Puslapio vaizdai

might find that quiet and repose so requisite to con- In estimating the merits of Mr. Daniel as an author, tinuous literary labour. There, in a short space of time, it would perhaps be untrue to say, that (although his he produced the Young Widow," which, from the uni- pages are undoubtedly, in a remarkable degree, exempt versal favour with which it was greeted, at once placed from the usual sickly sentiment, and other nameless units author in a distinguished position amongst popular natural characteristics of the great mass of novels devoted, novelists. He was now in regular demand at the circu- more or less, to the portraiture of fashionable life ) he was the lating libraries—a work by the “Scottish Boz'' was best and most skilful writer of his class. In dealing justice to sure to command a sale, and he needed no longer indulge the author of the “ Young Widow," let us not be unjust to misgivings as to his prospect of success in that depart- others who have pushed themselves into notoriety in the ment of literature which he had adopted. Ilis next effort same field. Be it sufficient, therefore, to say of him in was the “ Young Baronet,” which was fated to be the the laudatory strain, that he was a writer of great talents last published in its author's lifetime. It was published and great promiso. Ilis style of language, clear, copious, in November 1845, and fully supported the opinions which and severely adorned, was at all times calculated to exthe best critics had already expressed of Mr. Daniel's press, in the noblest accents, the varied thoughts and talents. We have said that the subject of our notice emotions of his intellectual mind. The “Cardinal's Daughretired to Jersey, in the hope of finding that quiet and ter,” to which reference, as a posthumous work, has alrepose, which continuous literary labour so necessarily re- ready been made, evinces that, notwithstanding the repuquires; and such enjoyments would have been his, had he tation its author had already attained in one department kept aloof from extraneous pursuits by no means congenial of novel-writing, he was destined, had time and opporto his mind. It happened, in an evil moment, that Mr. tunity been permitted, to achieve fame loftier and more Daniel, in January 1845, accepted the editorship of a paper enduring in the higher historical walk. then started in Jersey, designated the “. Jersey Herald." The “ Cardinal's Daughter's is the only work of Mr. In the small community of the Channel Islands, the tido of Daniel of which the basis is taken from history. It is party politics runs to an inconceivable height; and any ushered in by a preface, to which we must make slight individual occupying the position of editor of a public allusion, as it explains the reason for which (not to speak Journal, is always regarded as the rightful devoted victim of the protracted illness and death of its lamented author), of personal abuse, from all who differ in opinion from that it had not received final corrections at his hands. The system of policy which he adrocates. There are two poli- work was, in fact, written before his malady commenced, tical parties in Jersey—the Rose party, and the Laurel but its correction and publication had been delayed for party. They are so called from the distinctive badge which some time, in order that he might, by editing “ The the adherents of each respectively wear in their button- Poor Cousin,” introduce his wifo to the notice of the holes on gala days. Their politics of course have nothing public, probably, under the apprehension, “that in a to do with the politics of England ; but originate entirely short space she would be left to obtain, by her own exwithin their own little circle. The Rose party may be ertions, for herself and children, that livelihood which, regarded as the Whigs of the locality, and very illiberal though at most severe sacrifices of mind and body, he had Whigs they are : the Laurel party may be called the Tories hitherto supplied.” Happily, “The Poor Cousin" met and, if there is a pin to choose between them, the latter with that success which its editor so anxiously desired, are decidedly the more liberal of the two. Such is the viru- and the widow is now fairly embarked in the career from lence of party faction, and the personal danger to which an which the husband has just been removed. A new work editor of a newspaper is exposed, that the luckless wight is advertised as shortly to appear from her pen; and, from who occupies this distinguished position is obliged to be al- the ability evinced in her former production, we are ways armed, on the street and in his office, with a life- justified in anticipating that the same meed of approval preserver, or oaken cudgel, in order to be prepared won by the first effort, will not be denied to the second. against the anticipated attacks of those upon whose po- The “ Cardinal," alluded to in the title, is Cardinal litical escapades he has descanted in his columns. Mr. Wolsey, and the “Daughter” is Henriette, a nun, said Daniel was the editor of a Rose paper, and the numerous to have been the offspring of that celebrated dignitary. nose-pullings and cudgellings of which he was the victim, Although the “Daughter" gives name to the work, yet at the hands of the Laurelites, embittered the existence the Cardinal himself is the most prominent and interestof a man not adapted for, at least, that species of party ing character therein. One Ralph Brandon, a purely strife. Mr. Daniel conducted the “ Jersey Ilerald" till fictitious character, is also introduced, and occupies a September, last year, when, immediately subsequent to very important position among the actors in the drama. Her Majesty's visit to the island, he was overtaken by a He is the Cardinal's secretary, and passionately in love mental malady which, six months afterwards, resulted in with Henriette, whom, at the anticipated dissolution of his death. On the appearance of the malady in question the monasteries, he intends to marry. The chief interes --which, by the way, had for some time previously been of the story consists in the detail of the fresh obstacles foreshadowed by unequivocal symptoms-- he was removed the Cardinal every day devised to frustrate the ultimate by his friends to England, where, notwithstanding the una- designs of Brandon. The latter has imbibed the prinbated exertion of the most eminent medical skill, his disease ciples of the reformed faith, then rapidly gaining ground, underwent no alteration for the better. The decay of his and this difference of opinion from his master, furnishes physical powers keeping pace with the daily increasing hope the opportunity of numerous hits at the state of the lessness of his mental recovery. Mr. Daniel, unconscious Church at that period. Space, however, will not permit of every thing passing around him, gradually sunk, till at us to give even a hasty outline of the story, and the length his career terniinated at the early age of thirty-three. reader who is curious to learn the full details of the His death took place in March last, in Bethlehem Hospital. Cardinal's Daughter," must consult the work itself The tale is artistically put together, and exhibits, on the "". But the Cardinal'

««• Will fall with the Church which he madly upholds.' part of its author, great power as a historical romancist.

"6" And thou ?' One would almost fancy that the writer who could

“I will grieve for my lord, but rejoice that the bated adopt for the title of a work a name so peculiar as that rule of Rome is at an end—I will joy for thee, my loved before us, meant to make it a handle for exposing the one, but mourn for poor Katherine, banished from wedlock immorality of one of the greatest men in former times and a throne, at the caprice of a tyrant's will.

* *Ralph this is the heretic's creed.' In this idea, however, he would be mistaken. Instead of

"I reck not. The crimes of the Church are odious regarding Wolsey as, in any degree, unworthy of his voca- in the sight of God, and their rule is tyranny to man. tion as a priest, our author considers the priesthood as The splendour that decks their stately domes is purchased highly honoured, and illustrated by possessing him within with the orphan’s bread—the rich lands that smile around

them are shiut against the poor man's kine-their learning its pale. Mr. Daniel is, in fact, the most unqualified ad- is cloistered as a precious thing, and their knowledge mirer of the butcher's son, we remember ever to have met serves but to bind with stronger shackles the consciences, with. He talks of “that glorious mind which had burst the thoughts, the mind, the bright immortal soul of man.

When a boy I cursed them. I longed to grapple with the like prisoned flame over dificulties which environed it,

men that threw a holy mantle over a heart of guile : they and snapped the iron chains which bound it to neglect, are a load upon the land, England rots beneath their that lightning energy of character which had rendered sway-let the day come, I will be foremost to tear them him triumphant at home and abroad, feared by those who from their lofty seats—to bear the crafty secrets of their hated him, and respected by those who derided his birth; around the foot of power, and make merchandise of man's

hallowed dens. I know them; they are hounds that whine and which had stamped upon the countenance of Wolscy, devotion to his God. There is a handwriting on the wall a character of greatness which no bearing could disguise."'--this kingdom has departed from them, and the hearts Some writers have stigmatised the Cardinal; as one, who, of good men will exult in liberty. Oh! it is a foul blot on

this beautiful world that man should thus become a god to like Richard the Third, possessed neither “lore nor

man, and deal heaven's curse and pardon with a palsied pity,” and who, in order to gain his own personal ends, hand-an old dotard in a scarlet gown! Let the day come, would hesitate at no means which craft or dishonesty I will be the first to welcome it. I long to see my councould devise. Our author, on the contrary, avers, that trymen free in soul—liberty they will have-a tyrant now

sits upon the throne, but superstition aids him not, and generous, vigorous, and losty as his character was,

when the channels of knowledge are unbarred, men will tempestuous, and daring as his life had been, there were

then canvass the royal power, its limits and its rights. still elemonts of the richest affection in Wolsey's heart," Yes, my Henriette, I long to see the day, when England and instead of falling in with the representations of those all shake off her vassalage to Rome–when these greedy who describe him as avaricious, he advocates the old man's in holy ministering, and the English peasant can raise his

churchmen shall be taught that splendour is not needed part by assuring us that “his nature was bountiful as the brow to heaven, heedless of a dull priest's frown!' day.” The following is the author's conception of the “This is the language of the heretics,' repeated Hencharacter of Brandon in conjunction with that of Wol- riette, gazing earnestly upon him.

" It matters little, sweet one, if it is the language of

truth. I tell thee, my Henriette, that a day is at hand They might have formed a study for a painter.

when the nests of these proud birds shall be rifled and Wolsey's bold expressive features now perfect!y exposed their plumage torn.'” -the noble forehead and curled grey hair—the large clear eyes, so full of fire, yet changeful as a woman's—the fine

Scarcely inferior to his power of declamation already broad chest and manly air, which the guise of priesthood referred to, are the abilities of our author in description. could not conceal, and the insignia of his dignity lying spurned, as it were, at his side-showed, or might have Many of the descriptions in the “Cardinal's Daughter” seemed to show, something of the trinity of his character are very efiective; the appearance of London in the -the judge, the statesman, and the priest-while he wore reign of Henry the VIII. is especially so. Conducted by upon his countenance a stamp of genius which also showed Mr. Daniel, we wander in imagination along the fields, that he was fitted for them all. Brandon, too, had something in his aspect that made one look on it again. De- skirting the “Strand” of the river Thames, till we arformed in person yet handsome in features, slightly built rive at a “Convent whose “Garden” is the “Covent yet of a frame indicating strength and activity-young in Garden” of to-day, the mart for vegetables and flowers. years, and of an expression of countenance denoting im- London of the sixteenth century is called up before us petuosity even to fierceness, there was yet blended with it a firmness and a haughty gravity, which, far from in vivid colouring, at every page. Every spot, associated weakening the general effect, gave it a vigour and a char- in immortal history with the events of the period in acter of determination eminently its own. Both knew which the scene of the present work is laid, is compelled each other well ; the one had almost attained the summit into our presence, and made to appear just as they of his ambition—the other had but entered upon the race, yet was conscious of possessing those qualities which lead severally appeared then; old St. Pauls, Whitehall, Westto the greatest success : both were superior to the times in minster Abbey, and its then surrounding sylvan country which they lived—the one, indeed, had all the passions and of green fields and wooded hills. Among the characters enthusiasm of youth to an intensity that was his curse—the other had none of these, yet it is not saying too much to secondary to those already named, may be mentioned the afirm that there was something of fellowship between the “Bluff Harry'' himself, and his ill-fated consort, Anne young secretary and his priestly lord.”

Boleyn ; both equally necessary for a work founded on Mr. Daniel, throughout all his works, evinces great any subject connected with the career of Wolsey. How power in the use of passionate declamation when occasion true to fact such characters are drawn, we leave to calls it forth ; but no subject which he has previously readers of history to determine. treated, afforded so frequent opportunity for the display The prominent faults of the “Cardinal's Daughter"> of his talents in this respect as the present. We think he are those incident to all literary productions writtesh could have made a good dramatist. In the following against time. The necessities of his family demanded Brandon and Henriette are engaged in colloquy upon the that he should write rapidly and incessantly; while crimes of the Church :

by the earlier portion of the shcets was going through the press,

sey :

Mr. Daniel was stretched upon his death-bed; nor did | had as yet even come into the printer's hands, he was in any vitality of mind remain to direct such corrections as, his grave. The “ Cardinal's Daughter” is, in the true had his intellect remained with him, would doubtless have sense of the phrase, a * posthumous work,” and as such been made ; and before the latter portion of his manuscript | let it be judged.




What of the Sea, to-day? what of the Sea ?

Bringeth it news from some untrodden store,

An echo of the dying whirlwinds roar?
A batter'd bough, rent from a riven tree,
To tell of by-gone tempests? Still, to me,

Is Ocean fraught with messages, the core

Of human hearts to thrill with fear:-no more, Though storms may rave, yet must its billows be The rolling hearse that bears to some far strand

A lifeless freight, or shipwreck'd corse, or bark Shatter'd, dead bird, or branch! Yea, still to land

The Sea brings back Earth's DEAD-Life's soulless ark !

But Jesus, through the waves, above the dark,
Up-bears the sinking Christian in his Saviour-band.

Yet-nor the Sea, nor Life, are always bearers

Of death-wan passengers-of sin-blind guests :

Both have their blessed ventures-faithful breasts
In home-returning vessels---safe wayfarers
Amid strong surges! Let us then be sbarers

Of cheerful hopes-what time the ocean wrests
Our thoughts from shore. All God's bright world attests
That, though its inmates are the frequent wearers

Of raiment, dyed in sweat, and blood, and pain-
Life hath not death, but life, for goal !-and so
We should not drop our tears of hopeless woe

On the corpse-carrying coursers of the main,
But smile to see it-knowing it to be
A type of Life and of Eternity!

Torquay, October, 1810.

THE CORN FIELD. On yonder rising ground, where lately waved,

The busy reapers well have plied their task, Brown with the summer's a goodly crop;

And left no single stalk in pristine attitude.Bright, bristly ears, each with auspicious weight

Oh! 'tis a lovely sight to view the corn, Bent graceful down, from its high polished stem

Now bound in sheaves, and these in happy clusFrom beneath, peering obsequious, many

ters A flow'ret pale, reared its neglected head;

Scatter'd o'er the field: each on the other Unseen and undisturbed, save when the rook,

Leans, as on a loving friend, dependent, Or wicked sparrow, thievish visits paid,

Yet, supporting in its turn-no voice is there, And dived beneath to enjoy their plunder.

But, 'tis a speaking sight, for ev'ry sheaf Each sudden noise aftrighis them, robber-like,

Is eloquent, and from the whole ascends And now the rook starts from his yellow covert,

One noiseless, yet emphatic, hymn of praise. Spreads his sable wings, the sparrow too,

Is there one sight bespeaks our Maker's love? More nimble, takes his flight, and all again

Tells of his tender care and love for us; Is still.-But now the breeze steals gently o'er

”Tis, then, the harvest field, where round is spreal The field; each ear obedient, rustles

The kind provision for our future wants; A reply-anon with greater force it lifts

Nature in lov'liest aspect there is seen, Its voice; they wave their homage with but

Sun, sky, and fields in sweetest guise appear, One accord, save where the schoolboys' pranks,

And all for man.-Praise Him, ye thoughtless ones, And wanton merriment, near yonder path

Nor be alone wgrateful, let your hymns Have traced a devious route, and on the ground

Of praise outsperk dumb nature's eloquence ; Is luid, full many a precious ear, else,

Lei them be hearil, fervent and warm, the off'ring Beauteous and fruitful as the rest.

Of a grateful beart, ascending up to Heaven.

Dion. The scene is changed; for with industrious zeal,

THE LONELY OAK. Wide and high thy branches spread;

Here thou hast no companions near theeThe winter of age is on thy head;

Not even one is left to cheer thee. Thy sturdy comrades all have died,

But I would grieve to part with thee; For Time hath swept them from thy side;

I would miss thy form, old friendly tree; Yet, though storms fiercely have o'er thee broke,

For on many a sultry summer's day, Thou hast braved them all, thou lonely oak!

In childhood's time, when faint with play, But the time has been when, young and fair,

I have sought thy kindly sheltering shade, Thy branches wared to the summer air;

And my weary form beneath thee laid. And the red deer slept beneath thy shade,

And in manhood's time, when I strove to store And the birds in thy boughs sweet music made,

My seeking mind with ancient loreAnd the wind through thy green leaves softly spoke, Thy lone and silent foot I sought, With a happy voice, thou lonely oak!

And tuned my mind to a deeper thought; Yes, thou hast seen when our native land

And the light, through thy thick leaves, faintly broke, Was fettcred not by a stranger's hand;

As it shone on my page, old kindly oak! When our youths were brave, and our chiefs were free,

And when I have grown old like thee, And our maidens were bright as the sunlit sei,

And age has come on me silently, And the bard, when stretched by thy mossy side,

Like a shadow upon the sea; Chaunted his tales of Erin's pride.

And when, with a tottering foot, I stand Dost thou not sigh for the wild birds wing,

On the viewless bank of an unknown land, When by thee he cleaves in the budding spring?

I will wait for Death's resistless strokeDost thou not sigh with him to stray

And I'll sleep beneath thee, my lonely oak! To those giant woods so far away?

F. I. 0. B.


Å NOVEL and important document has been people ; and another system, or rather the no-syspresented to Parliament this session, entitled the tem which had prevailed from the beginning of “First Annual Report of the Board of Super- the Reformation, was applauded as exceedingly vision for Relief of the Poor in Scotland.” One congenial with the pride, modesty, and indepenof the most notable features of the Scottish Poor-dence of the national character. Science and law Act, passed in 1815, was the erection of a philosophy came to the aid of avarice and greed ; central Board or Commission, somewhat akin to and elaborate arguments, founded upon ingethe Board of Poor-law Commissioners in Eng- nious but speculative theories of population, land, and charged with the supervision of the were added to the more vulgar reasons dictated parochial officials. Previous to the passing of the by sheer selfishness, in support of the dogma new Act, the parishes were left to do very much that no provision should be made for the poor. as they pleased : the consequence was, great in- The indigent population in Scotland were thus equality in the mode and amount of relief through- flattered, argued, and mystified out of their legal out Scotland, and in the majority of parishes an claims. The acts and proclamations intended for inconceivable degree of hardship and injustice to their protection were forgotten ; while that benethe poor. The old poor-law, in so far as it appear- volence which beats spontaneously in the bosom ed on the statute book, was not to blame for these of society, was lulled into dormancy or exhausted evils. The rights of the poor, and the duties of in other exercises than the humble one of feedthe parochial boards, were singularly well defined ing the hungry and clothing the naked. The by the various acts and proclamations which the precarious collections at the church-doors, distriLegislature and Privy Council of Scotland, from buted often with a partial, and always with a the days of James VI. to those of William and stinted hand, formed the only patrimony of the Mary, had with exemplary perseverance enrolled poor. The result was obvious. In' seasons of among the laws of the realm. Even the usual prosperity, the poor shared, to some extent, the checks and counterchecks, with which it is custoin- abundance of the country; but in periods of gloom ary in this country to regulate the exercise of author and distress, their numbers and their destitution rity and secure the impartial discharge of official increased to an alarming degree, pouring over duty, were not neglected. A power of appeal was the land a flood of vagrancy, pestilence, and imgiven from the parochial boards to the sheriffs of morality, the sad traces of which remained long counties; and from these again to the lords of after the calamity, which was their primary cause, session. Magistrates, justices of the peace, sheriff's had disappeared. and judges, were all by turns invoked to protect the But the tide ultimately began to turn. Beneinterests of the poor, and to visit the negligence volence, reason, and an enlightened self-interest, of parishes with severe pecuniary penalties. In gradually assumed their proper sway. The geneshort, the sustenance of the poor was constituted ral desire for practical reforms, which began to be a right-a legal and civil rightsurrounded with manifested after the passing of the Reform Bill, the same sanctions as the right of property, and directed attention at once to the condition of the capable of being enforced by the same means as a poor. Their extreme destitution was found to be, creditor would recover a just debt, or as an heir in Scotland at least, the great origo mali—the one of tailzie would make good his claim to an estate. radical source of filth, ignorance, vagabondism, But in vain were all these benevolent precautions and disease. The best schemes of sanitary and The “still small voice” of charity which issued moral reform were seen to be utterly worthless, at intervals from the hall of Parliament, or the so long as the numerous class, whom the misforrecesses of the Secret Council, was utterly lost tunes and vicissitudes of time had reduced to a amid the theological contentions and civil convul- state of dependent poverty, were either doomed to sions of the times. The first enactments relating starve upon three farthings a day, or abandoned to to the poor, were passed in the crises of the Refor- a life of wild and unsettled vagrancy. In 1841 the mation : the last received the touch of the Royal well-known case from the parish of Ceres was sceptre when the nation had newly and but tempo- brought before the Court of Session ; and a derarily emerged from the fiery struggle by which cision was given by that supreme judicatory which an ancient line of kings was finally expelled from exercised a powerful influence on the position the throne. The claims of the poor and indigent of the poor-law question in Scotland. Hitherto had but small chance of being respected in an age attention had been exclusively directed to the when ecclesiastics strove for supremacy, and kings necessity of a new Act of Parliament; but the dethemselves were forced to contend for their crowns. cision in the Ceres case shed a sudden light over Even when civil turmoil had subsided, and peace, the laws for relief of the poor which had already order, and government were fully established, found their way into the Statute-book. It was new pretexts were not long in being discovered established by a majority of the judges, that the for evading the administration of laws which proceedings of the parochial boards were subject proposed to relieve the wants of the poor out to the review of the Court of Session ; that this of the superfluities of the wealthy. It was found power of review on the part of the Supreme that such a mode of relieving destitution was very Court extended to the question of amount of aliill adapted to the peculiar genius of the Scottish ment, as well as to the more strictly legal question

the pauper.

of right to relief; and lastly, that the Court was £306,044. In the previous year the sum raised disposed to give a much more liberal interpreta- for the same purposes was £258,814 19s. 11}d., tion to the words “needful sustentation,” occur- being £36,417 8s. 1}d. less than the sum exring in the ancient statutes, than had hitherto pended in the year ending 1st February 1846. formed the practice of the parochial boards. The Nor is this increase confined to the year 1846 widow of Ceres obtained redress ; and soon after alone ; for if we take the four years preceding the allowance of two old women, sisters, residing 1845, we find that there was an average annual in the parish of Balmaclellan, was raised from increase in the expenditure on the poor of no less 2s. 34. to seven shillings a-week, by a similar pro- than £21,890 15s. And going back farther cess. Such successful pleading was sure to find still, it appears that during the six years from numerous imitators. Cases of inadequate relief 1836 to 1841 inclusive, there was a progreswere poured into Court from all parts of the sive increase, amounting in all to £47,439. country; and, in almost every instance, the re- Were we to go still farther back, we believe the sult was adverse to the parish and in favour of same feature would be exhibited ; but taking the

The heritors and kirk-sessions, ten years from 1st January 1836 to 1st February alarmed at the dreary prospect of assessment 1846, we have the sufficiently striking result that which these decisions opened up to them, and the funds for the relief of the poor have increased the equally galling burden of legal expenses by £135,002, or nearly 79 per cent. At the time with which they were threatened, did they not the Board of Supervision drew out their Report, give implicit obedience to the new interpretation they anticipated a still greater increase in the of the law, suddenly changed their tactics, and year ending 1st February 1847; and it is very became as eager for the introduction of a new probable that their next returns will show that poor-law into Scotland as they had formerly been the sum raised for the poor in Scotland has been opposed to it. The disruption of the Church in doubled in eleven years- -a space of time in which 1843, by greatly diminishing, and in some pa- the population has possibly not increased more rishes altogether sweeping away, the weekly con- than some 10 or 12 per cent. tributions at the Church doors, by which the poor So much for the fact of increase: let us briefly under the old system were mainly supported, inquire into the causes to which it is to be attribrought matters rapidly to a head ; and the Go- buted. It is obvious that this increase in the exvernment, taking advantage of these changes in penditure on the poor cannot be traced to the the opinion and position of parties, the Act of operation of the Act of 1815, seeing that it existed 1845 was introduced into Parliament, and passed and was progressing at an annually increasing rapidly through its various stages without en ratio many years before the passing of that meacountering any formidable opposition.

The increase in the first year of the new A wide diversity of opinion prevails respecting law is certainly greater than in any previous the nature and intention of this new law. That year ; but when we take into account the addilarge portion of the public, who, not feeling deeply tional cost of management under the new system, interested in the question, take but little pains to it seems doubtful whether the recent measure has acquaint themselves with its practical bearings, not actually checked, rather than augmented, the are, for the most part, content to regard it ex- force with which the sum expended on what is, actly as its preamble describes it—"An Act for properly speaking, the relief of the poor, was in. the better administration of the laws relating to creasing. Nor do we believe that the increase is the relief of the poor in Scotland.” While, on owing to any increase in the amount of destituthe other hand, those who pay a closer attention tion in the country, or even in the number of to the working of the measure, and take a deeper paupers on the parish rolls.* There is one fact interest in the condition and complaints of the especially which seems to overturn such a suppopoor, are inclined to condemn it as a cunning con- sition. In the years 1839-40-41, when the most trivance for stopping the cases of appeal in the extreme distress prevailed in all parts of the Court of Session, and destroying the chance of country, the expenditure on the poor was less, and justice which, by the Ceres case, had been unex- the rate at which it increased was smaller, than peetedly opened up to the poor through the chan- in 1813-44-45, which were years of abundance Del of that supreme judicatory. These conflicting and prosperity. Had the poor-law expenditure of opinions will be most effectually tested by the Scotland been affected in any sensible degree by practical results of the measure, and therefore we the state of trade and the condition of the people, proceed to lay before the reader, as concisely as this state of things would have been entirely repossible, the leading facts contained in the Report versed. The expenditure in the three former of the Board of Supervision.

years would have been large, and in the three latThe first and main point in the Report to ter it would have undergone a rapid diminution, which we would call attention, is the increase in It is obvious, therefore, that the progressive inthe expenditure on the poor in Scotland. From the returns made to the Board of Supervision, it

* We would have this latter remark to be understood as appears that the sum raised from all sources for applying to the whole country in general. There are no

doubt some exceptions—as, for example, the city parish the relief and management of the poor, in the of Glasgow, where the poor rates have increased from year ending 1st February, 1816_during the latter $24,000 in 1846, to £48,000 in 1847, owing partly we behalf of which the Board of Supervision and the lieve to an increase of paupers on the roll. It will be

observed, however, that we allude in the text to the machinery of the new law were in operation-was increase of expenditure prior to 1846.


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