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M. WILLM AND PROFESSOR NICHOL ON THE
EDUCATION OF THE PEOPLE.
THE work before us, which has been edited and partly written by Dr. Nichol, is not of the description which that gentleman's previous publications might have led us to expect. Instead of being a general essay, dealing only with the larger truths connected with the subject, and surveying from an eminence the great social consequences of the diffusion of education, it is really one which has descended among the details of the work, exhibiting how all educational processes ought to be conducted, in order to realise the high end which, according to M. Willm, education ought to propose, viz., the development and exercise in youth of all the higher sentiments and faculties of our human nature. From the peculiar character
of the book, it is, as Dr. Nichol esteems it, in the meantime, unique in our literature; and we can only desire that all our teachers, of whatever class, or whatever their special object, imbue themselves with M. Willm's spirit, and accommodate their action to his precepts. They will find in them, indeed, little that is merely technical, and no fixed and unbending rules proposed for their acceptance, with the dogmatic air of the pedagogue, but every important process is described and estimated, and every practical difficulty discussed and resolved in subservience to the end of all teaching-that, viz., of elevating the character and expanding the mind, with a view to all subsequent duties of the young entrusted to them. It is not in our power to notice more than a few characteristics of this important publication.
I. With a vigour much more determinate than we have elsewhere met with, the author and editor both take their stand upon the truth, that whatever is accomplished by Government or otherwise in respect of education, must be emphatically for THE EDUCATION OF THE PEOPLE. They claim that on views which assume this generality, not merely because the people, rightly so called, far outnumber any special class, but because no proper system, whose aim is to establish a fundamental education, can have as its characteristic any provision which should fit it more for one class of society than for another-far less can it be exclusive, or burdened with arrangements that would prevent the extension of its benefits to all classes.
"One cannot miss observing that, if the foregoing is a true statement of the object and aim of Education, our attempts to establish a practical and worthy scheme can never have a special or limited character, but must always assume the form of an effort to provide an Education emphatically for the PEOPLE. This forming, or rather developing of a mind, in which the task essentially consists, is dependent in nowise either on the social condition or social destination of that mind; it is a duty to be performed towards it, simply because it is endowed with our common human nature; and the fulfilment of that duty is commended to every selfish civil polity, simply by the fact, that the acquisition gained to society by means of the right culture of the individuals composing it, is a substantial and high acquisition-whatever the social conditions within which they may be placed. Doubtless, there is also a special or professional Education-an Education that should be moulded according to the probable social destination of the mind reted on, or by its relation with those classee that, in the present stage of civilisation, nccessarily exist
within every community; but the time required for this special Education is comparatively so small, its difficulties so inconsiderable, and its total effects-viewing it as part condition of this country at least, no serious harm could of a great whole-so little important, that in the existing arise by our intrusting it to those irregular and voluntary endeavours which every community, possessed of any intelligence, is sufficiently apt to realise for itself. The object so closely involving our interests and responsibilities is manifestly that grand fundamental Education which takes cognisance of man simply as man: the fact we have to consider is merely the plain one-that the educable young within these realms amount to a certain number; and the consequent demand of true policy is, that we use all possible means, so that, as these minds grow up, they may increase in strength and freedom, and be aided and not repressed by surrounding circumstances, in their efforts to unfold their innate virtue and riches. When framing a system of National Education then, we may be assured that we have fallen into some erroneous view of what we ought to accomplish, if we find ourselves encumbered at the outset by references to social conditions, or that our efforts are being deprived of their essential universality, by consideration of arbitrary distinctions; just because no conceivable condition or arrangement of society ought for one moment to affect our desire that every man be moral and religious, his intellect trained to the contemplation of Truth, and familiarised with the order and the beauties of the Universe. The practices of life will determine regarding the occupation of the individual's time; but, be that occupation what it may, those sentiments and powers ought to have been developed in infancy, and cultured during youth, so that his duties be performed, and all circumstances used and enjoyed, as befits a rational and aspiring being; and, indeed, it is matter for great rejoicing, that the order of the world itself, irrespective of inan's will, or at least of his specific plans, contains provisions for this essential education, which the neglect or ignorance of society have failed, hitherto, to render of non-effect. With the idea of what this universal education ought to be, in one's mind, accompanied by a glance alike at the inadequate numbers, and the wretched character of the majority of our popular schools, one cannot avoid recognising-in the mere fact of the existence of order, and of progress, however slow-the presence of conservative energies in human societies, that live and act without the aid of Statesmanship, and are unconnected almost with any direct and conscious purpose. It would seem as if the advance of civilisation may in so far be wrought out, apart from reflection, and solely by those instincts belonging to man's loftier nature, which-whatever the power of circumstance-are capable in so far of realising an order of their own. The common Life of the masses of society manifests, indeed, throughout its entire constitution, the power and upward tendency of these instincts; for wherever we discern moderation, trustful endeavour, and the civic virtues, we ought to recognise a freedom won -hitherto unaided-from the sternest necessity: so that, while performing a paramount duty, we are yet, in our efforts to upraise these masses, only working along with tion of an end prepared for by all the arrangements of the natural course of the world, and hastening the realisaProvidence. The elevation of Man is the most visible
among the purposes of the existing scheme of things: to speak in the language of philosophy, it is the World's most determinate Final Cause: in seeking to advance it by Education, we therefore act in harmony with manifold resistless agencies: nor, if the task be understood aright, is it possible but that we must prevail."
I. Starting with this clear and comprehensive object, the author, or rather authors, proceed to discuss the mode by which it may be realised. Their plans and suggestions are in every point of view most valuable, because they have always a complexion essentially practical: the
most important part of this division of the work, how ever, is the detailed and systematic separation of culture from mere instruction, and the full exposition of the laws and processes by which the attainment of both may be insured. It is not speaking too strongly to allege that the confusion of these objects has been hitherto the greatest barrier in the way of the diffusion of a sound education. Instruction, or the communication of information, being the most flashy or visible result of teaching, our systematic writers and also our practical educators have for the most part looked on that subject as if it were the chief, instead of a very subordinate end ;hence the prevailing misconception that no general system can suit all classes, inasmuch as each class is, according to its condition, required to be conversant with a peculiar set of facts and ideas. Now, both M. Willm and Dr. Nichol are profoundly impressed with the conviction that education, in its only true significance, is mainly equivalent to culture or training. They lay it down as its chief object to evolve and strengthen all those fundamental sentiments-those ideas of right, of religion, of taste, and those aptitudes to discern order, whose eminent possession is the main distinction of 'humanity; and instruction is regarded simply as a means to accomplish this prime object-as the light, in short, directs us along those paths where we may best discover the modes of duly exercising and strengthening our mental powers. By the excellent efforts of Mr. Srow, these principles have already obtained wide acceptance in this country; but still we had no such guide as Mr. Willm, who has followed these through all their applications, and determined the influence they should have over the conducting of every branch of education. The following is highly important on this subject ;-we again quote from Dr. Nichol :
"In respect of the kind of Instruction a child ought to receive in elementary schools, there appear only two rules of paramount importance; and, notwithstanding the recent advances of the art of teaching in this country, we would still do well to have them steadily in our thoughts. The first rule is this, that Instruction should never be given so as to interfere with, or be hostile to, the higher work of Education, whose aim is the strengthening of the faculties, intellectual and moral. This rule, rightly interpreted, would interpose decisive negatives; but it also leaves to Instruction a wide and unchecked range. It does not imply that no sentiment or affection be nourished until its utilities are demonstrated, for we hold that the child's mind is no tabula rasa, but a fruitful source of energies, which would act in any world, and under any combination of circumstances; neither does it imply that our scholar must be retained in ignorance of his necessary subservience to those regularly-occurring actions of external nature, which environ us from our births-until their laws are made manifest to his reason; for this would be to forget that one chief end of Education and Instruction is to aid and interpret the action of the world, and that Education of Fate which cannot be postponed, and which is incessant: but it certainly does imply that we seek not by ambitious efforts to force forward the child's knowledge, or attempt to affix to his mind accumulations of facts into contact with which he has not naturally ceme, and unconnected with any theory into which-for a sanction to any rule of conduct, or an explanation of aught attractive to his curiosity-he would naturally inquire. A singular chango took place some years ago, in the opinions prevalent in Scotland relative to the Instruction fitting for youth. It cannot be gainsaid, that, until the time I refer to, only very narrow views had been acted on in this matter-instruction being confined to the acquisition of arts merely instrumental, and
the supposed teaching of our Church's catechisms; and with the suddenness usual to re-actions, it became a popular notion that this teaching of doctrines, not likely to be understood by children, ought to be replaced by instruction in Natural Science. It were tedious to describe the absurdities in practice to which this new view gave rise. I once saw, in a school on the "modern principle," displayed on the black board, the whole of Cuvier's technical classification-the teacher, as it was in nowise difficult to see, not in the least understanding, and the children having had no means of understanding, the real distinctions sustaining the nomenclature they were required to repeat and learn by rote!The second rule I would refer to is this :-Children must never be required to learn anything in a way that would necessitate their unlearning it, at a subsequent period, when their reasons are more developed. If it is not allowable to bring the child's faculties into contact with subjects to the management of which they are not competent, and which therefore they cannot possess as real knowledge, it is equally forbidden to disfigure knowledge, or to present sciences in a false and illogical form, in order that they become comprehensible by the undeveloped mind. The error inherent in neglect of this rule is very serious, and likewise easily discerned. Although the child has not, as in the former case, been asked to receive what he cannot understand, and what to him is therefore a caput mortuum, he is yet made to receive as real what is virtually false; and the falsity of which he must discover just as his intellect expands. His feelings in regard of his relations to what is true are thus injuriously interfered with, and the most valuable faculty of the mind-the power, viz. to BELIEVE, impaired by the knowledge that he has believed wiat is untrue. No man, who has ever thoughtfully descended among the sources of the strength of our being, would wilfully tamper with that moral freshness, which so unwillingly gives admission to the idea of an unreality in the communications of the surrounding world; for if it has the beauty, it has also the delicacy of the newly-fallen snow-even a breath will sully it. But, besides, the task to be accomplished by the instruction of the young-so far from demanding this misrepresentation of science-can receive no aid from any such means. The object in view is not to make children conceive that they comprehend this or that particular science; but to acquaint them with those facts which science has shown to be of greatest consequence, and which are nevertheless quite within their reach. To make a child acquainted with the mere form of any science is of no value whatever; but every science should be used as a light of instruction, in so far as it shows what are those emphatic-those critical points in the course of Nature's proceeding with which-as the least disguised exponents of her order-we ought to familiarise the opening mind. In this respect, science, in its existing state, ought ever to be the guide of the teacher; but he must superadd an art of his own-the power, viz., to present these in the manner that will interest the young. Judging from the texture of most elementary works yet in circulation in this country, one would be inclined to infer that the art of popular exposition is synonymous with toleration for inaccuracy and clumsiness; but, rightly estimated, it requires powers both elevated and rare-not technical knowledge merely, but knowledge in the best sense-knowledge that can rightly discriminate-in regard of the sciences; and, what is still more difficult, the faculty of falling back, by aid of our undestroyed sympathies, among those impulses and vivid conceptions by
* In the ensuing volume, many excellent suggestions on the mode of treating the separate subjects of Instruction are recommended by the experience of M. Willm. I agree with them generally; though to some opinions I should demur: for instance, I doubt the critical accuracy of some of his views as to History; and I should be inof Geography. These, however, are only specialties: the clined to give a much larger development to the subject spirit of the counsel given by this author is always high and unexceptional. He fails also in a due conception of the importance of an early knowledge of the great truths and facts of Physiology.
heart of a child. The loftiest minds—at least in respect which the external world is interpreted to the warm of culture-have invariably been those who have written most successfully for the instruction of youth; and 1 esteem it a great misfortune, that so few finished scholars and accurate thinkers have, amongst us, thought fit to employ themselves in this work. The deficiency in our native literature, however, is now being well supplied by importations from abroad: in Germany, at least, there is no lack of either disposition or power to interpret Nature, so that her mighty voice reach effectively the meanest of her
The great subject which now divides opinion in this country, as to the practicability of a united education of the children of all religious sects, is fully discussed in these pages. M. Willm rather leans to the idea that, where the differences of opinion are very great, the preferable | plan is an education entirely separate. Dr. Nichol's views, on the contrary, tend to the opposite conclusion, and he has expended much effort and skill in the attempt to induce our different churches to look more at those grand fundamental principles, in respect to which they all agree, than to the minor divergencies which separate them. He is not, of course, in the least desirous to undervalue the importance of those points of dissension, but he thinks that, in general, they are not what the laws of a well-considered system of education would permit to be impressed upon a child. M. Willm has probably been induced to the conclusion to which he evidently inclines, by the peculiar circumstances in which the question must be presented to any Frenchman. The difficulty there arises, not because of disagreement among Protestants, but from the separation between Protestant and Catholic; and it must never be forgotten that considerations come into play here, which neither do nor can operate in any other view of the question. Not only are these disagreements in this case respecting religious doctrine, but the fundamental canons of morality are different, and the parties could not coalesce on any common principle as the fundamental one of education. How is it possible, for instance, that a teacher in such a common school could develop the supreme authority and independence of conscience, while one-half of his pupils virtually acknowledge another power as supreme-the power which alone is infallible, and which holds in its hands the privilege of conferring absolution? How can an honest and effective organization be formed on the basis of the freedom of education or the essential basis, that we have to do with the culture of the moral and intellectual faculties, but that we have not to do with the formation of opinions, so long as you propose to include the members of a powerful church, which holds, as inseparable from its constitution, that even the sacred Scriptures must be held under lock until opened by the key of the priest-which, in fact, revolts from all real freedom, and whose whole consistent and persisted efforts in the work of education has been to extinguish personality, which is at war with that healthful variety, characteristic of a healthful and unfettered nature, and longs after that dull, that compressed, and half-dead
uniformity, which any one may see in the courts of Stonyhurst?
It is of no use disguising the realities of this question. Liberality or no liberality. It simply amounts to thisare you in the momentous affair of consolidating a national education, to seek to conciliate where actual conciliation is impossible, unless by sacrifices virtually destructive of the most important principles on which every such system ought to be founded; or openly acknowledging a difficulty that cannot be overcome? Is it not more manly, as well as more honest and wise, to resign at once the advantages to be gained otherwise by a common action? With all his desire for common education, M. Willm has arrived at this conclusion in the existing position of France; and, judging from the tenor of a brief notice, this conclusion, in such circumstances, does not appear repugnant to the opinions of his editor. Fortunately, however, this peculiar difficulty is of less consequence in Great Britain; and in so far as the varieties of our Protestant churches are concerned, Dr. Nichol's earnest and elaborate pleadings on behalf of unity are entitled to every consideration. With regard to one minor point in this inquiry, viz., the propriety of those religious tests which still bar access to the chairs of our universities, we think he is eminently successful; and as the subject is of great and pressing moment, we subjoin the paragraph referring to it, and an important note attached :—
"One practical result of these views seems eminently important. Moved by anxiety that a religious spirit shall pervade all teaching-or, in other words, that this important part of Man's nature shall in nowise be repressed or held in abeyance--the Founders of many of our Educational Institutions (among others, of the Scottish Universities) have sought to secure fitting dispositions in the Instructor, by demanding that, previous to his induction in office, he subscribe the special articles of a Church. Now, in many cases, this subscription may be defensible on other grounds; it may, for instance, form part of a general ecclesiastical system: in this place, however, I simply desire to examine the propriety and efficacy of the practice, in relation to the foregoing special end; and, considered exclusively in this respect, I can see no barrier to our immediate and direct condemnation of all such usages. It would seem to follow at once, from our previous discussions, that the power of treating even the science of Morals, religiously, has nothing to do with the considerations which may guide the teacher's choice among the Churches of these lands; and, assuredly, it is still more manifest that the relations between our religious sentiments and the results of the Physical Sciences, aro altogether remote from the questions about which sects usually differ. There is, however, a further consideration entitled to great weight in this matter. I have said that, to secure that the teacher be a religiously-disposed man, it is unnecessary to descend among these disputed details: but it is even more than unnecessary; such subscriptions are wholly unfitted to realise that object. The quality of mind desired, be it recollected, is what a powerful English Journal-the Quarterly Review-has well named RELIGIOUSNESS; while these Articles are mere formulas, expressing certain views of the logical relations existing between metaphysical or religious ideas. The religiousness of a man's nature consists in the clearness with which he apprehends these ideas themselves; in the depth, in short, to which they have penetrated among his sentiThis expression is probably too sweeping. Several exments and affections; but the most acute and skilful discellent works on the Order of Nature, suited to the young, cussions may be conducted, with regard to their logical have of late been published in this country; although we relations, by persons who have only the slightest appremay still derive much aid from our continental neigh-hension of them, and over whom, practically, as efficient bours. I am glad to specify, as one of the best, and, in fact, as a pattern-PATTERSON's Zoology for Schools. I hope my exellent friend will carry on-beyond his original designs--a task for which his own freshness of character so admirably fits him.
principles of life and action, they have comparatively little power. A man, in short, may be a thoroughly religious man, who, either from inattention to the subject, or a deficiency of the logical powers, has no interest in sets of articles;
and, on the other hand, that anomaly is easily explained which presents us so frequently with high and severe Churchmen-stern and rigid supporters of systems of Artiacles, and other dogmatic forms-who exhibit withal only very slight susceptibility in respect of religious impressions. There is not, as is commonly supposed, any hypocrisy in this state of mind. It is a real, and not an assumed or pretended state-arising in the activity of the logical faculties, and the comparative inertness of the powers of contemplation; and it has an exact counterpart in a phenomenon already referred to, connected with the cultivation of physical science. Men, as I previously stated, are far from uncommon, who, while enjoying the greatest pleasure in the analytic representation and development of assumed physical laws, have yet but imperfect powers to sift thoroughly the physical facts on which alone laws can be founded; and, in the same manner, it is quite possible that a mind have much interest in the processes and investigations of systematic, or, rather, of dogmatic theology, without a corresponding power to descend into the far profounder region of the INTUITIONS. If we want RELIGION, then, let us correct this serious mistake. It is indeed a mistake most serious, and it would have driven from the service of the Universities of Scotland men to whom they have often owed the preservation and extonsion of their repute, had not the evil been averted by a usual consequence of the existence of laws practically inapplicable to their object-viz, a systematic breach of the formal obligation, through the general consent that it be regarded as a dead letter. But this corrective however otherwise welcome-involves the hazard of lamentably weakening some of the most important sanctions of morality."'
The foregoing argument leaves nothing wanting in point of force, but it does in respect of its application. Why limit its conclusions to the case of the Universities? Why permit the continuance of that much larger, if not deeper, blot on our Scottish educational policy-the sectarianism of our parish schools? Is it not intolerable that, with the words of liberalism, and harmony, and a united system, ever on the outer curve of their lips, these ministers of ours shall stand by in abeyance, while, under
the goad of a galling practical injustice, other parties are spreading their own special schools over the country, and thus rendering an amicable adjustment of the question not only remote but impracticable? Cannot those men discern that, while they sleep and dream of their favourite "difficulties," plans are being formed inconsistent with the termination we all wish, and money sunk in the erection of school-houses, in many cases unnecessary, unless through the demands of this prolonged and most uncalledfor insult? Or even without regard to the schools, where now all our Whig hopes, as to the Whig reforms even of the Universities? Must the Free Church have erected theirs, and our rump of aristocracy theirs, and the now formidable United Secession theirs, before Lord John can gather nerve enough to disregard the "sounding brass' of Dr. Hill, and to see unmoved the ominous shake of Dr. Lee's head? It is, indeed, a most sickening conclusion, but we fear it has come to this, that talk is easier than action; that a premier in posse may be very great and very brave, but that the power of realising a high policy rarely belongs to hearts reared within the 'cold shade" of an aristocracy. It pleases Lord John to discourse patronisingly of the people : let him not for-get THAT HIS RIVAL BELONGS TO THEM.
Our space will permit a reference to only one other subject, suggested by this valuable and comprehensive work. There is no hope for an effective and wellordered system of National Education until we assure a supply of adequate teachers; and it is perfectly clear that we cannot do this merely by looking for learned Learning is an element, and an essential one; but there is required, besides, the knowledge of the relations of all science to that young mind, and the study of these relations is a new and difficult science, nowhere at present cultivated in Great Britain.
Nor is the knowledge of this science even sufficient. The teacher ought to know it, and to be a man capable of applying it-he should be a moral engineer, alike scientifically and practically; he should know how to draw his plans, and also be fitted by his own labour to work them out. Now, this all points to the institution of normal schools, as a first element towards the erection of a good national system. In fact, if government had bogun rightly, or with sufficient knowledge of the necessities of their enterprise, they might have expended £100,000 for one, two, or even three years, in the erection of such seminaries. Dr. Nichol writes on this point as follows. To one suggestion we would earnestly solicit the attention of those who have at present influence in our Uni
The considerations in the text seem to me quite adequate to establish the entire inutility or inapplicability of our existing tests in Scotland; but they go much farther -they show the necessary erroneousness of any POSITIVE TEST whatsoever. Unless where purely dogmatic Theological teaching is concerned, what we want is, religious dispositions or susceptibilities; character indeed, and not opinion. The former, it is evident, cannot be assured by the mere assent of the reasoning powers to any set of systematic articles: its existence or non-existence, its strength or weakness, will be indicated only as other points of men's character are indicated; and the Authority which has the power of selecting the Instructor need never be at any loss in reaching a conclusion on the subject. Accordingly, our Scottish Universities, in their recent efforts to induce the Legislature to unshackle them from these tests, very wisely abandoned the attempt, merely to improve and enlarge the present ones; and declared at once against the principle of Positive Teats-proposing to retain a very simple, negative, precautionary declaration, binding the incumbent to teach nothing contrary to the standards of the Established Church.-Eaily in last summer, I enjoyed the high pleasure of spending a morning with our ever-lamented CHALMERS; and on the conversation turning to the subject, I had the satisfaction to hear him declare, after much and repeated consideration, that, in his opinion, this settlement of the question ought to be accounted satisfactory by all parties. Other eminent men in the Free Church, as well as the leading clergymen belonging to various Dissenting bodies, have since then given forth similar opinions; so that there appears reason to believe, that the Legislature would incet no insuperable obstacle in dealing boldly with the question. I would add-to prevent misconceptionthat the Scottish Universities do not hold any Ecclesiasti-of cal rank, equivalent to what is occupied by those of Oxford and Cambridge; the question here simply being, as to the fitness of the required cignatures to insure due regard to region in teaching.
"It cannot fail to be inferred, from the whole bearing of these rapid remarks, and it will be impressed much more strongly by the careful study of M. Willm's work, how entirely the success of every well-ordered scheme of Education must depend for its success on the character of the teachers whose services it can command. There is, perhaps, no other element essential to success in Education, in which-in so far as public precautions and arrangements are concerned--our country is so deficient, as it is in this. To state the case plainly, we have at this moment no fixed plan in the appointment of our teachers, and no source from which we can safely draw them. Men talent, and with suitable conscientiousness, will, undoubtedly, soon adapt themselves to any position, however novel, which can be mastered by diligence; but assuredly that is not a state in which any country should remain, which constrains it to trust, for the performance
springs from the opposite quarter-the jealousy of some of the people of any movement of Government towards their enlightenment and elevation, lest it covertly involve what is sinister. This is probably the price that every Government must pay for past errors. In the case of ours, sectarian wishes have disappeared; and it is really, in all chief respects, ahead of the people: but the memory of the past cannot in a day be effaced; and measures are apt to be interpreted according to the practices of an effete policy, probably only the more readily, if they point to good which the general intelligence is not sufficiently developed to account desirable, or at least to view as especially urgent."
We would have concluded here, but that our previous quotations are all from Dr. Nichol's dissertation. The following passage on moral education, from the treatise of M. Willm, is eminently characteristic of that work. It abounds in such passages, manifesting the rare combination of a wise and profound philosophy with those practical instincts, which even, apart from reflection, appear to inform some minds almost instantaneously of the right mode of action. The perusal of this extract will amply uphold our recommendation of the book to the careful study of all parents and teachers :--
"The great defect of most of the moral stories related to children is their fictitious character. They too often show vice corporeally punished, and virtue rewarded in the same manner. Now, without referring to what is antichristian and immoral in this method of interpreting the ways of Providence upon the earth, is there no danger of increasing, by such means, that selfishness which morality should overcome? Is it not to be feared, that when the child has become a man, he will find the real world so different from this ideal world, that his morality may be compromised?
of functions so vital, to persons chosen almost at random, and prepared for their duty by no suitable instruction either in their science or art. A teacher, in fact, requires, as his qualification, the knowledge at once of a peculiar science, and of an art to realise his knowledge. The science of Pedagogy is quite peculiar, and is not involved in, or communicated by, acquaintance with other literature or science. Like the Science (as distinct from the Art) of Civil Engineering, for instance, it supposes the knowledge of other sciences; but it has its own important theory besides, which is to expiscate rules for the application of these sciences to practical affairs. As a first essential, the teacher must know the character and acquisitions of a well-formed mind; and these he may learn in the world, and by the discipline of our Universities: but he must know besides, as his own peculiar science, the rules which should guide his efforts in impressing this full and complete character, by degrees, on the mind of advancing manhood; but this knowledge he has now no aid whatever in acquiring. Pedagogy is neither Moral Philosophy nor Natural Philosophy, nor Latin or Greek literature; although, to profess it, a man must be able to use all these, in so far, as his instruments: but, in regard of whatever it is beyond these, a teacher in this country can at present obtain no information, at the completest of the great institutions of our realm. Assuredly it would be well, if distinct chairs of l'edagogy were attached at the earliest moment to every University in these Islands; but if that cannot be accomplished--if Government, agitated by any fears, are disinclined to propose it -may we not expect that combinations among the professors will-as in the case of Civil Engineering-at an early opportunity supply the void? I am aware that, to accomplish such a course of teaching, with the entire success we desiderate, no combination would suffice; for that would require the unity which can be imprinted on a subject only by the survey of one capable mind: but still there are men connected with our Scottish Universi-seriously ties whose attention could not be turned, even partially, "Let the children be taught, by examples drawn rather to such a matter, without the accomplishment of the most from real life, the natural consequences of vice and of eminent services. I would therefore earnestly suggest, virtue; let them be made aware of the evils and shame, that, without farther delay, those who are interested in sufferings and remorse, which the former brings after it, the advancement of Education, signify a wish that Courses of all that is noble and great in the latter, and of the adof Lectures, of the description I have referred to, be vantages, and the pure and inward joys it affords. Let forthwith established. But, besides having a knowledge them be made, for instance, to observe the confusion in of their peculiar Science, teachers should be experienced which the liar involves himself when he wishes to support in their Art-in the practical methods of dealing with his falsehoods, and to what contempt he is exposed when youth. They are not mere closet inquirers, but working betrayed by his own contradictions. Let them be told of inquirers-men who not only require to know how work the fatal consequences of incontinence, idleness, improis to be done, but, at the same time, can do it. Now there bity, envy, hatred, and anger, of all the vices and bad is no means by which experience can be obtained, in the passions. On the other hand, let them be made to unexercise of teaching, except through NORMAL SCHOOLS. derstand how probity produces confidence and esteem, and More necessary than any scientific teaching of Pedagogy, therefore credit and prosperity, the happy consequences this cannot be obtained unless through new institutions. of moderation, of the love of labour, of temperance, and There is no public establishment in this country to which kindness, of all good qualities, and of all virtues. these could rightly be attached; and therefore we must at let them be afterwards made to hate vice for itself, as unence seck for a new and extensive organisation.* In worthy of a rational being, disgraceful and degrading to every shire in the land there ought to be a Normal man, and to love virtue for its own sake, on account of School, capable of training teachers, adequate to the full its inherent dignity and beauty. Let crime appear to supply of its district; and these of course ought to con- them miserable in the midst of the greatest prosperity, duct, oraid in conducting, the Elementary Schools of the and only the more hateful when triumphant; and let town, and the higher schools or Central Academies of the virtue shine forth as worthy of envy, even when loaded district. The need for such schools is so amply unfolded with misfortunes; and the more beautiful when it requires by M. Willm, that I shall not dwell on it; it is, in to make great efforts and sacrifices to support itself. fact, sufficiently manifest, to have extracted special pro- "In this way the conscience will be devolped and the visions from every advanced Government of Europe. meral sense become stronger and more refined; Duty Much of M. Willm's advocacy will be found unnecessary will be imposed on the Will, gifted with the highest auhere I mean where he speaks so anxiously of the suf- thority; and it will become difficult, if not impossible, to ciency of the grantees that may be given to Govern- fail in an obligation, presented to the mind with due The Government of this country has out lived clearness, and to the reason with the character of necesany special carefulness about such guarantees-its first sity. But man is not a pure intelligence; his worldly desire is, that the people be intelligent enough to un- interests, the inclinations of his physical nature, and derstand its designs. The jealousy we have to combat, his passions from within, constituting a power, not necessarily hostile, but often opposed to his moral nature, and frequently leading him astray. And as science alone is insuficient to guide the mariner into a safe haven, without the assistance of the courageous pilot, who has strength adequate to guido him through the waves and tempest, so can requires, besides the knowledge o what is right, the firmness and constancy necessary to
* I have said, in the text, that we have as yet no public institution of this kind, such as we require; but there are several excellent private ones. I would specify among these the great Diocesan Normal School of Chester, which, under the management of the Rev. Mr Rigg, kaves very little to be desired. See, for details, the recent work of Mr. Kay of Cambridge.