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are concerned, the views expressed throughout are the | The National Cyclopædia. Vol. I. London : Charles result of more enlarged information on all the subjects

Knight, 1847. treated of. Mr. Stoddart has touched but briefly on the

As a book of reference this publication, when comsubject of trouting with the fly, as well as on the method pleted, must take a standard place. It is on the same of dressing fly-hooks ; but on the practice of worm-fishing plan as the “ Penny Cyclopædia,” though more comprein clear waters, minnow and parr-tail spinning, the em- hensive in its details, being, in fact, but another version ployment of the salmon-roe as a bait, &c., he has en

of the same extensive work, its vast materials carefully tered into circumstantial details.

condensed and revised ; and its price, like its limits, juAs regards such equipments as horse-bair, casting-diciously abridged. lines, &c., the author gives some excellent advice. On work cannot fail to be at once recognised. Many of the

In its present shape the utility of the this point the fishers of a past generation seem to have articles in the “ Penny Cyclopædia," the larger geograbeen more knowing than our present race of anglers, phical ones particularly, are sadly deficient in arrangement with whom silk-worm gut has come into pretty general and succinctness of information. In the National Cyclo

The following passage, from its allusion to Sir pædia” the superintendence in these respects seems to have Walter Scott, is worth extracting :

been more efficiently exercised, as there are fewer of such * Judging from the specimens that, from time to time, defects apparent. The larger work can only be purchased have come under my notice of the fishing tackle used by by the rich and by public libraries. The present, from our forefathers, I am led to the opinion that there is no its smaller price and less extent, will be found to be what horsehair to be obtained in our modern days, which, in it is designed for, of greater use to the greatest number, point of roundness, length, and power, at all approximates to what was employed by them. This is owing partly to and as specially the book for the great body of the people. the practice, now in vogue, of docking our stallions before It will be the only real “ Popular Encyclopædia,” far suthe tail has had time to acquire its full strength, and perior in every respect, and far cheaper too, than the one partly, also, to the care and attention formerly exercised in the selection of the article. One of the finest speci- that passes under that name. In natural history, biography, mens of good horse-hair I ever remember to have met and geography, it is particularly rich, and in the more imwith, was presented to me, along with a bait hook and portant articles the authorities are given. The publicasome red hackles, by the late Mr. William Laidlaw, the tion is to be illustrated with many hundred wood cuts. friend and factor of Sir Walter Scott. This and its accompaniments were part and parcel of the identical fishing The Crusaders ; or, Scenes, Events, and Characters, tackle discovered along with the mislaid MSS. of Waverley, and alluded to by Sir Walter, in the general preface from the Times of the Crusades. By Thomas Keightley, to his novels. I make no doubt but, with the single London : Parker, 1847. hair in question, I could have managed, provided my rod was a pliant one, and my eel-line ran easily, a salmon A new edition, in one volume, of a work which has alof ten or twelve pounds in weight, not, indeed, in such ready received the public approval, published under the water as the Trow Crags, or any of the rocky straiks direction of the Society for promoting Christian Knowand clippers that afford facilities for fish to cut or wear through the line, but in an open, unobstructed cast or

ledge. It gives an interesting and well-arranged account pool, where the salmon could show no cunning, and, at of those romantic and extraordinary "episodes in histhe same time, excrt its full strength and speed. The tory,” set on foot by blind enthusiasm, and sustained by hair alluded I may mention, was white, clear, and superstitious zeal, called by historians the Crusades, and long, not of the coarse, black description, which even now-a-days is common enough, and possesses, without comprises all the authentic information we possess relaquestion, strength to capture the largest of our river tive to those memorable events, which make the annals of fish.''

western Europe and of Palestine stand out so prominently To the general reader, the chapters on the angling in the history of the twelfth century. Although professstreams of Scotland will be very interesting, but by re

ing to be more a picture of manners than a regular nargular anglers they will be found invaluable. The choice rative, the book, from the nature of the contents, and of a stream is sometimes a matter of great moment to its attractive style, reads like a romance, having all the the fishers, from the kind of fish that inhabits it, and the

hues and colours of reality. Crusader, Greek, Turk, and greater or less prospect of sport it is likely to yield. The Saracen pass before the reader, with all their national and Tweed, as affording greater facilities for trout fishing, individual, social and religious distinctions of character, stands highest in Mr. Stoddart's estimation ; but the and surely never was there a time when these were more claims of the Forth, the Tay, the Clyde, and their tribu- marked, or exercised a greater influence on motive and taries, with those of the different rivers in the North conduct, as at the era of the holy war, waged on the and North West of Scotland, are not overlooked. This Moslem by the soldiers of the Cross. The work concludes account of the first class rivers in Scotland, is the more

with the crusade headed by Philip Augustus and Richard

Cour de Lion. valuable, as it comprises all that relates to their salmon fishings in the way of produce, rental, &c.; taken from Letters on the Criminal Code. By a Barrister of Linstatistical sources, and enriched by quotations from

coln's Inn. London : Stevens, 1847. authorities.

The substance of these letters, written in a vigorous The work contains lists of the most approved flies for style, appeared in the Spectator newspaper last year. Scottish rivers, especially Tweed, with four neat sketches, They are chiefly directed to an examination of two of the and an illustrative map of Scotland. This is the high season proposed alterations on the Criminal Code, viz., the makfor angling ; and the name of Mr. Stoddart's book, ing a capacity to discern the law of the land the sole test flanked by his own name, will ensure it a welcome from of Criminal Insanity, and what the author calls “the althe brethren of the gentle craft, and from all others just most complete suppression of the constitutional right of catering on its enjoyments.

resistance to the exercise of unlawful authority," On these points, especially the first, he lays down some very which only extends to 141 pages, comprises the statutes sound maxims; and his observations on the whole sub- and charters of foundation, with the subsequent ordinances ject of the English Code of Criminal Law will be found of Archbishops Peckham, Chichely, and Laud, from the very interesting and useful to all who may turn their at- original Latin. The introduction contains a succint aetention to its amendment.

count of the early history of Merton College, with a re

view of the state of education at the university at that The Foundation Statutes of Merton College, Oxford ; period. Merton is celebrated as being the place where

with the subsequent Ordinances. From the Latin. Roger Bacon and Duns Scotus, the latter the most emis Edited by Edward France Percival, M.A., of Brasenose

nent scholastic philosopher of his age, taught philosophy College, Oxford. London : Pickering, 1847.

and rhetoric ; and where the first reformer, John Wycliffe,

was educated. Among its more eminent members were MERTON COLLEGE, the oldest permanently endowed Bishops Jewell and Hooper, Sir Thomas Bodley, and Sir foundation for the maintenance and education of scholars Henry Saville. A neat lithotint view of Merton College in Oxford, unconnected with the monastic orders, was forms the frontispiece of the volume, which, to all Oxford founded in 1264, and became the model of all the other men, and especially to those educated at Merton, will societies of that description. Its founder, Walter De have an especial value. As a collection of ancient acaMerton, was Bishop of Rochester and Chancellor of Eng-demic laws, it will be found to possess an interest eren to land in the thirteenth century; and the present volume, 1 persons unconnected with either.

POLITICAL REGISTER. The present Parliament will be dissolved during | Canton river-captured forts-spiked nearly nine the month, and the election of representatives for hundred cannon - earned a new installment of probably the next five years will occur on the pre-glory—and lost not one man. This was war almost sent registration. We do not recollect of any gen- on the principles of the Peace Society. eral election that promised to display less party The cause of quarrel is hardly known. Some spirit. There is no vitality in any party, and the Chinese porters probably insulted or overcharged constituencies will not quarrel over the ashes of fac- the English merchants. Angry language, a mob, tions whose vitality is burnt out. This circumstance and a “row” ensued. Such things are not less may not, however, be favourable in any shape to the common in Canton than Wapping. A report was promotion of necessary reforms, and the practical despatched to the Commander of our forces. advancement of the nation. The repeal of the corn. A correspondence ensued with the Chinese aulaw has intoxicated a large section of the population thorities. It was unsatisfactory; and, therewith a feeling of their own power and security. fore, the two glorious days followed. Without Famine and dearth of employment, of wages and of the official statements more cannot be said of food, have infected another portion. There hangs the matter. To the fighting, therefore, we do over all a weariness with politics. This, therefore, not at present object. It would appear to have is the period which an able minister, and unscru- been harmless to the last degree. It seems even to pulous, would select to retrograde. And we have have been war with a pacific tendency, confined to been retrograding

the destruction of belligerent implements. But the The Church stands more firmly in her position now papers reveal an intention of the most desperate than at any time since 1829. While we write, an character. The submission of the Chineso officer act to make four new bishops is passing rapidly came in time to save the bombardment of Canton ; through the dying parliament; though the railway but in no more than time. The preparations were reformn measure is cast aside by the physicians, who made. The tools were ready. The gunners seem say for the patient that being in articulo mortis to have been standing, matches in hand, when the such temporalities must give place to spiritual reprieve arrived that saved a town with nearly one business.

million people from bombardment. The duty of electors in providing for the future We have reason to be thankful for this deliver involves a looking at the past. We have had a ance from one of the darkest stains that could have foolish intervention in Portuguese affairs, under- been inflicted on the honour of our nation and the taken to establish peace in that country, by sup- character of our arms. Such limited Christianity pressing the party that we acknowledge to have been as we have credit for in the East, was well nigh right. This is the Palmerstonian theory of justice. destroyed by the zeal of the commander on that The electors should take care that it do not become station to burn slay and bombard. He was under no British practice.

irritation. He had not lost a man. He had captured Our last letters and papers from India describe famous forts. He had spiked cannon innumerable. the most providential escape that the country has He must have administered a full dose of retribution recently experienced from a disgraceful act. Wo for all the harm that had occured. He had no caphad a war of forty-eight hours' duration with the tives to extricate from Canton. He had no bloodChinese, Our forces fought their way up the shed to revenge. He had no great danger to avert.

Still he proposed to bombard a large, though a help- book of Jonah as a proper subject of consideration less city. He schemed the burning of so many and comment with these gentlemen. warehouses-the demolition of so many houses the Organic reforms seem to be forgotten. The utter postration of streets and squares—for the ballot, the franchise, the equalization of represenhonour of the British name ; and the slaughter of tation, sleep---but they only sleep. They are not

dead. Their vitality remains ; and, probably innumerable women and children, in order to help enough, before the next Parliament has run its our sales of cottons, linens, woollens, and hardware course, one or more, or all, will again come forgoods. The sale of the goods was a laudable ob- ward with greater power than they have yet ject; but why propose to scatter our metal for attained. nothing—and worse than nothing—throwing it away Upon these topies, the next House of Commons in killing customers. Designedly, the man is no will stand nearly like the.present. There is no better than Louis Philipe's officer, who, by the same reason to suppose that the number of independent mail, we learn, has slain a thousand Cochin Chinese; and popular members will be fewer, while there and burned a number of their ships, as their first may be some ground to expect that the mere

hangers-on of any party in power—the moveable lesson in the Christian faith.

force-will be greater. This class of persons are These Cochin-Chinese are desperate heathens, always most successful in a calm. Men slide in who would on no account listen to the Jesuitical safely then who would be shivered in a storm, and other missionaries sent amongst them by the The Peel party, for example, will be greatly Lyons Propaganda. We even believe that they reduced. That seems the present probability. dealt harshly by these gentlemen. What of that? Wherever they have to stand a contest, they will The missionary is, or should be, a living martyr. enter the lists with a bad character. They canHe should bave a martyr's spirit in him. He goes not overcome the indecision of their position—they uncalled—he preaches unsought. He assails the are neither whig, radical, nor conservative. It prejudices of his hearers-he seeks their good, but would, of course, be a noble thing to say they were they condemn him for endeavouring to do them But then the ridicule that would follow the saying

honest men-perfectly independent of all parties. evil. His work is noble, fearless, but it should be

must be overwhelming. pacific. He has no right to claim the arm of war

Ireland will furnish a large number of nondeto enforce the persuasions of the Gospel. He is scripts. The representation of that section of. he unjustifiable in reading lectures on the sermon of the empire will come out very confusedly. The Whigs Mount, or preaching discourses from the text, have the advantage of being in place. They can “Blessed is the peace-maker,” through a hundred issue the most agreeable acknowledgments. They pieces of artillery, loaded by grape, with an Ad have the appointment to vacant places at prosent. miral of the tricolour for clerk.

The fact will tell for them powerfully, The old That system will never thrive. It will not con- have the power and prestige of the country gentle

Tories, on the other hand—the Bentinck partyvert stubborn men. It may kill bodies, but it will

men; and the tenantry are at present in the land not save souls ; it may scatter brains, but it will owner's agent's books for arrears. This misfornever soften hearts. And as the Bishop of Exeter tune, we snspect, will tell at the hustings. Famine, has been taught not to make deacons of his school- it will be found, canvasses most successfully. masters; so wo doubt not that Louis Philippe will The Repealers, at another time, might have made yet learn - it may be by a bitter lesson — not to head-way south and west ; but being at present make missionaries of his Admirals of the Red and engaged in maligning and saying all kinds of Blue.

evil of each other, we presume that, in biting the

shadow they will lose the substance, and meet the This, however, is not so directly the business fate of the foolish dog, by failing to deserve the of the British people, as it is to be thankful that bone. Canton was not bombarded from any delay of the We expect more Whigs for the English counChinese messengers. It would have formed a stand- ties; and both for them and the Scottish couning blot on the nation, and a foul blot-a spot of ties a few earnest and sincere farmers' men, blood on our annals that would have stuck long, determinedly set against gaine preserves and and sunk so deeply, that a great many Dr. those waste preserves that are known by the Morrisons would have toiled long and ear- title of entail laws on the statute book. nestly before it could have been washed away. There are two or three practical measures of The duty of the electors is to see that their re- reform to which the electors should pledge all presentatives are men who will put such fiery candidates, or have nothing further to say to them notions out of the minds of the officers whom they than very emphatically, No. These game-laws employ in distant quarters of the world, to se- need to be repealed. They are unfitted for a cure the safety of our traders, but not to burn the densely peopled country, and useless in the wilhouses, and break the limbs, or destroy the lives of derness. Justice to sparrows requires that all their customers. The Bible, we fear, is greatly other wild birds and fowls should be brought to neglected in our fleets on the Chinese waters, their level in the eye of the law; and the equal though we suppose there are chaplains there ; rights of rats demand that no undue favour should and we would recommend the last verse of the be shown to other undomesticated four-footed beasts. A departure from these simple principles tional projects to justice, as to allow the children has been productive of many crimes and much of Dissenters to attend the national schools, withsuffering to humanity. A return to them will out being compelled to attend the national give peace and solitude to many jailers. The Church, or learn its catechism ; to give grants to trespass law can be kept stringent. That has Dissenting schools, without intermeddling in their nothing to do with the favouritism shown to game; religious teaching ; and to extend grants to Roand no rational man can expect—but by the way man Catholic schools, in a way satisfactory to the no rational man would expect, though we observe Roman Catholic Institute. that some candidates for legislative honours say These changes still leave the Minutes in many that they anticipate-a great accession of tres- respects objectionable, though they are towards pagssing from the repeal of the laws relating to the course that we have been vigorously censured game.

for advising. They are, however, only intentions The entail laws are another of the most hein- expressed in the form of answers to a string of ous nuisances from feudalism in existence. They questions asked by arrangement, we have no are designed to preserve the integrity of large doubt. estates, and provide that they shall be very badly The endowment of the Roman Catholic priests cultivated. They prevent a free trade in land, in Ireland will be probably proposed in the next which is essential to healthy and profitable Parliament. O'Connell was a barrier, and is farming: they prevent the multiplication of a removed by death. That measure, from whatmiddle class of owners—the squires, and the ever quarter the funds were derived, would merely yeomen-most valuable classes, for whose de prop an evil injurious to Ireland in every respect. cadence the most flourishing aristocracy cannot It would confirm the existence for a long period offer a return. They also secure the non-cultiva- of a practice that works badly. It would consotion of those wastes of arable land that in every lidate the power of the Irish aristocracy, and we way disgrace and disfigure the three kingdoms, but do not think that they have wielded their influespecially Scotland. They create a pauperisedence for the good of the Irish people. We rejoice class springing from the richest and the greatest to observe that nearly all new candidates are families ; and possessing at least two character- pledged against this course ; and even a minority istics of the unjust steward. We scarcely need of electors, in many constituencies, can defeat it, say more against the character of these laws : if they will ; and we trust they will remember they are their own scandal. They exist still—like that they have now to decide its merits, and that a remnant of the past long out of its time—weak it is the grand question referred to the hustings for good and powerful for evil. The electors and the polling-booths. One of two courses will should pledge their representatives to the repeal be adopted respecting Ireland — to give more of those laws; and when they are at this work, or less; and it will be most consonant with they will do well by casting the law of primo- the interests of both religion and freedom, geniture into the scale,

to adopt the latter plan. The Currency laws of Peel disorganise busi- In 1841 many candidates made statements

They are a successful attempt to place the which they explained at a convenient opportunity neck of industry under the heel of capital. They to mean something different from the general have worked out no benefit. They have created meaning attached to their language. In 1847 no new value. They have given no new security. men will learn to ask the pledges in writing-to They have not made employment steadier, nor publish them with the signatures attached, and trade more remunerative.

to place them out of the range of mis-reporting, a On theother hand they make all the other classes blunder of which we hear far oftener than it occurs. the periodical prey of the money class. Since There is another feature in these matters. Can. the autumn of 1845, we have passed through a didates often promise to support measures which crisis which has made lenders and non-operative they expect not to be proposed; and electors bepersons immensely richer, at the cost of spinning lieve that they have done their duty when they girls in Manchester, seamsters in London, knife have merely been trapped. It is not easy to trace grinders in Sheffield—all who work, and all who every turning of a ready promiser ; but generally buy and sell. We assume that the electors, after by obtaining, not merely a reluctant assent to a the recent near neighbourhood to national bank- given opinion, but an understanding that the canruptcy, will now, with the opportunity in their didate will join other members in urging the adophands, provide for the extinction of these laws, by tion of any course on the Government of the day only returning members who are willing at least the danger to which we refer may be avoided. to repeal the obnoxious parts of those acts passed Six hundred and fifty-eight orators in the since 1845—the better plan is to repeal them al-House of Commons would make a nice mess of together and to re-enact the few clauses that are business ; but though we do not want them all to accordant with free trade in money as men trade be speaking men, yet they can all sign roundin any other commodity.

robins, and forward them to the captain, who will On the 25th ultimo, Lord John Russell stated often rather grant the boon craved, than risk the his intention, so far to accommodate his educa- mutiny supposed to lurk behind rejection,




AUGUST, 1847.


TIE TWEED-Continued.


The Banks of the Tweed abound in simple at least, during a certain number of months, within rural charms, as you proceed downwards from his jurisdiction. We found a delightful retireElibank Tower, and they partake of that peace- ment by my becoming the tenant of my intimate ful pastoral character which its green sided hills friend and cousin-german, Colonel Russell, in his bestow upon it. But if their natural beauties mansion of Ashiestiel, which was unoccupied duwere tenfold what they really are, they would ring his absence on military service in India. The afford but a weak attraction, compared to that house was adequate to our accommodation, and which is created by a powerful combination of the exercise of a limited hospitality. The situaassociations, in the place of Ashiestiel. This tion is uncommonly beautiful, by the side of a fine beautiful residence, hanging, as it were, on the river, whose streams are there very favourable for brink of a steep wooded bank on the southern side angling, surrounded by the remains of natural of the Tweed, is the property of our old and much woods, and by hills abounding in game. In point valued friend, General Sir James Russell, whose of society, according to the heartfelt phrase of services to his country, added to those of Colonel Scripture, we dwelt “amongst our own people;' Russell, his gallant father, might have imparted and as the distance from the metropolis was celebrity to any spot of earth with which they only thirty miles, we were not out of reach of were connected. But we sufficiently know the our Edinburgh friends, in which City we spent pride which our old friend takes in the well-earned the terms of the summer and winter sessions of and wide-spread fame of his near relative, Sir the Court, that is, five or six months in the year.” Walter Scott, to make us quite aware that we But who is there who may have bestowed the are perfectly safe from any risk of exciting least degree of study on the constitution of his jealousy on his part, in ascribing the interest mind, as gathered from his autobiograplıy and which attaches to Ashiestiel, to the circumstance his writings, both in poetry and in prose, who of its having been so long the residence of our cannot feel with us the boundless expansion of Scottish Shakspeare. Mr. Lockhart tells us, that heart which Scott must have experienced, when in 1804, Scott feeling it to be his duty, as Sheriff he found himself fairly established as the inhabiof Selkirkshire, to hold a permanent residence in tant of this retired residence, in full and easy comthe County, and the house of Ashiestiel being mand of the endless regions of such a wild, mounvacant by the death of his uncle, Colonel Russell, tainous, and pastoral country, as that of Ettrick its proprietor, and the absence of his son, the pre- Forest, on which all his earliest affections had sent General Russell, who was then a young man been most firmly fixed, as being more particularly in India, he took a lease of the place, and there that which he might call the land of his ancestors, spent all those portions of the year, during which where every stone, and brook, and hollow, and he was free from attendance on the Courts of Law hillock, and grove, had its story attached to it, at Edinburgh, down to about the end of 1811, most of which had been long familiar to him, and when he had made his first small purchase of land this, at a time of life, when, notwithstanding his at Abbotsford. Thus it was that all his poetical lameness, he was a young, healthy man, and, as productions, until the publication of Rokeby, may we remember him, alike active, both on foot and be said to have been produced at Ashiestiel. on horseback, and when his intellect may be said Previous to this period of his history, Scott had to have been in its fullest vigour ? We cannot spent his times of vacation in a cottage on the help feeling persuaded, that those seven years, the romantic banks of the Esk near Edinburgh. whole vacations of which were spent at Ashiestiel, Thus it is, that he, himself, notices his change of were by far the happiest of Scott's life, doubly reabode: “I left, therefore, the pleasant cottage I lished as they must have been, from the intermehad upon the side of the Esk, for the 'pleasanter diate periods of professional confinement. He banks of the Tweed,' in order to comply with the cnjoyed that sort of possession of the place, law, which requires, that the Sheriff be resident, I that might be called nearly equal to that of


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