oratorios. Desks fell beneath platforms; and fashionables of Bath. But the character of the the popular constituencies are said to be incap- men who will occupy the blanks left by these able of returning official men. The saying is double returns must depend greatly on the choice adopted to excuse defeat. It is thought wiser to of seats that those gentlemen may make for whom cry that popular constituencies are fickle, and constituencies contend in rivalry, like cities for will not tolerate officialmen for their members than the birthplace of Homer. confess that these popular constituencies are anti- There are two lines of policy open for the Caministerial. That, however, is the fact of the binet. One presents coalition with the Peel

The Tower Hamlets would not object to party, hinted at in the appointment of the Earl George Thompson as under-secretary for the of Dalhousie, and a resolute stand on reforms colonies in a government conducted on George accomplished, along with some sewerage acts. Thompson's principles. Lambeth and the Tower Another is the open, onward road which would Hamlets are Radical and perhaps Voluntary, secure for them the hearty aid of all the men while the Government is neither Radical nor who are at present classed as their supporters. Voluntary. As to Nottingham, it may be diffi- We feel assured that they will adopt the crooked cult to describe its sentiments ; but whatever path : it is so much a matter of habit and repute they may be, it seems determined to take its own with them. And yet it is a troublesome path of way.

one of divided honours only and certainly It is always dangerous to predict the fate of double danger. Any advantage attainable by a new members. They are casting their fame, if union with the ruins of the late government would they have any, into the crucible again, and it be more than balanced by the consequent coldmay be turned out in a dimmed and damaged ness of many of their professed friends.

Good state. It is particularly delicate at the present votes are often given by those who are miserably moment to say a single word that might dispa- annoyed to find a fixed quantity of good patrcnrage this class ; for they are strong in the age divided amongst too many recipients. They House. Nearly one-half of the Irish returns, and know arithmetic £ufficiently to perceive that



thereby these chances are reduced in value fifty | Hume thought the existing establishments of per cent. People feel a fall in the market of that England and Scotland might be preserved so amount on all their stock of patriotism. They long as they continued to be useful, and should cannot be supposed to approve the policy by which only be removed when, like the Irish church, they it has been caused. They easily invent faults. became useless. We remember that the Scottish They are enlightened to enormities on the part church was deemed and called a nuisance some of their old friends that never seemed more than ten years ago.

Since that date it has sustained venial transgressions until they were placed be an Exodus of one-half of its numbers, and more neath the microscopic influence of disappointed than one-half of its strength ; but, like many hopes. A coalition would therefore seem to be plethoric patients, it seems to have improved by not advisable. The Whigs should insist on a “ bleeding." We cannot exactly comprehend connexion and repudiate a coalition, They the grounds on which men stand at present in should claim from their old foes the benefit of a relation to this question, especially in Scotland ; “surrender without terms." They must remem- but we see whether they are to be led by events. ber that Sir Robert Peel becomes daily more un- Can any sane person imagine that the great Irish popular respecting gold and banking—but some Episcopal establishment and the small Irish Presof them share his principle on that question. byterian establishment will fall alone ? Is it Well, then, they should remember that he is conceivable that the Voluntary principle can be pledged to one thing which they cannot promise long adopted in Ireland, and repudiated in Bri-the preservation of the Irish Church. He is tain, under the same government and by the pledged to that as deeply as a statesman can be same legislature? Yet let us not conceal facts. bound to any policy ; but even here again we do There has been much moral cowardice displayed him wrong, for has he not claimed that freedom in that respect already. Earnest endeavours of discretion, and renewed his connexion with have been made to wrap the future up in a double Tamworth on the condition which abrogates all robe of mist—its natural and an artificial darkpledges and dissolves all promises ? So, then, we Those who talk of cutting down the Irish, think a coalition probable. Peel stands with and saving the English and Scottish establishclean hands. He is ready for any party or any ments, either do not consider the tendency of policy. The Sir Dugald Dalgetty of politics he measures, or wilfully mislead their hearers. The strikes hard, and will strike faithfully too—where abolition of the Irish must lead to the removal of there is promotion to be obtained.

the English connexion between Church and

State. We think that opinion may be taken and THE VOLUNTARY QUESTION has been placed in treated as a fact. There may be a few years bea very remarkable position during the election. Itween the events two or three-but they canVoluntaryism everywhere has been shunned like not be many. The Irish connexion of Church the plague-spot. Candidates whose opinions in and State is, we think, in this danger. The its favour were notorious avowed them in the leaders of all the political parties say, mildest form. Their Anti-State Churchism was should endow the priests." The people reply, of the mildest and most deluted proportions. we shall not endow them. That we take to be They would not on any account hazard a vested pretty clearly the language of tho election, interest. With them the benefices of the present Statesmen, we believe, agree in understanding the generation of holders were to be perfectly safe. oracle's response to have that meaning. But They had determined to displace no human being matters cannot continue in their present state. from honours and profits already secured. Even There is no inconsiderable party in the Senate these mild opinions were only to be enforced when favourable to the removal of the Irish establisha convenient opportunity occurred. They were ment. They offer the alternative in the demand quite willing to carry them into operation if that of justice to Ireland ; as an alternative it will be could be done without contention. They had put-and we believe carried, yet it cannot be not the slightest objection to the application of carried alone. The example of Ireland would be their own views, if the public, and especially contagious. The recent debates on the new that portion of the public who oppose them, were Bishopric bill were not calculated to strengthen quite agreeable. One section of the elected wore the church. They exposed blemishes existing their opinions more tightly respecting Ireland without any effort for their reform. The funds and the Irish Church. That part of the case placed at the disposal of the Ecclesiastical Comthey considered to be quite clear. They would missioners had not been employed to enlarge not endow the Roman Catholic priests, and they the small livings of curates in the same proporwould not maintain the existing establishment, tion, that they have been expended in erocting but convert its funds, as benefices became vacant, palaces for bishops. This policy will not to charitable and educational purposes. Such is strengthen the church, when politicians, finding the progress that Voluntaryism has made. The that the people will not permit one of their plans last-named set of representatives are in the most for pacifying Ireland to be adopted, proposo inconsistent position on this subject. They are another. And thus the Voluntary principle may willing to practise Voluntaryism in the poorest be near its adoption at the moment when disland amongst the poorest people, and continue the carded in committee rooms, and disavowed at churches of the poor for the use and benefit of the hustings; it seems to be an outcast from dethe rich in England and Scotland. Even Mr. | cent political society.

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IMPENDING REVOLUTION IN THE DEKKAN.- perty. How to account for this error of judgment Every succeeding arrival from India confirms the we know not. A variety of reasons are current, view which we have taken of Dekkan affairs, and but we wish not to deal with surmises, but with which was submitted to our readers in our August facts. number. It is quite clear and evident that some It was soon evident that Soorajool Moolk had extraordinary exertion must be made to change undertaken more than he would perform. His the present system of management. Lord Ilar- undisciplined and lawless horde of rufans bedinge is not the man to leave such a blank be- came loud and clamorous for their pay, and he hind him. lle will not leave India without trac- had no pay to give them, and not even the ening a distinct line of policy towards the Nizam, couragement or pity of his sovereign. He was in the same broad, comprehensive, liberal, but sorely pressed on all sides, and had no one to look firm spirit which has characterised all his to but General Fraser, who, we think, in an eril measures in that magnificent and most interesting hour gave way to his solicitations, and marched portion of our empire. And were it even possible his troops into Hyderabad ; of course very much that he should waive the subject, we feel con- to the annoyance of the Nizam. It was, at all vinced that his able successor, Lord Dalhousie, events, a most unfortunate morement ; for it was will spare no exertion to redeem the British name designed to overawe an army of starving soldiers, from the obloquy it now suffers by a series of mis- who, after all, were only asking for their due. managements in central India, sufficiently known llis language to the minister should have been, to all our readers.

• Pay your army their arrears, and then if I can We have it on evidence, irresistible and notori- serve you I will; but I will not abet your disous, that there is not on the face of the earth a honesty, or suffer the force under my command to better-inclined or more industrious population aid you in such a barefaced fraud as that which than that which inhabits the Dekkan--mild and you are aiming at." And, having once marched kindly by nature, frugal in diet, and faithful to into the city, and taken his stand by Soojool those that treat them with confidence. The sub- Moolk, it must, indeed, have been lamentable jects of the Nizam are not only most intelligent to see him withdraw his force, amid the and industrious, but, as manufacturers, they are scoffs and insults of the “ Line Walla battalions." extremely ingenious, and, as agriculturists, enter- Time, and, we fear, hard fighting, may have to prising and persevering. This country of im- efface the misfortune of this movement. mense extent, and in almost every respect Thus matters stood early in the month of June, highly enriched by nature, by the fraud and vil- and we look with deep anxiety for further aclany of its rulers, is rendered truly miserable! counts. That something must be done speedily But the time is approaching for a very different there can be no doubt. What that may be a state of things. We are not disposed too severely short space of time must unfold.

Hitherto we to censure the conduct of the British resident have rigidly adhered to our treaties with his HighGeneral Fraser-a man of the kindest feelings, ness, while he has repeatedly broken faith with and whose good intentions few will deny, however How long this one-sided fast-and-loose unfortunate his policy may be considered. connexion may be suffered to continue remains to

The main evil has arisen from treaties with the be seen. Were the question simply confined to Nizam government, by which permission was our Government and the Nizam the matter would granted to maintain a half-civilized and half-dis- be of trifling importance ; but when the welfare ciplined army of thirty or forty thousand men, of millions is at stake, and the peace of India enchiefly composed of unsettled aliens, Arabs, and dangered, it becomes a serious question, whether, Robillas, who never performed any real service with these iniquities before our eyes, with the to the state, but were kept to satisfy a vain show, duties we are expected to perform, we should not and overawe a people. Many of these soldiers, oblige the Nizam to keep his house in better order, by plunder and other means of extortion, have or deprive him of the power of ruling it. With such acquired a large amount of property-while others a country well managed there would soon be an (and these the majority) have received little or no overflowing treasury, and we will venture to afirm pay for 18 or 20 months, and are consequently that in three years all its state debts might be paid. starving; and among the latter are the “ Line The Arabs and Robillas should be settled with in Walla battallions”-ten or twelve thousand men, a liberal spirit; and, to satisfy all demands as now in Hyderabad.

quickly as possible, it would surely not be unIn our opinion, the first mistake General Fra- reasonable to insist on his Highness opening the ser fell into, was in an uncalled-for interference, doors of a treasury hitherto useless. The final against the wishes of the Nizam, in obtaining for location or settlement of these mercenaries will reSoorajool Moolk the post of vuzeer, or prime min- quire particular caution, in reference to the secuister ; for we were bound, by treaty, not to inter- rity and peace of neighbouring provinces. Would fere in such matters--and the result has proved that the “first sod” of a railway could be raised that Soorajool Moolk is in no respect superior to at such a period, and good wages induce these his predecessor, Raim Bukhsh, who has fallen men to exchange their arms for picks and spades! into the power of the Arabs, and lost all his pro




OCTOBER, 1847.

DIRECT TAXATION AND THE SUFFRAGE. THE Reform Bill stretches by experience. In pounds yearly, but which may be mortgaged or its first operation a large majority of Whigs were burthened to the amount of seven, eight, or nine returned to the House of Commons, and the pro- pounds. Generally, the mortgagees will, perhaps, spects of the Tory party were hopeless. Subse- decline to let the burden run over the value of quently they began to reclaim lost ground. They seven pounds annually upon a property of ten found, in the cumbrous machinery of registration, pounds value. It is there, however, to that exthe means of aiding their party, and annoying tent, and the law knows its existence - knows their opponents. Sir Robert Peel, as their leader, its whole history and all the particulars of made attention to the Registration Courts the the case, but closes its one eye on the pages of first political virtue. He accepted the Reform its own records, and the three pounds voter steps Bill when resistance was useless, and immediately up to the polling booth and gives his voice for Ā. told his supporters that the battle of the constitu- B. with all the efficiency of the richest elector. tion, or the battle of corruption, as others under- We do not object to this fact. We do not quarrel stood the term, was to be fought in the Registra- with the extension of the suffrage to the nominal tion Courts; which became thereafter scenes holder of this property. What we do quarrel of hard swearing and deceitful tactics. It was with is its refusal to the real holder, so far as reckoned thoroughly consistent with party mora- that mode and particular of qualification is conlity to lodge objections against the most obviously cerned ; and, still more, its withdrawal from a qualified voters, in the hope that the electors, proprietor, perhaps of three thousand pounds, by by casual absence, or reluctance to be thus the neglect of his errand-boy to pay tenpence or harassed in establishing a notorious fact, might ten shillings of parish rate. The rate-paying be struck from the roll. Some difficulties clauses are the most obvious snares and pitfalls are now practically offered to this line of con- in the bill, and their defence, by the Whigs, has duct, which has proved eminently successful been one main source of their character for doing heretofore, by the allowance of expenses wher- shabby" things. The tax-gatherer does not reever the objections appear to be frivolous. quire a hypothec over a man's conscience or The payment of rates and taxes clauses have privileges in order to recover his claim. He can been made the means of much glaring and ob- sue and distrain, and seize and sell. All the forvious iniquity. We have known a party offi- midable means of recovery secured and maincial retain the accounts of a parish rate from his tained by the law for its own benefit are at his political opponents, and thus succeed in winning disposal ; and his class do not generally require an election for his party on account of the non- to be over delicate in their employment. They payment of rates, averaging tenpence or one never lose a customer by severe measures. An shilling from each of the disfranchised voters. irritated debtor cannot take his own custom, and The payment of rates and taxes has nothing “wile away” that of his relatives and friends to naturally to do with the present qualifications to the rival shop. He must remain on the books vote. We can conceive a qualification, and we and run up his annual score, however hardly he are to propose a qualification where the regular may seem to have been used. The tax-gatherer payment of a man's taxes would be a very proper thus, of all money collectors, has the least reason preliminary to his vote ; but the present qualifica- for extraordinary protections and political facilition should have nothing to do with poor rates or ties of recovery. If the privilege of stopping with minister's money, for it is abundantly evi- debtors on their way to the poll had been vouchdent that votes are often registered for property safed to tailors and shoemakers, we might have by persons who have not the tithe of a qualifica- been less inclined to question its utility ; but that tion in the property from which the qualification privilege in the hands of the tax-gatherer may is drawn. An individual, for example, qualifies be mischievous, but cannot secure a single good on a county roll from property valued at ten | end. The Reform Bill might be very greatly TOL. XI.-NO, CLXVI,

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and advantageously stretched in this direc- In the view that we take of these proceedings, a tion.

meaner juggle or thimble-rig never disgraced The creation of fictitious votes was adopted by gentlemen. There is a remarkable resemblance, one party and imitated by another as the means and yet, no doubt, an essential difference between of working the bill well. Few evils were of more these arrangements and the doings at Doncaster, rapid growth. In several counties the represen- which would bring the transactors under the tatives of fiction on the roll of voters exceeded jurisdiction of the Jockey Club. The manuthose of facts by a fair majority. The system facturers and the acceptors of fictitious votes was exposed in Parliament. Patriotic members adopt—still according to our notion, which is, of moved for the adoption of committees on the sub-course, widely different from their opinion--those ject. Evidence of the most extraordinary cha- means to win, which would entitle gamblers racter was given and published. Still the lie was pursuing similar devices to be styled black-legs wrought, and at last election there can be no on the turf. We admit that, nevertheless, all doubt that many persons, believing themselves to the gentlemen engaged, for example, in the be honourable men, willing to maintain their ve- Peebles-shire farce of representation are extremely racity at any cost, walked or drove up to the hust- honourable and estimable men. We sincerely ings in Scotch counties, and declared as fact, by believe that not one of the landlords named would their vote there, what merely differed from ordi- be guilty of anything that he really considered nary falsehoods by being unusually elaborated. dishonourable for the value of their county. The This evil, we understand, to have been mainly case, therefore, presents a most remarkable esapplicable to one division of the empire--to Scot- ample of the manner in which political consideland. Here its influences were most prejudicial, rations sway the minds of even intelligent men. not merely to the objects of one or more political It is a case better fitted for the curious inquiries parties, which is a minor matter, but to the prin- of moral philosophy professors than any other in ciples of common rectitude and morality. Peebles- modern times of which we have a present rememshire, a small and thinly-peopled county, with a branee. One man gives, and another receives limited constituency, was necessarily more ex- a delusion so palpable that it scarcely merits the posed to evils originating in the working of this name ; and from this collusive film they make a system than any larger district. The real con- solid and substantial vote, putting entirely out of stituency was swamped by the shams—the W.S.'s court and out of fashion the old proverb, “ E. and Advocates from Edinburgh, who were cre- nihilo nihil fit.They proceed in this way, dited with property that they never possessed, not merely with honourable intentions, but and walked to the poll in the borrowed clothes of with the most patriotic purposes. They have the Earl of Traquair or Sir Adam Hay. These neither private nor personal object to serve. fictitious voters, wearing the livery of the land. The whole world understands this fact, or lords by whom they were qualified, necessarily that part of the whole world which really polled by their directions; and it is not the least understands anything whatever on the subject. lamentable part of these proceedings that we They have a party object to serve, but that find the names of many gentlemen of the ut- is public and patriotic. They are for their most respectability in all transactions of pri- party because their party is for their country. vate life engaged in an obvious political fraud And for this end they get up such a series of dowhich is perpetrated often in this manner: the cuments as in an ordinary accounting would put landlord who desires an extension of the suffrage Mr. Commissioner Foublanque, we fear, in a very applies to his agent, generally an Edinburgh pretty passion, and send the person before him W.S., who makes out dispositions from the estate to rusticate for a considerable portion of the year on life rents, in his own favour, and that of others without a certificate. The purest motives are still who will accept them. Bills are taken in pay the inciting motives. The Reform Bill is stretched ment. These bills are, however, never paid. —the suffrage illimitably extended : the bills and The interest on the sum is never settled. But I leases are docqueted, crossed and re-crossed, for no the landlord—the Earl of Traquair, or the Sir other purpose whatever than to beat the rival candiAdam Hay of the lease—has no desire whatever date, whose election might lead to the suppression to part with any portion of his property ; and of the constitution, the destruction of the envy of accordingly he becomes tenant of his own tenant surrounding nations, the annihilation of the Briat a rent which exactly balances the interest that tish Lion, with the total and permanent eclipse of should be paid on the bills ; so the only hard cash the Sun of England. entering into the transaction is the price of the bill In common with an ingenuous public, and all stamp, the fee to the lawyer, and the cost of regis- who lose by these transactions, we deeply regret tration. A free and independent elector may that the said constitution, the Lion and the Sun, thus be manufactured for one guinea or thereby; cannot be supported by practices consistent with and the Earl of Traquair may be the tenant of common honesty. The decision of Sheriff Napier, his own shrubbery or barnyard. Any gentleman at the Peebles Registration Court, swept one hunwho represents a county in Parliament, through dred and fifty fictitious voters from the roll of Hy majority acquired by this class of votes, may this small county alone. This decision may not he, in point of fact, the representative of his own be sustained in the Appeal Court, but it shows qemesne, parcelled out amongst a number of life that there exist certain obstacles to this mode renters, and re-leased from them at prime cost. of stretching the Reform Bill and extending the

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