Puslapio vaizdai

gian, and Irish kings. There was no price paid for, and islands. We are not to narrate the enthusiasme Iona. With equal good taste the Queen of Eng-with which her Majesty was received by the Highland might give over Westminster to some jobbing land women, old men, and children; but our plan favourite, and allow him to entail the bones and permits us to mention the remarkable poverty of dust of her ancestors the relics of our noblest

men in these exhibitions. In the month of August men-the mortal remains of English chivalry, 1745, the kinsman of the Queen's ancestors came faith, religion, philosophy, and poetry, in his into Loch Eil on a desperate errand, to overthrow heirs-male for ever, as her ancestor showed in the British constitution and displace the reigning gifting lona to the Campbells, notwithstanding family. He was welcomed by seven or eight their faithful services to the cause of freedom, which thousand men. The gathering of the Camerons had not commenced at that juncture. The present joined the Macdonalds and the Macleans, the MacDuke of Argyle reckoned that lona was over-leods, and the Frasers, and all the minor tribes. peopled, and insisted on banishing a fifth part of Their numbers were imposing ; their bravery was the population. That was effected during this past undoubted; they shook to its centre the power of spring. The people had no power of resistance. England and the best part of Scotland. Thoy They were left thoroughly without a choice. They fought their way over battle-fields as victors to are placed under the most despotic rule. The Ni- Derby. They were ultimately defeated, liko many zam of Hyderabad exercises, or the Ameers of other adventurers, by their own bad generalship. Scindo exercised, no more complete controul over in the month of August 1847, Queen Victoria enthe destinies of their people, than does a Highland tered Loch Eil. Her mission was peaceable ; her laird of this free country in the nineteenth century. popularity unbounded. In the Highlands the court Their tenants have no leases. They have no ten- needed no guard. There was no parade of military. ant-right. They are utterly destitute of any valid | There was a gathering of the claus ; but at Fortclaim in law upon the land. They may improve it William there were few to gather. Eighty men for another. They may build more commodious and boys of all ages, dressed in tartan of all patterns, houses, in order to be charged a higher rent. They lined the wooden quay! Even the number of men may drain their land, with the view of paying more who were not in party dress, but had adopted Lowmoney per acre; but they have no permanent in- land costume, was trifling. If Queen Victoria wants terest in the soil. A good landlord balances these to see a gathering of the clans, she must apply to difficulties ; but though the nature of Highland Mr. Peto or Mr. Stevenson, or some other railway landlords, like that of other classes, admits of varia-contractor, or go to Toronto or the Missouri prairies, tion, yet their circumstances compel them towards and avoid the Sir Evan Camerons and Maccalluma wretched policy. They are generally in debt. mores, and Cluny Macphersons. She is beneath Seven-eighths of the Highlands and Islands are un- the shadow of Ben Nevis, and the clans are not der trustees or mortgagos. Even the present race there : her barge has floated up Loch Linnhe into of Highland landlords are to be more commiserated Loch Eil, but their pibroch never sounds o'er these than blamed for this feature of the case. The present Highland waters. Arouud, on every cliff and hill, Duke of Argyle, for example, succeeded to estates in every glade or glen, at every point and almost of tremendous width and breadth, admitting of the every pinnacle visible in her progress, there were greatest improvement ; but it is very generally re- ruins of old castles; there were marks of old houses ; ported that they are burdened, and yet cannot be there were furrows on the hills where grass and nasold, so that the proprietor being only a life-renter, tural beechwood strive with heath to maintain the nominally drawing rents which he is obliged to pay supremacy of groen. Solitude is on the surface, but over to bond-holders, cannot improve his lands, can search the land through and there is strewn thickly not increase produce, but must take the shortest over it the reliques of a numerous people. It is a way of obtaining so much money, even if it should land of shadows deep and dark-of shadows and of be, as it generally is, a much smaller sum than sheep. Nowhere else is there scenery more magnicould be otherwise obtained.

ficent-points of view more telling; nowhere is Iona, perhaps, was over-peopled ; but the Argyle there more natural splendour-where broad waters, estates are under-peopled. Vast tracts of, un- and high mountains, and deep vales combine to doubtedly, fertile land are waste. Immense sheep form the most wondrous landscapes. But it is a farms, that in the form of arable farms would rear ten land peeled and bare. A land where industry is times the present number of sheep, have been almost a crime punished by banishment—where sheep are stripped of human beings. These sheep farms are more valuable than men. They ask there for a being in their turn converted into deer forests, in gathering of the clans, and they can only have a order to render the desolation more complete, and gathering of the shoop. the land a more dismal and howling wilderness. We remember few finer days of calm and sun

We are not to describe the progress of the Queen; shine than that in which her Majesty passed the though since the days of James IV. and V. no Sound of Mull; and we recollect of no more magother sovereiga has visited the Western Highlands nificent scenery. That, however, it serves not our

For a

present object to describe. It will be found by the deer will expel sheep. From Fort-Williami tourists sufficiently accomplished for their object in Prince Albert journeyed to tho Vale of Death-to the guide-books.* Towards the middle of the Sound, Glencoe—where the high, bare rocks almost close

in the dismal glen of murder. Beyond it the on the mainland, the ruins of an old castle on a

deer forest of the Marquis of Breadalbane comrock were distinctly visible. The royal yacht was

mences and stretches sixty miles by forty, over a taken out of its direct course, quite under the rock.

tract of country that might support men. From There are many old castles in these places, and we

Fort-William to Ardverikie the Queen and her never heard that barons built castles in a land suite passed through a moss belonging to a lucky where there was no population ; but there is a pe-English lawyer, Lord A binger. lle is but a culiar interest attaching to this ruin. It is Aru- recent purchaser, and his predecessor had let some trnish. Sir Walter Scott, in the Lord of the Isles, land on leases for improvement. It has been called it Artornish. Its halls were once crowded improved, and is bearing crops that reproach with vassals. They were the home of chieftains wlio Lord Abinger for allowing—while many seek for c'a med ad cxercised sovereignty. Their gallics work, and want for food—land extending over or their curraghs crowded the seas.

many miles to be wastod, and made into a desert, No question

because he is anxious to shcot game. remains that they ruled over a numerous people.

game preserve he bought the property, and as Beside Ardtornish, at present there is one

à game preserve it is used. white-washed two-flat dwelling. It is a greater Go on a little way. There is Loch Laggan. curiosity than Ardtorni-h Castle. Four or five Ardrerikie Lodge is at its eastern extremity. thousand cottages have been cast down to build the land around is another deer forest. It is that single house. Four or five thousand hearths held in lease by the Marquis of Abercorn, are cold that this one may be warm. Alike in and, lest the deer should be frightened by Sutherlandshire and Argyleshire the traces of the shadow of human beings, there are few in humanity have been obliterated from many dis- the neighbourhood. It is a lone where a seer tricts that this house might be reared beside might dwell and be fed by the ravens. It is not, Ardtornish rock. It is the house of the great however, a hopeless desert-here and there are sheep-farmer who conducted a considerable part traces of men in this place and that are marks of the clearances of Sutherlandshire, and who of civilization. By the loch side, up in secluded has been no loser by the subsequent arrangements : glens, between the mountains, on the mountain, more, we believe, than can be said for the Eng-sides themselves, we meet fragments of a byegone lish family who ordered them. This house has

Their very graves are hidden, but their been built on the principle of adding field to field, furrows remain. We speak of the march of until there be no room for men to dwell on the intellect-we write of the progress of civilizaface of the carth. This garish mansion, there. tion-Exeter Hall weops for the Caffres--the fore, represents one principle which destroyed emotions of public meetings are given for the the people, and is about to be destroyed by an Negroes. We have sympathy, a rery unavailother. Passing out of the Sound of Mull, fa

to ing and cheap sympathy, for Tahiti. We have the right, amid the Hebridean archipelago, a school funds for the Hill Coolies. We have paid range of blue mountains are visible. They belong orators to plead the cause of Ilindoo chiefs. We to Rum--an island recently purchased by the have eloquence for the Sikhs.

We have arguMarquis of Salisbury, another English nobleman, ments even for the Ameers of Scinde. We have who is converting it into a deer forest, to the ex- nothing for the Celts. Deeds most atrocious are clusion of sheep with whom the dcer will not feed. done within our own isle, and they are unheeded. MacCulloch, whose tedious work on the Western Lovers of pleasure turn the land into an artificial Isies has been justly and deservedly condemned, waste, because they can afford to lose its value ; says of Rum that it is a barren island. But a while the nation is spoiled of its resources and the barren island will not support herds of deer. people banished from their homes.

Some They cannot feed on rocks and gravel. They do vigorous effort is needed to rescue tlie Highlands not even greatly relish sca-weed. Our readers from this retrogression to suvage life.

When a may rely on this fact, that wherever red deer few years have passed, we may scck in their thrive men can live. If they hear of deer-forests former homes the bare remnants of the Celtic they may rest assured that within them there races, and have to say they are not, unless the must be fertile spots clothed with thick and heavy progress of depopulation be arrested. The Highmcadows. That is the principle which is swallow lands need from their Bhan-Righ and her l'aring up Peter Sellars, the owner of Ardtornish, and liament two acts, one to repcal the law of his sheep. The sheep have expelled men, but entail, and another the game laws ; and when

these are passed, we may expect that the populaPassing through Glasgow, Mr. M‘Phun will supply tion of the Highlands, instead of rapidly decurate so far as we have seen, and not deficient in all that surest stay amongst her subjects of the Queen them with pocket guides by land and water, perfectly ac. creasing, will rapidly increase, and form the kind of information which a tourist has time, opportunity or inclination to peruse cu the journey.

who reigns and dwells amongst them.




N. WILLM AND PROFESSOR NICIIOL ON THE within every community ; but the time required for this

special Education is comparatively so small, its difficulties EDUCATION OF THE PEOPLE.

so inconsiderable, and its total effects--viewing it as part The work before us, which has been edited and partly condition of this country at least, no serious harm could

of a great whole--so little important, that in the existing written by Dr. Nichol, is not of the description which arise by our intrusting it to those irregular and voluntary that gentleman's previous publications miglit have led us endeavours which every community, possessed of any into expect. Instead of being a general essay, dealing only telligence, is sufficiently apt to realise for itself. The obwith the larger truths connected with the subject, and ject so closely involving our interests and responsibilities surveying from an eminence tho great social consequences takes cognisance of man simply as man : the fact

is manifestly that grand fundamental Education which of the diffusion of education, it is really one which has we have to consider is merely the plain one-that the descended among the details of the work, exhibiting low cducable young within these realms amount to a certain all educational processes ought to be conducted, in order number ; and the consequent demand of true policy is,

that we use all possible means, so that, as these minds to realise the high end which, according to M. Willm, grow up, they may increase in strength and freedom, and education ought to propose, viz., the development and be aided and not repressed by surrounding circumstances, exercise in youth of all the higher sentiments and facul- in their efforts to unfold their innate virtue and riches. ties of our human nature. From the peculiar character

When framing a system of National Education then, we

may be assured that we have fallen into sorne erroneous of the book, it is, as Dr. Nichol esteems it, in the mean

view of what we ought to accomplish, if we find ourselves time, unique in our literature ; and we can only desire encumbered at the outset by references to social conthat all our teachers, of whaterer class, or whaterer ditions, or that our efforts are being deprived of their their special object, imbue themselves with M. Willm's essential universality, by consideration of arbitrary dis

tinctions ; just because no conceivable condition or arspirit, and accommodate their action to his precepts. rangement of society ought for one moment to affect our They will find in them, indeed, little that is merely desire that every man be moral and religious, his intechnical, and no fixed and unbending rules proposed for tellect trained to the contemplation of Truth, and fatheir acceptance, with the dogmatic air of the pedagogue, miliarised with the order and the beauties of the Uni

The practices of life will determine regarding but every important process is described and estimated, the occupation of the individual's time; but, be that and every practical difficulty discussed and resolved in occupation what it may, those sentiments and powers subservience to the end of all teaching--timt, viz., of ought to have been developed in infancy, and cultured elevating the character and expanding the mind, with a circunstances used and enjoyed, as befits a rational and

during youth, so that his duties be performed, and all viow to all subsequent duties of the young entrusted to aspiring being; and, indeed, it is matter for great rethem. It is not in our power to notice more than a few joicing, that the order of the world itself, irrespective of characteristics of this important publication.

inan's will, or at least of his specific plans, contains pro

visions for this essential education, which the neglect or I. With a vigour much more determinate than we ignorance of society have failed, hitherto, to render of have elsewhere met with, the author and editor both non-effect. With the idea of what this universal educatake their stand upon the truth, that what'ver is accom

tion ought to be, in one's mind, accompanied by a glance plished by Government or otherwise in respect of educa- alike at the inadequate numbers, and the wretched cha

racter of the majority of our popular schools, one cannot tion, must be emphatically for the Education of THIE avoid recognising--in the mere fact of the existence of People. They claim that on views which assume this order, and of progress, however slow--the presence of generality, not nerely because the people, rightly so conservative energies in human societies, that live and act called, far outnumber any special class, but because no

without the aid of Statesmanship, and are unconnected al

most with any direct and conscious purpose. It would proper system, whose aim is to establish a fundamental

seem as if the advance of civilisation may in so far be education, can havo as its characteristic any provision wrought out, apart from reflection, and solely by those inwhich should fit it more for one class of society than for stincts belonging to man's loftier nature, which-whatever another-far less can it be exclusive, or burdened with the power of circumstance-are capable in so far of realis

ing an order of their own. The common Life of the masses arrangements that would prevent the extension of its of society inanifests, indeed, throughout its entire constibenefits to all classes.

tution, the power and upward tendency of these instincts ;

for wherever we discern moderation, trustful endeavour, “One cannot miss observing that, if the foregoing is a true statement of the object and aim of Education, our - hitherto unaided-from the sternest necessity: so that,

and the civic virtues, we ought to recognise a freedom won attempts to establish a practical and worthy scheme can never have a special or limited character, but must alw:lys while performing a paramount duty, wo are yet, in our assume the form of an effort to provide an Educution efforts to upraise these masses, only working along with emphatically for the People. This forming, or rather the natural course of the world, and hastening the realisadeveloping of a mind, in which the task essentially consists,

tion of an end prepared for by all the arrangements of is dependent in nowise either on the social condition or so

Providence. The elevation of Man is the most visible cial destination of that mind; it is a duty to be perfor:ned among the purposes of the existing scheme of things : to towards it, simply because it is endowed with our common

speak in the language of philosoply, it is the World's human nature; and the fulfilment of that duty is commend

most determinate Final Cause : in seeking to advance it ed to every selfish civil polity, simply by the fact, that the by Education, we therefore act in harmony with manifold acquisition gained to society by means of the right culture resistless agencies : nor, if the task be understood aright, of the indiriduals composing it, is a substantial and high

is it possible but that we must prevail.” acquisition—whatever the social conditions within which I. Starting with this clear and comprehensive object, they may be placed. Doubtless, there is also a special the author, or rather authors, proceed to discuss the or professional Education-an Education that should be moulded according to the probable social destination of mode by which it may be realised. Their plaris and sugthe mind acted on, or by its relation with those class: gestions are in every point of view most valuable, because that, in the prescat siage of civilisation, nccessarily exist It!ıey Lave always a complexion essentially practical : the

most important part of this division of the work, how-, the supposed teac hing of our Church's catechisms; and ever, is the detailed and systematic separation of culture with the suddenness usual to re-actions, it became a popufrom mere instruction, and the full exposition of the lar notion that this teaching of doctrines, not likely to be

understood by children, ought to be replaced by instruclaws and processes by which the attainment of both may tion in Natural Science. It were tedious to describe be insured. It is not speaking too strongly to allege that the absurdities in practice to which this new view gare the confusion of these objects has been hitherto the rise. I once saw, in a school on the “ modern principle,” greatest barrier in the way of the diffusion of a sound displayed on the black board, the whole of Cuvier's

technical classification-- the teacher, as it was in nowise education. Instruction, or the communication of infor- difficult to see, not in the least understanding, and mation, being the most flashy or visible result of teaching, the children having had no means of understanding, the cur systematic writers and also our practical educators real distinctions sustaining the nomenclature they were have for the most part looked on that subject as if it required to repeat and learn by rote: * _"The secon i rule I

would refer to is this :- Children must never be required were the chief, instead of a very subordinate end ;

to learn anything in a way that would necessitate their hence the prevailing misconception that no general sys- unlearning it, at a subsequent period, when their reatem can suit all classes, inasmuch as each class is, ac- sons are more developed. If it is not allowable to bring cording to its condition, required to be conrersant with the child's faculties into contact with subjects to the

management of which they are not competent, and which a peculiar set of facts and ideas. Now, both M. Willm therefore they cannot possess as real knowledge, it is and Dr. Nichol are profoundly impressed with the con- cqually forbidden to disfigure knowledge, or to present viction that education, in its only true significance, is sciences in a false and illogical form, in order that they

become comprehensible by the undeveloped mind. The mainly equivalent to culture or training. They lay it

error inherent in neglect of this rule is very serious, and down as its chief object to evolve and strengthen all likewise easily discerned. Although the child has not, as in those fundamental sentiments—those ideas of right, of the former case, been asked to receive what he cannot religion, of taste, and those aptitudes to discern order, understand, and what to him is therefore a caput mor.

tuum, he is yet made to receive as real what is virtually whose eminent possession is the main distinction of false'; and the falsity of which he must discover just as ‘humanity; and instruction is regarded simply as a means his intellect expands. llis feelings in regard of his relato accomplish this prime object-as the light, in short, tions to what is true are thus injuriously interfered with, directs us along those paths where we may best discover viz. to believe, impaired by the knowledge that he has

and the most valuable faculty of the mind-the power, the modes of duly exercising and strengthening our men- believed wint is untrue. No man, who has ever thoughttal powers. By the excellent efforts of Mr. Stow, these fully descended among the sources of the strength of our principles have already obtained wide acceptance in this being, would wiltully tamper with that moral freshness, country ; but still we had no such guide as Mr. Willm, reality in the communications of the surrounding world;

which so unwillingly gives admission to the idea of an unwho has followed these through all their applications, and for it it has the beauty, it has also the delicacy of the determined the influence they should have over the con- newly-fallen snow—even a breath will sully it. But, beducting of every branch of education. The following is sides, the task to be accomplished by the instruction of the highly important on this subject ;—wo again quote from of science-can receive no aid from any such means.

young-so far from demanding this misrepresentation Dr. Nichol :

The object in view is not to make children conceive “In respect of the kind of Instruction a child ought to that they comprehend this or that particular science ; receive in elementary schools, there appear only two

but to acquaint them with those facts which science rules of paramount importance ; and, notwithstanding has shown to be of greatest consequence, and which the recent advances of the art of teaching in this country,

are nevertheless quite within their reach. To make a we would still do well to have them steadily in our

child acquainted with the mere form of any science is of thoughts. The first rule is this, that Instruction should

no value whatever ; but every science should be used as a never be given 80 as to interfere with, or be hostile light of instruction, in so far as it shows what are to, the higher work of Education, whose aim is the those emphatic-those critical points in the course of strengthening of the faculties, intellectual and moral. Nature's proceeding with which--as the least disguised This rule, rightly interpreted, would interpose decisivo exponents of her order-we ought to familiarise the negatives ; but it also leaves to Instruction a wide and opening mind. In this respect. science, in its existing unchecked range. It does not imply that no sentiment or

state, ought ever to be the guide of the teacher ; but affection be nourished until its utilities are demonstrated, he must superadd an art of his own--the power, viz., to for we hold that the child's mind is no tabula rasa, but a

present these in the manner that will interest the young. fruitful source of energies, which would act in any world, Judging from the texture of most elementary works yet and under any combination of circumstances ; neither does in circulation in this country, one would be inclined to init imply that our scholar must be retained in ignorance fer that the art of popular exposition is synonymous with of his necessary subserrience to those regularly-occurring toleration for inaccuracy and clumsiness ; but, rightly actions of external nature, which environ us from our

estimated, it requires powers both elevated and rare—not births-until their laws are made manifest to his reason ;

technical knowledge merely, but knowledge in the best for this would be to forget that one chief end of Education sense-knowledge that can rightly discriminate-in reand Instruction is to aid and interpret the action of the gard of the sciences; and, what is still more difficult, the world, and that Education of Fate which cannot be post- faculty of falling back, by aid of our undestroyed symponed, and which is incessant: but it certainly docs im- pathies, among those impulses and vivid conceptions by ply that we seek not by ambitious efforts to force forward the child's knowledge, or attempt to affix to his mind ac- * In the ensuing volume, many excellent suggestions cumulations of facts into contact with which he has not on the mode of treating the separate subjects of Instrucnaturally ceme, and unconnected with any theory into tion are recoinmended by the experience of M. Willm. I which-for a sanction to any rule of conduct, or an er- agree with them generally; though to some opinions I planation of aught attractivo to his curiosity—he would should demur: for instance, I doubt the critical accuracy naturally inquire. A singular chango took place some

of some of his views as to History; and I shonld be inyears ago, in the opinions prevalent in Scotland relative of Geography. These, however, are only specialties: the

clined to give a much larger development to the subject to the In truction fitting for youth. It cannot be gainsaid, spirit of the counsel given by this author is always high that, until the time I refer to, only very narrow views and unexceptional. He fails also in a due conception of had beer acted on in this matter-instruction being confined to the acquision of arts merely insirumental, and I and lucts of Pa;siolo;y.

the importance of an early knowledge of the great truths

heart of a child. The loftiest minds—at least in respect , uniformity, which any one may seo in the courts of Stonya which the external world is interpreted to the warm hurst? of culture—have invariably been those who have written most successfully for the instruction of youth ; and I

It is of no use disguising the realities of this question. esteem it a great misfortune, that so few finished scholars Liberality or no liberality. It simply amounts to this, and accurate thinkers have, amongst us, thought fit to em- are you in the momentous affrir of consolidating a national ploy themselves in this work.* The deficiency in our native education, to seek to conciliate whero actual conciliation literature, however, is now being well supplied by impor is impossible, unless by sacr'fices virtually destructive of tations from abroad: in Germany, at least, there is no lack of either disposition or power to interpret Nature, so the most important principles on which every such systhat her mighty voice reach effectively the meanest of her tem ought to be founded ; or openly acknowledging a children.”

difficulty that cannot be overcome? Is it not more manly, The great subject which now divides opinion in this as well as more honest and wise, to resign at once the country, as to the practicability of a united education of the advantages to be gained otherwise by a common action ? children of all religious sects, is fully discussed in these With all his desire for common education, M. Willm pages. M. Willm rather leans to the idea that, where has arrived at this conclusion in the existing position of the differences of opinion are very great, the preferable France ; and, judging from the tenor of a brief notice, plan is an education entirely separate. Dr. Nichol's this conclusion, in such circumstances, does not appear views, on the contrary, tend to the opposite conclusion, repugnant to the opinions of his editor. Fortunately, and he has expended much effort and skill in the attempt however, this peculiar difficulty is of less consequence in to induce our different churches to look more at those Great Britain ; and in so far as the varieties of our Progrand fundamental principlos, in respect to which they all testant churches are concerned, Dr. Nichol's earnest and agree, than to the minor divergencies which separate

elaborate pleadings on behalf of unity are entitled to them. He is not, of course, in the least desirous to un

every consideration.

With regard to one minor point in dervalue the importance of those points of dissension, but this inquiry, viz., the propriety of those religious tests he thinks that, in general, they are not what the laws of which still bar access to the chairs of our universities, a well-considered system of education would permit to be we think he is eminently successful; and as the subject impressed upon a child. M. Willm has probably been is of great and pressing moment, we subjoin the parainduced to the conclusion to which he evidently inclines, graph referring to it, and an important note attached :by the peculiar circumstances in which the question must

“ One practical result of these views seems eminently be presented to any Frenchman.

The difficulty there important. Moved by anxiety that a religious spirit arises, not because of disagreement among Protestants, shall pervade all teaching-or, in other words, that this but from the separation between Protestant and Catholic; important part of Man's naturo shall in nowise be reand it must never be forgotten that considerations come

pressed or held in abeyance--the Founders of many of

our Educational Institutions (among others, of the Scottish into play here, which neither do nor can operate in any Universities) have sought to secure fitting dispositions other view of the question. Not only are these disagree in the Instructor, by demanding that, previous to his ments in this case respecting religious doctrine, but the induction in office, he subscribe the special articles of a fundamental canons of morality are different, and the par-defensible on other grounds ; it may, for instance, form

Church. Now, in many cases, this subscription may be ties could not coalesce on any common principle as the part of a goneral ecclesiastical system : in this place, howfundamental one of education. How is it possible, for ever, I simply desire to examine the propriety and effiinstance, that a teacher in such a common school could cacy of the practice, in relation to the foregoing special develop the supreme authority and independence of con

end ; and, considered exclusively in this respect, I can see

no barrier to our immediate and direct condemnation of science, while one-half of his pupils virtually acknowledge all such usages. It would seem to follow at once, from another power as supreme-the power which alone is in our previous discussions, that the power of treating even fallible, and which holds in its hands the privilege of con

the science of Morals, religiously, has nothing to do with ferring absolution? How can an honest and effective among the Churches of these lands; and, assuredly, it is

the considerations which may guide the teacher's choice organization be formed on the basis of the freedom of edu- still more manifest that the relations between our religious cation-or the essential basis, that we have to do with sentiments and the results of the Physical Sciences, are the culture of the moral and intellectual faculties, but altogether remote from the questions about which sects that we have not to do with the formation of opinions, so

usually differ. There is, however, a further consideration

entitled to great weight in this matter. I have said that, long as you propose to include the members of a powerful to secure that the teacher be a religiously-disposed man, church, which holds, as inseparable from its constitution, it is unnecessary to descend among these disputed details: that even the sacred Scriptures must be held under lock but it is even more than unnecessary; such subscriptions until opened by the key of the priest--which, in fact, of mind desired, be it recollected, is what a powerful

are wholly unfiited to realise that object. The quality revolts from all real freedom, and whose whole consistent English Journal—the Quarterly Review—has well named and persisted efforts in the work of education has been to RELIGIOUSNESS ; while these Articles are mere formulas, extinguish personality, which is at war with that healthful expressing certain views of the logical relations existing

between metaphysical or religious ideas. The religiousvariety, characteristic of a healthful and unfettered nature,

ness of a man's nature consists in the clearness uith which and longs after that dull, that compressed, and half-dead he apprehends these ideies themselves ; in the depth, in

short, to which they haye penctrated among his senti* This expression is probably too sweeping. Several ex- ments and affections ; but the most acute and skilful discellent works on the Order of Nature, suited to the young, cussions may be conducted, with regard to their logical have of late been published in this country; although we may still derive much aid from our continental neigh hension of them, and over whom, practically, as efficient

relations, by persons who have only the slightest apprebours. I am glad to specify, as one of the best, and, in fact, as a pattern-PATTERSON’s Zoology for Schools.' i principles of life and action, they have comparatively little hope my pvcellent friend will carry oberond his ori- power. A man, in short, may be a thoroughly religious man, ginald_signs-a task for which his own freshness of cha who, either from inattention to the suljet, or a ciciency racies so a Imirably fits him.

of the logical powers, Las no interest in sets of articles;

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