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The Ministry could have come to the country with new men with unknown opinions—independent men who better prospects—defeated on the Health of Towns' bill, will give a fair vote to the ministry when they deserve it, on the Irish Land Improvement bill, and on the Irish order of things, and the Downing Street people are said

and against them as that seems necessary. This is a new Encumbered Land bill--than now, when they come with to be petrified at the idea of the electors being forgetful all these measures postponed, by their own consent, to of great party interests. make room for one bishop. Manchester knew not its own want. It had grown to greatness without a bishop, and

· EDUCATION, it might have survived for a single year longer without

On the eve of dissolving Parliament and appealing to this addition to its local government. There is a wide Council on Education to have a new minute drawn out

the electors, the Government instructed the Committee of difference between a bishop and a preacher. The church for them, which Lord John Russell says, carries them may be practically very weak in a very small diocese. back again to the minute of 1839. It was convenient to

The last Educational minute was We do not, therefore, express an opinion derogatory of the pursue this course. active portion of the Church, when we say, that Manches-would have been sadly torn on the hustings. The new

not easily defended in the House of Commons, and it ter could have done better without the mitre, than it can minute suspends the exercise of those spiritual functions do without its promised drains. The latter were matters assumed by the State ; although it is not so clear that this of life and death : the mitre, it will be allowed, affects resignation of its new duties applies to the church schools. .

We have no desire to see the State interfering in matters only church order, and is one of those things non-essen. beyond its capacity, whether in Church or Dissenting tial to christianity.

schools. The truth of the matter is, that through their We take our estimate from high authority. We proceed representatives, Dissenters are desirous not to be impli

cated at all in certain qualities of religious teaching. upon the testimony of Sir James Graham. He asserts

The new minute does not rescind the extravagant that the business of a bishop is light and casy. Ile insists

nonsense regarding apprentices, monitors, and all the that the superintendance of a diocese does not involve costly mechanism, and fruitful patronage therewith conlong hours of labour. He even hinted that some districts nected.

The alteration gives us one case more against the syswere in such exemplary order that they could go on for a

tem. If educational legislation can be thoroughly changed long time without any superintendance whatever. There per order on Dr. Key Shuttleworth at five minutes are many little things that can be done by deans and other notice, to pacify the electors ; may it not be changed subordinate dignitaries, and a neighbouring diocesan may back again by a similar order in five minutes more to lend his hand—the very thing literally required-upon past, and the septennial lease has commenced its cur

mollify the Bishop of Exeter, when the Elections are an emergency. We take, for example, the diocese of rency. Nothing less than the dismemberment and disperChester, which is now to be subdivided ; and assuming sion of this unconstitutional committeo should satisfy the it to be one of the largest in England, we find it also people. one of the most distinguished for efficient superintendence. bill than the production of one bishop.

Surely the education of millions is not less worthy of a We do not, indeed, often road speeches made by the Bishop of Chester in the House of Peers. That prelato is seldom

THE SCOTTISH WHIGS. found intermingling in those public discussions, and getting It may be doubted whether the empire furnishes worse in and out of the awkward scrapes in which his brethren tacticians or busier jobbers than the old rump everywhere for Exeter and London are perpetuallyinvolved; but we often of the Scottish Whigs. see his name announced as a preacher on some particular lock the wheel.

They are the patent drags of politics, ever at hand to occasion ; and he seems to engage very much in those They have so mismanaged the metropolis that, we su-s duties which were once understood to be characteristic of pect, an intelligent Conservative might beat them; merely a Christian Bishop.

because there is a general discontent with their high and

close-handed mode of management. Our estimate of the ease with which Manchester could

In Haddingtonshire they oppose the most intelligent have lived on un-Bishoped for another year, is taken from county candidate in Scotland, Sir David Baird, and after Sir James Graham's Speech. The subject is not one

the fashion of moles—they are blind like the moles-hare with which we are personally cognoscent; because we

been silently burrowing in the earth to throw up heaps

in his progress: have never known the benefits, and do not feel, of course,

On inquiring the reason, we find that the agitation the deprivation of a Bishop famine.

which he is leading against the law of entail is considered
so ungenteel, that he must be proscribed.

Before the next election, that movement will be fashion

able. The same tacticians have split the Glasgow conWe publish, in the heat of the general election—some- stituency, and whether their candidates, or Mr. Hastie where near its centre-too lato to give advica-and too and Mr. M'Gregor be returned, they have ruined their early to know what has been done. We are only able, dictatorship for ever. therefore, to say what has been anticipated. The In the smaller boroughs, the corresponding limbs of calculations, recently formed, gave to the Whigs a the party pursue the same

In Greenock, majority of eighty in the new Parliament. Less sanguine in Aberdeen, and such constituencies as tho Stirling reckoncrs mako out that the Whigs will have to go withborouglis, they have set up “ Apologies for Candidates' out a majority. They will be the strongest of three, but against some of the most intelligent men of the day, they will not have an absolute majority. By the aid of Sir rather than their power to’scll the boroughs to the paryt Robert Peel's contingent, they will be able to beat the Ben- who would best hunt for patronage should be questioned. tinck, or country party ; but that is only uncomfortable. The leprosy of old times cleaves, we fear, like that of The Ministry wanted to be independent of Peel.. Rumour Naaman the Syrian to the prophet's servant, for ever has it now that they must coalusce with him ; and coalitions to these “old coteries, clubs, or cliques," who snugly aro always dangerous. They detach loose boulders from manage matters in back parlours. the mass, who necessarily gravitate into opposition. We The doom and the spots of Gehazi is on them and their believe that the elections will bring into the House many incurable system.









In the person of this Mr. Schlosser is exempli- the humble character of echoes and sounding. fied a common abuse, not confined to literature. boards to swell the uproar of the original mob. An artist from the Italian opera of London and In this way is thrown away the opportunity, Paris, making a professional excursion to our pro- not only of applying corrections to false national vinces, is received according to the tariff of the tastes, but oftentimes even to the unfair accidents metropolis ; no one being bold enough to dispute of luck that befal books. For it is well known decisions coming down from the courts above. In to all who watch literature with vigilance, that that particular case there is seldom any reason to books and authors have their fortunes, which travel complain-since really out of Germany and Italy upon a far different scale of proportions from those there is no city, if you except Paris and London, that measure their merits. Not even the caprice possessing materials, in that field of art, for the or the folly of the reading public is required to composition of an audience large enough to act as account for this. Very often, indeed, the whole a court of revision. It would be presumption in difference between an extensive circulation for one the provincial audience, so slightly trained to good book, and none at all for another of about equal music and dancing, if it should affect to reverse a merit, belongs to no particular blindness in men, judgment ratified in the supreme capital. The but to the simple fact, that the one has, whilst the result, therefore, is practically just, if the original other has not, been brought effectually under the verdict was just ; what was right from the first eyes of the public. By far the greater part of cannot be made wrong by iteration. Yet, even in books are lost, not because they are rejected, but such a case, there is something not satisfactory to because they are never introduced. In any proa delicate sense of equity; for the artist returns per sense of the word, very few books are pubfrom the tour as if from some new and independ- lished. Technically they are published ; which ent triumph, whereas, all is but the reverberation means, that for six or ten times they are adverof an old one ; it seems a new access of sunlight, tised, but they are not made known to attentive whereas it is but a reflex illumination from ears, or to ears prepared for attention. And satellites.

amongst the causes which account for this differIn literature the corresponding case is worse. ence in the fortune of books, although there are An author, passing by means of translation before many, we may reckon, as foremost, personal accia foreign people, ought de jure to find himself be- dents of position in the authors. For instance, with fore a new tribunal; but de facto, he does not. us in England it will do a bad book no ultimate Like the opera artist, but not with the same pro- service, that it is written by a lord, or a bishop, or priety, he comes before a court that never inter- a privy counsellor, or a member of Parliamentfores to disturb a judgment, but only to re-affirm though, undoubtedly, it will do an instant serit. Ard he returns to his native country, quar- vice-it will sell an edition or so. This being tering in his armorial bearings these new trophies, the case, it being certain that no rank will reas though won by new trials, when, in fact, they prieve a bad writer from final condemnation, the are due to servilo ratifications of old ones. When sycophantic glorifier of the public fancies his idol Sue, or Balzac, Hugo, or George Sand, comes justified ; but not so. A bad book, it is true, will before an English audience—the opportunity is not be saved by advantages of position in the auinvariably lost for estimating them at a new angle thor ; but a book moderately good will be extraof sight. All who dislike them lay them aside-vagantly aided by such advantages. Lectures on whilst those only apply themselves seriously to Christianity, that happened to be respectably their study, who are predisposed to the particular written and delivered, had prodigious success in key of feeling, through which originally these my young days, because, also, they happened to authors had prospered. And thus a new set of be lectures of a prelate ; three times the ability judges, that might usefully have modified the nar- would not have procured them any attention had row views of the old ones, fall by mere inertia into they been the lectures of an obscure curate.

Yet, 20


on the other hand, it is but justice to say, that, if viz., the temple of Ephesus, protesting, with tears written with three times less ability, lawn-sleeves in his eyes, that he had no other way of getting would not have given them buoyancy, but, on the himself a name, has got it in spite of us all. contrary, they would have sunk the bishop irre- He's booked for a ride down all history, whether coverably; whilst the curate, favoured by obscu- you and I like it or not. Every pocket dictionary rity, would have survived for another chance. knows that Erostratus was that scamp. So of So again, and indeed, more than so, as to poetry. Martin, the man that parboiled, or par-roasted Lord Carlisle, of the last generation, wrote tole- York Minster some ten or twelve years back; rable verses. They were better than Lord Ros- that fellow will float down to posterity with the common's, which, for 150 years, the judicious pub- annals of the glorious cathedral : he will lic has allowed the booksellers to incorporate, “Pursue the triumph and partake the gale,” along with other refuse of the seventeenth and whilst the founders and benefactors of the Minster eighteenth century, into the costly collections of

are practically forgotten. the “British Poets.” And really, if you will insist These incendiaries, in short, are as well known on odious comparisons, they were not so very as Ephesus or York; but not one of us can tell, much below the verses of an amiable prime minis- without humming and hawing, who it was that ter known to us all. Yet, because they wanted rebuilt the Ephesian wonder of the world, or that vital stamina, not only they fell, but, in falling, repaired the time-honoured Minster. Equally they caused the earl to reel much more than any in literature, not the weight of service done, or commoner would have done. Now, on the other the power exerted, is sometimes considered hand, a kinsman of Lord Carlisle, viz., Lord chiefly-either of these must be very conspicuous Byron, because he brought real genius and power before it will be considered at all—but the splen. to the effort, found a vast auxiliary advantage in dour, or the notoriety, or the absurdity, or even a peerage and a very ancient descent. On these the scandalousness of the circumstances* surdouble wings he soared into a region of public in- rounding the author. terest, far higher than ever he would have reached

Schlosser must have benefited in some such by poetic power alone. Not only all his rubbish

adventitious way before he ever could have risen which in quantity is great-passed for jewels, but to his German celebrity. What was it that raised also what are incontestably jewels have been, and him to his momentary distinction ? Was it somewill be, valued at a far higher rate than if they thing very wicked that he did, or something very had been raised from less aristocratic mines. brilliant that he said ? I should rather conjecSo fatal for mediocrity, so gracious for real power, ture that it must have been something inconis any adventitious distinction from birth, station, ceivably absurd which he proposed. Any one of or circumstances of brilliant notoriety. In reality, the three achievements stands good in Germany the public, our never-sufficiently-to-be-respected for a reputation. But, however it were that Mr. mother, is the most unutterable sycophant that Schlosser first gained his reputation, mark what ever the clouds dropped their rheum upon. She is now follows. On the wings of this equivocal realways ready for jacobinical scoffs at a man for putation he flies abroad to Paris and London. being a lord, if he happens to fail ; she is always There he thrives, not by any approving experience ready for toadying a lord, if he happens to make or knowledge of his works, but through blind a hit. Ah, dear sycophantic old lady, I kiss your faith in his original German public. And back he sycophantic hands, and wish heartily that I were flies afterwards to Germany, as if carrying with a duke for your sake!

him new and independent testimonies to his merit, It would be a mistake to fancy that this ten- and from two nations that are directly concerned dency to confound real merit and its accidents in his violent judgments; whereas (which is the of position is at all peculiar to us or to our age. simple truth) he carries back a careless reverberaDr. Sacheverell, by embarking his small capital tion of his first German character, from those who of talent on the spring-tide of a furious political have far too much to read for declining aid from collision, brought back an ampler return for his vicarious criticism when it will spare that effort little investment than ever did Wickliffe or Luther. to themselves. Thus it is that German crities Such was his popularity in the heart of love and become audacious and libellous. Kohl, Von Rauthe heart of hatred, that he would have been assas

mer, Dr. Carus, physician to the King of Saxony, sinated by the Whigs, on his triumphal progresses by means of introductory letters floating them through England, had he not been canonised into circles far above any they had seen in homely by the Torics. Ile was a dead man if he had not Germany, are qualified by our own negligence been suddenly gilt and lacquered as an idol. and indulgence for mounting a European triNeither is the case peculiar at all to England. bunal, from which they pronounce malicious Ronge, the ci-devant Romish priest (whose edicts against ourselves. Sentinels present arms name pronounce as you would the English word to Von Raumer at Windsor, because he rides in a urong, supposing that it had for a second syllable the final a of “sopha,” i, e., Wronguh), has been * Even Pope, with all his natural and reasonable infound a wrong-headed man by all parties, and in fact that a jest in his mouth became twice a jest in a

terest in aristocratie society, could not slut his eyes to the a venial degree is, perhaps, a stupid man ; but he lord's. But still he failed to perceive what I am here conmoves about with more eclat by far than the tending for, that if the jest happened to miss fire, through ablest man in Germany. And, in days of old, would be far worse for the lord than the commoner.

the misfortune of bursting its barrel, the consequences the man that burned down a miracle of beauty, There is, you see, a blind sort of compensation.


carriage of Queen Adelaide's; and Von Raumer Of Swift, Mr. Schlosser selects for notice three immediately conceives himself the Chancellor of works—the “Drapier's Letters,” “Gulliver's Traall Christendom, keeper of the conscience to uni- vels,” and the “ Tale of a Tub.” With respect to versal Europe, upon all questions of art, manners, the first, as it is a necessity of Mr. S. to be for politics, or any conceivable intellectual rela-ever wrong in his substratum of facts, he adopts tions of England. Schlosser meditates the same the old erroneous account of Wood's contract as

to the copper coinage, and of the imaginary But have I any right to quote Schlosser's words wrong which it inflicted on Ireland. Of all from an English translation ? I do so only be- Swift's villainies for the sake of popularity, and cause this happens to be at hand, and the German still more for the sake of wielding this popularity not. German books are still rare in this country, vindictively, none is so scandalous as this. In though more (by 1,000 to 1) than they were thirty any new life of Swift the case must be stated years ago. But I have a full right to rely on the de novo. Even Sir Walter Scott is not imparEnglish of Mr. Davison. “I hold in my hand,” as tial; and for the same reason as now foreca gentlemen so often say at public meetings, “a cer- me to blink it, viz., the difficulty of presenting tificate from Herr Schlosser, that to quote Mr. the details in a readable shape. “ Gulliver's Davison is to quote him.” The English translation Travels" Schlosser strangely considers“ spun out is one which Mr. Schlosser “ durchgelesen hat, to an intolerable extent.” Many evil things und für deren genauigkeit und richtigkeit er bürgt might be said of Gulliver; but not this. The [has read through, and for the accuracy and pro- captain is anything but tedious. And, indeed, it priety of which he pledges liimself]. Mr. Schlos- becomes a question of mere mensuration, that can ser was so anxious for the spiritual welfare of us be settled in a moment. A year or two since I had poor islanders, that he not only read it through, in my hands a pocket edition, comprehending all but he has even aufmerksam durchgelesen it [read the four parts of the worthy skipper's adventures it through wide awake) und geprüft [and care- within a single volume of 420 pages. Some part of fully examined it] ; nay, he has done all this in the space was also wasted on notes, often very idle. company with the translator. “ Oh ye Athe- Now thelst part containstwo separate voyages (Lil. nians ! how hard do I labour to earn your ap- liput and Blefuscu), the 2d, one, the 3d, five, and plause!” And, as the result of such herculean the 4th, one ; so that, in all, this active navigator, labours, a second time he makes himself surety who has enriched geography, I hope, with somefor its precision ; "er bürgt also dafür, wie für thing of a higher quality than your old muffs that seine eigne arbeit" [he guarantees it accordingly thought much of doubling Cape Horn, here gives as he would his own workmanship). Were it not us nine great discoveries, far more surprising than for this unlimited certificate, I should have sent the pretended discoveries of Sinbad (which are for the book to Germany. As it is, I need not known to be fabulous), averaging, quam proximè, wait ; and all complaints on this score I defy, forty-seven small 16mo pages each. Oh yon unabove all from Herr Schlosser. *

conscionable German, built round in your own In dealing with an author so desultory as Mr. country with circumvallations of impregnable Schlosser, the critic has a right to an extra allow-4tos, oftentimes dark and dull as Averuus—that ance of desultoriness for his own share ; so excuse you will have the face to describe dear excellent me, reader, for rushing at once in medias res. Captain Lemuel Gulliver of Redriff, and subse

quently of Newark, that “ darling of children and Mr. Schlosser, who speaks English, who has read men,” as tedious. It is exactly because he is not rather too much English for any good that he has turned it to, and who ought to have a 'keen eye for the English tedious, because he does not shoot into German version of his own book, after so much reading and study foliosity, that Schlosser finds him “intoleravle." of it, has, however, overlooked several manifest errors.

I have justly transferred to Gulliver's use the I do not mean to tax Mr. Davison with general inaccu- ) words originally applied by the poet to the robin racy. On the contrary, he seems wary, and in most cases successful as a dealer with the peculiarities of the German. red-breast, for it is remarkable that Gulliver and But several cases of crror I detect without needing the the Arabian Nights are amongst the few books original : they tell their own story. And one of these I where children and men find themselves meeting here notice, not only for its own importance, but out of love to Schlosser, and by way of nailing his guarantee to and jostling each other. This was the case from the counter--not altogether as a bad shilling, but as a its first publication, just one hundred and twenty light one. It p. 5 of Vol. 2, in a foot-note, which is speaking of Kant, we read of his attempt to introduce the notion

years since. “It was received,” says Dr. Johnson, of negatire greatness into Philosophy. Negative greatness ! “ with such avidity, that the price of the first What strange bird may that be? Is it the ornithorynchus edition was raised before the second could be porado.rus? Mr. Schlosser was not wide awake there. made-it was read by the high and the low, the The reference is evidently to Kant's essay upon the advantages of introducing into philosophy the algebraic idea of learned and the illiterate. Criticism was lost in pegative quantities. It is one of Kant's grandest gleams wonder.” Now, on the contrary, Schlosser woninto hidden truth. Were it only for the merits of this ders not at all, but simply criticises ; which we most masterly essay in reconstituting the algebraic meaning of a negative quantity so generally misunderstood as a could bear, if the criticism were even ingenious. negation of quantity, and which eren Sir Isaac Newton Whereas, he utterly misunderstands Swift, and is misconstrued as regarded its metaphysics), great would have been the service rendered to logie by Kant. But a malicious calumniator of the captain who, luckily, there is a greater. From this little brochure I am satis- roaming in Sherwood, and thinking, often with a fied was derived originally the German regeneration of sigh, of his little nurse,* Glumdalelitch, wou the Irnamic philosophy, its expansion through the idea of polarity, indifference, &c. Oh, Mr. Schlosser, you had not geprüft p. 5 of vol. 2. You skipped the notes.

* "Little nurse:"--the word Glumdalclitch, in

trouble himself slightly about what Heidelberg the destiny of man, or the relations of man to might say in the next century. There is but one God. Anger, therefore, Swift might feel, and he example on our earth of a novel received with felt it* to the end of his most wretched life ; but such indiscriminate applause as “Gulliver;" and what reasonable ground had a man of sense for that was "Don Quixote.” Many have been wel astonishmentthat a princess, who (according to comed joyfully by a class—these two by a people. her knowledge) was sincerely pious, should deNow, could that have happened had it been cline to place such a man upon an Episcopal characterised by dulness? Of all faults, it throne ? This argues, beyond a doubt, that Swift could least have had that. As to the “ Tale of a was in that state of constitutional irreligion, irreTub," Schlosser is in such Ciinmerian vapours, ligion from a vulgar temperament, which imputes that no system of bellow's could blow open a shaft to everybody else its own plebeian feelings. People or tube through which he might gain a glimpse differed, he fancied, not by more and less religion, of the English truth and daylight. It is useless but by more and less dissimulation. And, there. talking to such a man on such a subject. I fore, it seemed to him scandalous that a princess, consign him to the attentions of some patriotic who must, of course, in her heart regard (in comIrishman.

mon with himself) all mysteries as solemn Schlosser, however, is right in a graver reflec- masques and mummeries, should pretend, in a tion which he makes upon the prevailing philo- case of downright serious business, to pump up, sophy of Swift, viz., that “all his views were out of old dry conventional hoaxes, any solid obdirected towards what was immediately beneficial, jection to a man of his shining merit.

The which is the characteristic of savages.” This is Trinity,for instance, that he viewed as the passundeniable. The meanness of Swift's nature, word, which the knowing ones gave in answer to and his rigid incapacity for dealing with the the challenge of the sentinel; but, as soon as it grandeurs of the human spirit, with religion, with had obtained admission for the party within the poetry, or even with science, when it rose above gates of the camp, it was rightly dismissed to the mercenary practical, is absolutely appalling. oblivion or to laughter. No case so much illusHis own yahoo is not a more abominable one- trates Swift's essential irreligion ; since, if he sided degradation of humanity, than is he him-had shared in ordinary human feelings on such self under this aspect. And, perhaps, it places subjects, not only he could not have been surthis incapacity of his in its strongest light, when prised at his own exclusion from the bench of we recur to the fact of his astonishment at a re- bishops, after such ribaldries, but originally he ligious princess refusing to confera bishoprick upon would have abstained from them as inevitable one that had treated the Trinity, and all the pro- bars to clerical promotion, eren upon principles foundest mysteries of Christianity, not with mere of public decorum. scepticism, or casual sneer, but with set pompous As to the style of Swift, Mr. Schlosser shows merriment and farcical buffoonery. This digni- himself without sensibility in his objections, as tary of the church, Dean of the most conspicuous the often hackneyed English reader shows himself cathedral in Ireland, had, in full canonicals, without philosophic knowledge of style in his apmade himself into a regular mountebank, for the plause. Schlosser thinks the style of Gulliver sake of giving fuller effect, by the force of con- somewhat dull.” This show's Schlosser's presumptrast, to the silliest of jests directed against all tion in speaking upon a point where he wanted, that was most inalienable from Christianity. Ridi- 1st, original delicacy of tact; and, 2dly, familiar culing such things, could he, in any just sense, be knowledge of English. Gulliver's style is purposely thought a Christian? But, as Schlosser justly touched slightly with that dulness of circumstantiremarks, even ridiculing the peculiarities of ality which besets the excellent, but “ somewhat Luther and Calvin as he did ridicule them, Swift dull” race of men-old sea captains. Yet it could not be thought other than constitutionally wears only an aërial tint of dulness; the felicity incapable of religion. Even a Pagan philosopher, of this colouring in Swift's management is, that if made to un:lerstand the case, would be in- it never goes the length of wearying, but only of capable of scoffing at any form, natural or casual, giving a comic air of downright Wapping and simple or distorted, which might be assumed by Rotherhithe verisimilitude. All men grow dull, the most solemn of problems--problems that rest and ought to be dull, that live under a solemn with the weight of worlds upon the human spirit-- sense of eternal danger, one inch only of plank “Fix'd fate, free-will, fore-knowledge absolute." (often worm-eaten) between themselves and the

grave ; and, also, that see for ever one wilderness Brobdingnagian, absolutely means little nurse, and nothing of waters-sublime, but (like the wilderness on else. It may seem odd that the captain should call any nurse of Brobdingnag, however kind to him, by such an epithet shore) monotonous. All sublime people, being as lillle; and the reader may fancy that Sherwood forest monotonous, have a tendency to be dull, and suhad put it into his head, where Robin Hood always called blime things also. Milton and Æschylus, the his right hand man “Little John," not although, but expressly because John stood seven feet high in his stockings. sublimest of men, are crossed at times by a shade of But the truth is--that Glumda!clitch was little; and dulness. It is their weak side. But as to a sea literally so; she was only nine years old, and (says the captain,), little of her age,” being barely forty feet high. captain, a regular nor’-nor’-wester, and sou’-sou’She bad time to grow certainly, but as she had so much easter, he ought to be kicked out of the room if to do before she could overtake other women, it is pro- he is not dull. It is not “ship-shape,” or barely Þable that she would turn out what, in Westmoreland, they call a little stiffenger-very little, if at all, higher than a common English church steeple.

* See his bitter letters to Lady Suffolk,

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