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IMPENDING REVOLUTION IN THE DEKKAN.
FORMERLY it would have been a task of much difficulty | drabad province, since Nizam ool Moolk became its virto interest the public of this country in any of the passing tual sovereign in 1724, to prove interesting. Most perevents, howover important, of Indian history. Steam has sons are familiar with the troubles which broke out in altered all this. It is now possible to excite as deep a India after the death of Aurungzebe, when the unwieldy solicitude respecting the revolutions and changes of dynasty fabric of the Mogul empire, which had grown up and which take place within the limits of our Asiatic empire, spread with wonderful rapidity, hastened, with no less as it is to awaken public sympathy with any other portion swiftness, towards its dissolution.
It possessed nothing of our stupendous dominions. The chain has become visible of that compact and intricate organisation which enabled which connects the Indian Peninsula with Great Britain. the declining empire of Rome to resist, through a long The Overland Mail is one of our habitual necessities, so series of ages, the attacks of barbarous nations, and to that we could no more do without fortnightly news from crumble away at length, rather beneath its own weight, Bombay, Calcutta, and Madras, than we can, during the than through the shocks imparted to it from external positting of Parliament, without a daily report of its pro- litical bodies. The Mogul empiro was a rough, ill-conceedings.
structed machine, which had no sooner been put in motion We are, therefore, induced to direct the attention of than it began to decay; and, when it fell to pieces, they our readers, very briefly, to what is now taking place, or who should have experienced the strongest desire to reis likely soon to happen, in one of the greatest provinces unite and build it up again were the most eager to comof the Dekkan—the dominions of the Nizam of Ilydrabad. plete its ruin, and to enrich themselves with its spoils. The islands of Great Britain and Ireland comprehend an In history, as in everything else, the majority of manarea of about fifty-seven thousand square miles. His kind are imposed upon by pompous and high-sounding Highness the Nizam's territories consist of about ninety- names. They read of the Mogul empire, and imagine five thousand square miles, a very large proportion of that it required unrivalled genius to overthrow it, and which has, at different times, been added to the original erect the fabric of a new political power on its ruins. But province of Hydrabad by the generosity of the East India who were the men that shattered the imperial GovernCompany. Throughout this extensive kingdom, anarchy, ment of Delhi, and converted their several Soubahs into the most complete, prevails at the present moment: the so many independent sovercignties? No statesmen of army, increased unnecessarily, but constantly defrauded transcendent abilities, but bold and crafty adventurers, of its pay, is in a state of open rebellion ; the people, op- who were indebted much 'more to the accidents of their pressed, pillaged, and denied justice, would gladly take position than to their own abilities. As in such a game up the same position with the army if they dared ; while it was necessary that some should lose, so likewise was it the subsidiary forco, supplied to His Highness by the necessary that some should win; and they whose courage Company, for the purpose of overawing his own troops, or villany was crowned with success were often not inteland keeping his subjects in reluctant subjection, is in a lectually superior to those whom, in the combinations of state of comparative demoralisation, through the concur- the hour, they outwitted and cut off. rence of various causes, which may, perhaps, be hercafter Nevertheless, the founder of the Nizam's power in the enumerated.
Dekkan was a man of remarkable talent, and mental reAs another mail must arrive before the present article
From the moment he determined to fall off appears, numerous modifications may be introduced into from the emperor, which he did rather in compliance the internal relations of the Hydrabad State. But the with custom, than in consequence of any original political experience of a full century warrants us in maintaining, conception of his own, he had to contend with numerous that nothing can prevent its progress from bad to worse and great difficulties. All the subtlety, power, and but the pensioning of his Highness, and the substitution wickedness of the Court he saw swayed against him. of British for Native authority throughout the country. But we must not thence infer that he himself was either If the disorders which have forced us into the adoption good or powerless. On the contrary, force, in this struggle, of this opinion were of a lingering character, we might was pitted against force, and villany against villany. In hope that a change of men, bringing along with it, also, the end, the Soubadhar of the Dekkan's wickedness was tria change of measures, would stay the progress of disso-umphant. In self-defence partly, and partly through ambilution, enable his Ilighness to recover the ground which tion, he sought to escape from the necessity of obedience he has lost, and spare the British Government the pain to the emperor. Another nobleman was appointed to sucful duty, long deferred, of stepping in to preserve a nu- ceed him. An army was sent to reduce him to subjection. merous and once powerful people from something like He faced the forces of his prince, as he would have done social extinction.
those of a public enemy, in the field ; and his proposed But no one can have studied the history of Hydrabad successor having fallen into his hands, in consequence of without being convinced that its disorders are chronic, a brilliant victory, be sent back his head to Delhi, as the that they are inherent in the very constitution of the most striking reply he could offer to the commands of Government, and that, consequently, nothing whatever him who had originally made him Soubadhar. can heal them while that wretched modification of evil, Nizam ool Moolk having, by successful rebellion, made polity, is suffered to exist. Unfortunately, there is too himself sovereign of the Dekkan, found his throne engreat a sameness in Oriental history for a detailed narra- circled by multiplied and hourly increasing dangers. Extive of the occurrences which have taken place in the Hy- treme old age was fast creeping upon him. One of his
own sons, in obedience to the immemorial practice of the It is not, at present, our purpose to dwell on military East, took up arms against his authority in 1740, but details, for which reason we have merely glanced at the was, without difficulty, defeated ; after which, strange to struggles which the English and French carried on, for say, the father spared his life, and not only so, but so many years, in this part of India. Not that this wild trented him kindly. An old prince in the East has always and irregular war was destitute of interest, or that the what, in nautical phraseology, is denominated a warm men, by whom it was carried on, were unendowed with berth. Presuming years to be invariably accompanied those brilliant qualities which shed a halo around human acby weakness, the Mahrattas invaded the Nizam's do- tions, and command the attention of posterity ; but that minions, but met, from the energetic usurper, with so our object just now is to describe the disorganisation fierce a reception, that they were exceedingly happy to be existing in the Nizam’s dominions, and to point out some permitted to retire within their own borders, and be free of the causes which would appear to have led to it. from pursuit there.
The Company's first direct connexion with the Nizam In 1718, Nizam ool Moolk died at an exceedingly ad- took place in 1759, when a treaty was concluded, sevanced age, leaving behind him twelve children, six sons curing peculiar advantages to both parties. But treaties and six daughters, erery one of whom, from the loose are seldom kept. In private life, when men enter into order of succession observed in the East, thought imme- contracts they usually design to fulfil them, because bediately of arriving at the crown, the sons in person, the fore making any engagement, they are careful to underdaughters through their male offspring. Nazir Jung, the stand that benefit will accrue to them by keeping their rebel of 1740, being in the capital at the time of his faith. It is not so with princes or states. The intricafather's death, was enabled to make the first trial at cies and complexities of public officers are so great that wielding the sceptre of the Dekkan. Into the contest no man or set of men can look forward and ascertain and disorders which followed, it would be in no way pro- what course it will be for the interest of his country to fitable to enter. The series of events was sufficiently intri- pursue, when a few years or even months shail have cate, and the crimes perpetrated were of the most startling elapsed; and, therefore, however honest may be the incharacter ; but this in the East constitutes no novelty. tentions with which the parties contracting enter into The rule is to behold brother warring against brother, treaties, it must depend very much on chance whether in and after the death of each successive sovereign, to see the long run their engagements are or are not fulfilled. the palace deluged with the blood of his family. No This is mere especially the case in India, where so mulclass of persons taste less of the happiness of security tiplied and conflicting are the interests, so complicated than they who aspire to the diadem. From the moment the relations, so fluctuating and uncertain the characters they ascend above the level of private life, they become of states and inen ; it is altogether impossible to foresee
a mark for the shafts of all other men, and are hunted what turn aff: irs may take in particular conjunctures, · down like so many wild beasts, their own brethren and and, therefore, it is difficult for human power to preserve near relatives almost invariably leading the chace. unvarying consistency.
A remarkable example of this truth was afforded by the This, if properly considered, will explain many of those successors of this same Nizam ool Moolk, who, discover- anomalies in our Asiatic liistory about which historians ing the superior daring and vigour of Europeans, took a declaim to so little purpose. Most of these writers are number of French officers into their pay, and thus origi- little acquaintel with politics, either in theory or pracnated that practice which has since proved fatal to so tice. Learned, perhaps, in the records of past times, many native princes. There in the Dekkan, as in every but unacquainted with mankind, and with the business of where else, the rivalry between the French and English existing dates, they reason like rhetoricians, and too immediately displayed itself. The British, impatient of often decide like pedants. We must make great allowthe ascendancy which they saw their neighbours ac- ances for men acting on the spur of the moment, judging quiring in the Dekkan, strenuously put in practice every of events amid the turmoil of the battle, or in the obscuart of which they were masters to counteract their policy rity of an atmosphere rendered opaque by intrigue and lies. and overthrow the fabric of their ambition. On the In their transactions with the Nizam, the servants of other hand, the French in Southern India, led by a series of the East India Company often gave proof of more zeal able and unscrupulous adventurers, were no less anxious than discretion. They hurried into compacts, they formed and persevering in their opposition to us ; and for a time alliances, they conducted treaties, they engaged in wars, their supple manners and national aptitude for intrigue the final result of which was that the territories of their secured them a decided superiority. For more than forty ally were perpetually augmented, while his capacity for years the contest was carried on at every native Court in ruling over them appeared to diminish in the same ratio. India. At the outset the advantage was nearly always Probably it will be thought no crime in an Indian prince on the side of the French; their suppleness of manners,
to deviso the overthrow of the British power. We which often amounted to cringing servility, recommending scarcely, therefore, impute that as an offence to any of them far more strongly to the classes whose minds they the successors of Nizam ool Moolk. But when a sovesought to wield, than the proud, haughty, and often im- reign has been placed on the throne by any particular practicable character of the English. Energy, however, perso or persons--when through the same influence he is power.
In the cabinet and in the field, the genius of has long been maintained in that position—when with France retired before that of Great Britain. Our de persevering zeal and fidelity his enemies, internal and feats, equally with our victories, inspired us with the external, have been suppressed— when his revenues have indomitable resolution to persevere, till, in the year 1798, been improved, his foreign relations rendered easy, and we succeeded in annihilating the last remnant of French his whole condition in every way made better-we think power in the Dekkan,
that some degree of gratitude will be regarded as pardonable even in an Indian sovereign. Now the history of single stroke, or offering the slightest opposition, they the Nizams of Hydrabad exhibits them in the light of obeyed the orders of England, being every one of them dependents of the British power. We have always been intimately convinced that her Star was in the ascendant their defenders and protectors ; we have preserved them throughout the East. They were forthwith conveyed to from the ambition of the Mahrattas, of Hyder Ali, and Europe, and restored to their country without the cereTippoo Sultan ; we have put down, in their behalf, innu- mony of exchange of prisoners. merable rebellions among their own subjects ; we have From that time to the present, His Highness has been enabled them to collect their revenues, to amass ar- acknowledged under British infinence and protection. A mics, and to extend and consolidate their power. considerable British force, called the Nizam's contingent,
But what return have they made to us for all this? has been quartered in his territory at his expense, for the Formerly, when the hope of expelling us from India was suppression of insurrection at home, and for the defence still rife among the native chiefs, Hindoo and Mahomedan, of his frontier from sudden inroads. This corps has been they intrigued perpetually in order to effect that purpose ; gradually augmented from six to about twelve thousand and afterwards, when that prospect no longer presented men of all arms, commanded by British officers, and difitself, they secluded themselves in sullen and frigid pom- fering in no respect from the Company's regiments. But posity, and devoted their lives to sensual indulgences, they by no means constitute the sole military establishcontriving to cast upon us all the odium and burden of ment of Hydrabad. Like all other Indian princes, the misgovernment. Though perpetually warned of the danger Nizam is fond of the pomp and trappings of war, though they would inevitably incur by entertaining French ad- we have long relieved him from the necessity of ever carventurers in their service, they, towards the close of rying it on seriously, except against his own subjects. He the last century, encouraged M. Raymond, a man of has, consequently, collected around him a rabble of addistinguished abilities, to organise an armed force at venturers and vagabonds from all parts of India, RobilHydrabad, no otherwise dependent on the sorereign than las, Pathans, Affghans, Arabs, Sikhs, Rajpoots, amountthat as it received its pay from him. His Highness, there-ing in all to eighteen thousand men, whose pay is always fore, observed its youth with delight, inwardly congratu- in arrears, and who are, consequently, as a rule, on the lating himself that he should soon possess the power of verge of rebellion. setting the English at defiance, and, perhaps, of making But has his Highness, it may be asked, no use whatgood lis claim to the sovereignty of all Southern India. ever for these troops? We would not undertake posiM. Raymond encouraged his countrymen to flock round tively to maintain that lie has none. lle certainly finds him, and a perpetual current of adventurers speedily set employment for them occasionally, first, in creating more in from Paris to Hydrabad. The corps of mercenaries rebellions among his subjects, and next, in quelling them. augmented rapidly, until it at length amounted to fourteen But what, then, is the character of his subjects ? Are thousand men, thoroughly disciplined and officered by they a warlike people, given naturally to strife and conEuropeans. By degrees its icaders caused the Nizam and tention, and averse from all peaceable callings? Quite his court to feel trat they did not look upon themselves the reverse. They are, to the last degree, pacific and inin the light of dependents on the royal bounty, but wielded dustrious ; but, instructed by sad experience in the independently that instrument with which thrones are set secret of all native government, they find it incumbent on ap or pulled down.
His Ilighness, not without reason, them, in self-defence, to cultivate the art of war, and be became alarmed. Ile felt that he had created for himself always ready to take up arms against the forces of the a master from whose grasp he could not possibly escape crown. Accordingly, all the wealthy and powerful without foreign aid. Still, in obedience to the ruling Zemindars, or holders of landed estates throughout the maxims of Indian policy, he dissembled and temporised, Nizam's dominions, entertain soldiers in their pay, which, and threw himself upon the mercy of fortune.
taken collectivciy, would probably exceed in amount the It just then happened, agreeably enough to his Iligh- British contingent. The men are constantly under arms ness's wishi, tłuat 1. Raymond's corps excited the uneasi- to protect the villages, not from the excesses of foreign ness of the Governor-General, who was not ignorant of invaders or public enemies, but from the forces of the Napoleon's designs upon the East, and considered the Prince who go forth annually for the collection of tribute, Hydrabad force simply as one of his advanced posts. Re-preciscly as the marauding armics of antiquity, or of presentations were, therefore, made to the Nizam, point- France in modern times, used to collect contributions ing out the impolicy of his giving encouragement to the from all who were weaker than themselves. French, and signifying distinctly that the British Govern- These contributions his Highness's army denominates ment would not stand quietly by, and see the principal taxes, while the people give them the name of chond, influence in the Dekkan monopolised by its enemies. In or tribute collected by force. The rationalé of collecting this step, the Nizam saw his own deliverance, and imme- those contributions is extraordinary. His Highness's diately consented, strictly out of deference to the English, troops march up to a village, encamp before its wallsthat the necessary measures should at once be taken for nearly every cluster of human habitations being fortified the suppression of the French corps. M. Raymond had in India-and send in the demands of the treasury for recently died, and the officers next in succession to him such and such an amount of money. On the other band, were engaged in angry contests for the chief command. the Zemindars, previously informed of the approach of While they were amusing themselves in this manner, a the army, have been careful to concentrate their smail British force, with his Highness's consent, sur- own forces, with which they line the walls of the rounded their cantonments, and summoned them to dis- or village, and take possession of every comband their troops, throw down their arms, and deliver manding post in the neighbourhood. Regular nethemselves up prisoners of war. Without striking a gotiations now take place between the belligerent parties—his Highness's officers lowering their demands, | industry. If its Sovereign, therefore, be in love with or raising, or adhering to them, according to the numbers treasure, he may amass it without paralysing trade or of the enemy, or the strength of their walls. Diplomatic utterly impoverishing his subjects, though even the withproceedings are carried on sometimes for whole weeks, drawal of so large a mass of the precious metals from the when the issue of a contest appears doubtful to the market must occasion some derangement in monetary leaders on both sides. Sometimes, however, the Zerain- transactions. But where in countries like Oude and dars, confident in their own strength, refuse all payment Hydrabad, we find the princes smitten by the lust of gold, whatsoever, alleging the badness of the preceding har-grasping and hoarding it up indefinitely, we cannot avoid vest, or the scantiness of the rains, or the ravages of in- throwing blame on the supreme government for suffering sects, as their reason for demanding a total remission of so many millions of its subjects to be oppressed and piltaxes. The signification of this logic is perfectly under- laged by individuals, so little deserving to exercise the stood ; but, as might alone there constitutes right, his functions of delegated sovereignty. Highness's representative, when he happens to be the Some readers, however, will probably be of opinion weaker party, accepts the reasons of the Zemindars, and that the immense sums of money thus collected and treaproceeds on his march.
sured up, are intended to be applied to the uses of the When, on the other hand, the agents of the treasury State in seasons of great and pressing emergency. Would are greatly superior in numbers and strength to the vil- it were so ! But such is by no means the case ; for the lagers, the latter reluctantly succumb and defray his hoards of Golconda and Hydrabad are not regarded as Highness's demands with, of course, as many reductions the property of the public, but belong to the sovereign in as they can prevail on his collectors to make. The most his private capacity, as a Mahomedan gentleman, to be disastrous consequences ensue when the parties consider exhausted in his personal pleasures, or bestowed on fathemselves nearly equal. Under these circumstances, vourites, or applied, in one word, to any purpose which battles are fought, villages stormed, sacked, and set on his caprice, vice, or villainy may suggest. fire, with all the barbarity and atrocity which attend the This was rendered painfully apparent during the recent storming of cities in ordinary warfare. Little do honest dissension with the troops, on the subject of arrears of folks in this country, whose backs are set up by the ap- pay. His Highness could not need to be informed, that pearance of the tax gatherer, refect how inoffensive an if he collected in and about his capital numbers of merindividual he is, compared with his namesake in the East. cenaries, regular and irregular, they must be subsisted in The same animus, of course, pervades the genus in all one of two ways, that is, by grants from the public treacountries ; but writs, executions, and the rough and sury, or by defrauding and plundering the peaceful inhaoften heartless achievements of brokers are here, in the bitants. By the public treasury, we mean not bis Highcivilised West, substituted for the proceedings of an ness's treasury, but the funds collected by the Dewan or arined multitude, excited by all the worst passions which Minister, and appropriated to the defraying of the expendegrade human nature, and let loose by law upon a diture of the State. Now this is generally empty, beharmless people.
cause all his Highness's functionaries, from the highest In the native state of Budh, this brilliant Asiatic sys- to the lowest, have their hands in it, by which means tem developes itself with the greatest vigour and effect, they amass enormous fortunes, while the public service is it not being at all uncommon for an officer in the British neglected, and the wretched army cheated of its pay. cantonments to be able, during the Nawab's annual cam- No troops, under such circumstances would display any paign against his subjects, to reckon forty villages in great degree of loyalty or consideration for the property flames at a time, all burnt in satisfaction of the demands of the peaceful inhabitants. The Beloochis, under the of the cour. We have not exercised the same arithmeti | Ameers of Scinde, and the Khalsa, under the Lahore cal faculty in the Dekkan, but there also the burning government in the Punjaub, afforded the world an exvillage is a thing of ordinary occurrence at the proper ample of what undisciplined irregulars and a skilfully season of the year.
organised army will equally be guilty of when thus The Nizam, however, it may be said, is poor, and must tempted. We can experience, therefore, no surprise have wherewith to carry on the operations of Govern- when we are told that the rabble of adventurers from all ment. If this were the case, we should not be able to parts of India and the neighbouring countries upon whom range ourselves among the apologists of the system, than the Nizam bestows the name of soldiers, should live reckwhich nothing can be more execrable. But what will lessly, at free quarters upon the inhabitants, since it would the reader say when he is informed that his Highness is be difficult to say how else they could live. the richest native Prince in India, that his coffers No revelation that we can make will suffice to convey overflow with jewels and gems, and that in the great an adequate idea of the state of desperate anarchy which treasury of Golconda between four and five millions has prevailed for years, we might almost say for generations, sterling in hard cash have been hoarded for generations, throughout his Highness's dominions. We shall point out and perpetually increased by the savings of successive briefly a few features of the frightful picture, it being, we Sovereigns. Many persons in Europe have been sur- fear, beyond the powers of language to pourtray the whole prised at the heaps of riches said to be kept by the in fitting colours. Not long ago a number of Sipahics, Emperor Nicholas in the vaults of the Kremlin, which, belonging to the British contingent, having to proceed on after all, perhaps, amount to less than the hoards of this duty from one part of the Nizam's territories to another, petty Indian despot. But Russia is a vast empire, over were fallen upon by a rabble of his Highness's mercenary whose whole extent agriculture is, or may be, profitably troops who, to show their utter contempt for all law and carried on, while the greatest encouragement consistent authority, cut off the ears and noses of the unfortunate with an arbitrary monarchy, is given to commerce and women after having otherwise illtreated them. These
persons, be it observed, were British subjects, so that it contingent, to get rid of his liabilities, though exceedingly is quite as incumbent on the supreme government to call loath to disband the men, for whom he has no use, and the Nizam to account for this outrage, as it would be un- whom he will not pay. As an act of extraordinary der similar circumstances, to insist upon reparation from magnanimity, he has made them an offer of one-fourth the Shah of Persia or the Czar of all the Russias. of the amount due to them, that is to say, confesses When, however, representations are made on the subject himself to be a bankrupt, who can only pay five shillings of such enormities to the court of Hydrabad, the miser- in the pound. able and infatuated prince, wrapped in fancied dignity, But the worst part of this dark and disgraceful picture turns a deaf car to our complaint, and endeavours to is the duty too often assigned to the British contingent ; disgust the resident by contemptuous silence.
which is converted into an instrument of intolerable opA remarkable example of this insane policy was ex- pression towards the inhabitants, and of fraud and villainy hibited two or three years ago. The second in rank towards his llighuess's own troops. By whaterer calaamong the British officers at Hydrabad having been out mity the people may be visited, however great their powith his friends on a hunting excursion, passed by a fort verty or their losses, they are compelled to discharge their or castle in which a number of discontented Sikhs in his debt towards the treasury, or become hopeless fugitives Highness' service, had sullenly shut themselves up be- and vagabonds, as often as the Court thinks proper to apcause they found it impossible to obtain their pay. Upon ply for the aid of the contingent. Against the British, the seeing Captain Malcolm, the officer in question, they natives of lydrabad never dream of holding out long. conceived the design, either of sacrificing him to their They regard us as what they have hitherto always found indignation, or of making him the instrument of their us, that is to say, irresistible; and yet, in nearly every attempts upon the treasury. Persons on the spot who case in which we have had to coerce them, we hare been gave themselves the trouble to speculate on the matter the instruments of mere ruthless oppression. In the conwere much divided in opinion, some attributing to them test now impending with the desperate Linewallahs, the the more atrocious purpose, and some the milder one. task we have before us cannot be executed with honour. Whatever their intention may have been, certain it is, The money they claim is unquestionably dae to them, that when Captain Malcolm declined to accept of their and, what is more, their debtor is fully able to pay. invitation to place himself at their mercy in the castle, What he wants to perpetrate is a fraud; and he is the they opened upon him a heavy fire of musketry, from more eager to consummate this crime because he persuados which he was fortunate enough to escape by hard riding. himself that the disgrace of it will fall upon the English. The Resident, as was proper, immediately made applica- After what has been said, no one will experience the tion to his Highness to have the affair investigated and slightest surprise that murders and assassinations should the offenders punished. In what sort of language his bo of daily occurrence throughout the Ilydrabad territorepresentations were couched we are unable to say. ries. Blood, in fact, is shed in the streets of the capital Probably it was firm and urgent. Wbaterer it may have with impunity, and at a still greater distance from what been, his Highness paid no attention to it for many days, ought to be the seat of justice as well as of power, we might perhaps say weeks, and so ultimately, nothing crime of crery description is still more rife.
There was done.
exists, in fact, no such thing as security for property On other occasions offences still more flagrant have been
All the functions of civil government hare committed against British officers and soldiers, for which ceased, and society may, without any figuro of speech, no redress seems ever to hare been obtained, unless when be said to be fast resolving itself into its original we have ourselves taken it with arms in our hands. In- elements. Every man trusts to his own private means of stances, not a few, have occurred of British subjects hav- self-defence, and would think it an act of folly to make ing been made prisoners, by the unpaid mercenaries application to the law; which has degenerated into an unscattered in strongholds over the country, and kept as meaning farce, and would excite people's laughter and hostages, in perpetual apprehension of death, till the ridicule, if it did not entail perpetual calamity ont hem. apathetic and unprincipled sovereign has thought proper Throughout the country we behold, realised on a grand to advance to those wretches a part of their pay. Occa- scale, the fearful delinquencies which Leo Africanus dosionally skirmishes take place between detachments of the scribes in his account of the city of murderers on the outcontingent force, and the Rohilla and Arab mercenaries, skirts of the kingdom of Fez. who, whatever may be their character or laxity of princi- Distress and poverty, of course, keep pace with the disple, are still greatly to be pitied. They take service under orders of government, and it is not too much to say, that the Nizam, under the express stipulation of being paid, a very considerable portion of the population has been deand that too at a considerably higher rate than the com- stroyed by the sword of anarchy. pany's troops, but invariably discover, before they have Such is the actual condition of Ilydrabad, a state placed been long in the country, that in Hydrabad it is easier to nominally under the protection of Great Britain, and suppromise than to pay. Then follows discontent. The posed to be administered under our direction. If there soldier runs in debt, his creditors become clamorous, his be any who think that affairs ought to continue as they means of subsistence precarious, he has no resources, he are, we should be glad to understand by what reasons they takes to robbery, and often commits murder and other support their opinions. We, for our part, can discover revolting crimes, to sustain that miserable existence which none which have the slightest tendency to reconcile us to he has devoted to the service of a worthless prince. At the flagitious misrule exercised by the Nizam over his subthe present moment, the Linewallahs, as they are called, jects. He is a contemptible tyrant, as low and little in are twenty months in arrears of pay, and his Highness, his vices as he is insignificant in all other respects. He thus deep in their debt, denies, by the aid of the British has no claim to reign, he has long ago forfeited any right