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DR. MERLE D'AUBIGNE'S LIFE OF CROMWELL.* At first sight it might be somewhat difficult to roundly, when it so pleased him; and if he someimagine what reasonable motive could have in times chose to involve himself in the fume and duced another foreign writer, however able and smoke of solemn words, either to render his real accomplished, to assume "The Protector and his meaning unintelligible or double-handled, it is not Times” as a theme. So much has been written, always easy to clear such obscure or oracular and admirably written, upon the subject, especi- utterances from every shade of seeming hypoally of late, that very little, it might be presumed, crisy. remained to be said by Dr. Merlet D'Aubigné. It ought to satisfy the most unqualified adAccordingly, of original facts, or the fruit of re- mirers of Cromwell, that, in public affairs, he newed and careful historical research, we find little was no greater hypocrite than the ablest and or nothing—absolutely nothing ; and apart from most upright and consummate politicians have one grand and leading idea, the key to the work, generally been, and in religion no hypocrite in which we shall immediately explain, quite as little any discernible degree, when read and judged of original thought, or appreciation of the charac- in the true spirit of his age. If Lord Brougham, ter of Cromwell.

Sir Robert Peel, or Lord John Russell were With the remarkable work of Carlyle fresh in to hold forth in Parliament in the language of the mind of every reader, although there were no Cromwell, there would be little hesitation in other obstacle, it must be admitted, that Dr. pronouncing each of them a thorough hypocrite ; Merle has assumed no easy task. Of this he is fully though, on the other hand, he would be rash sensible ; and the magnitude of the undertaking, or uncharitable, who, from their avoidance of and fear of failure appear, from his deprecatory the Puritanic phraseology of the seventeenth cenintroduction, to have increased upon him. This mo- tury, would set them down as men without redest apprehension leads to numerous preliminary ligion. explanations and apologies. What has grown The character of Cromwell as a politician, a into a work was originally, it appears, intended patriot, and a hero, as a man of strong devofor an article in a continental Review; but—to ac- tional feelings, and one, free-like, thank Heaven! cept the explanation of the author--as he proceed the great majority of civilized mankind—from ed, he came to feel it to be his duty to rectify the gross vices, being now tolerably well understood, common opinion with regard to Cromwell's reli- little was left to any new biographer, save to ascergious character ; in brief, to compose an elabo- tain the precise degree in which this great man rate vindication and laudation of The Lord Pro- possessed the distinguishing graces of a private tector, to do which, with effect, it was necessary Christian, and a Christian ruler. And Dr. M. to quote largely from his letters and speeches, as D’Aubigné, labouring very hard to establish the rethese are found in Carlyle's volumes. If left to ligious character of the Protector,leavesthis chosen form our own judgment of the motives which led and honoured instrument in the hand of ProviDr. Merle to expand his work, motives besides ence, this great man—for great he was—immeathose common ones which induce men of letters to surably below many and many a humble, obscure write and publish books, we would have said, that Christian—if there be but one all-perfect pattern he wished to give to Protestant Europe an Anti- and model of the Christian virtues and graces. Catholic rallying-cry-a battle-word against It is, then, his hostility to the Roman Catholic Popery, in the name and memory of Cromwell. faith, shown chiefly, it is alleged, upon religious In England, at all events, the opinion formed of grounds, that Dr. Merle considers the leading obthe character of The Protector is neither so low, ject of Cromwell's life, as it was his crowning nor yet so erroneous, as Dr. Merle D'Aubigné has glory to have been, not alone the Protector of assumed. Men of every party, and even the most the Reformed Religion in England, but of Eurobigoted Catholics, or fanatical High-churchmen, pean Protestantism. On this absorbing and interallow Cromwell to have been the most able of minable subject of Popery our author is an avowed statesmen, a great military commander, and even alarmist; and, without sharing in his fears, his a true patriot; to whom the honour and glory of readers may admit, to the fullest extent, his statehis country were ever dear, and who exalted both.ments concerning the zeal and activity of the moFew will now stigmatize Cromwell as a religi-dern Romish propagandists ; though, at the same ous hypocrite, though policy made him, like other time, they may be no more afraid of the authority political leaders, sometimes temporize among hos of the Pope being unduly extended over Great tile sects, or, when hard pushed, evade sincere ex- Britain, than that the altars of Jupiter will be planation, by shrouding his real sentiments and again set up in Rome. Dr. Merle D'Aubigné wishes in a mystical jargon, only too familiar to fancies he perceives a crisis approaching in Brireligious men in his age. No man could declare tain, and involving all Protestant Europe, prehis genuine sentiments more freely, forcibly, and cisely similar to that which occurred in England

* Octavo, pp. 379. Edinburgh : Oliver & Boyd. # Dr. Merle D'Aubigné requests his English readers to give him his true surname of MERLE, D'AUBIGNE being merely an honourable addition assumed by his grandfather, in virtue of some matrimonial alliance, and iu order that an appellation, which deserved well of Protestantism, might not become extinct.

in the middle of the seventeenth century-an in- , the grand and leading principle of Cromwell's sidious attempt, by Rome and her cohorts, to public life. In the war which, it may be supposed, reconquer England, and thus to triumph over Cromwell waged with Spain from State policy and the principles of the Reformation in every land. the desire of national aggrandizement, his biograHe makes little, or but slight account of the po- pher finds a more powerful motive in the Proteclitical elements which incited, or rather produced, tor's fixed determination to crush Rome. After the civil wars of the seventeenth century, nor con- quoting from one of Cromwell's speeches, delisiders that the struggle was as much-and, vered at an epoch when war was to be declared in truth, far more—against arbitrary power, over against Spain, and to be vindicated, not by citing stretched prerogative, than against Popery. He Grotius and Vatel, as statésmen do now, but the regards the great Rebellion almost solely as | Revelations, “The Beast,” and “The Man of a religious war, which England, he imagines, Sin,” Dr. Merle D'Aubigné says:may soon again be called upon to renew, with, “ In Cromwell's views Rome was the antichristian alas! no Cromwell to direct her councils and spiritual power, and Spain the civil power by which she lead her armies. Him God raised up to crush had long been abetted. There may be persons who will and destroy royalty, which had grown into the dispute that this can be found in the Apocalypse, but no

one will dispute that it is really found in history. The stronghold of Popery, and to become the cham- verdict of posterity has ratified his opinion. pion and bulwark of the Reformed Religion. We “If the positive principle he gave to the British state conceive Dr. Merle's fears either overstrained or was morality and faith, the negative principle was regroundless. The nonsensical and superstitious frip-sistance to Popery. He held each of these in equal impery of Puseyism at which he is so alarmed, will

, if the Gospel. With their aid England has seen the days

portance, for at bottom they concentre in one ... ...in left to itself, soon pass away, and is already fast of her exaltation ; when they are neglected or set aside, vanishing before the returning sobermindedness then will come the day of her decline. While the Proof many of its adherents, and the good-humoured tector made war upon Spain, he was in reality fighting derision of the spectators of its phantoms and foole- against Rome." ries. Puseyism has, in fact, never taken any hold

As the volume is a continual testimony against whatever of either the thinking or the industrious the Popish faith, a perpetual sounding of the classes of the community. How should it? Its alarm against Popery to the degenerate rulers of apostles have been either enthusiasts or restless England, we are at no loss to find passages, often priests, desirous of fortifying the tottering power written with much animation and fervour, in which of the Church and the sacerdotal order ; and its the author, both directly and indirectly, enforces disciples idle, half-instructed men and women of his doctrines which, it may be remarked, are very the “ higher classes,” with whom shows and sub- frequently accompanied by protestations of the stances, words and things, assume much the same

warmest zeal for religious liberty. It is not our importance. We refer to the grosser element

business to vindicate Dr. Merle D'Aubigné's conthe outer husk of Puseyism ; for in its core, assistency. In one place, in referring to the grand in the inner heart of all things, there is to be found model he would set before the eyes of modern good as well as evil. This view cheers us under English statesmen, he remarks:the solemn warnings and grave prophecies of the “ CROMWELL was not satisfied with merely frightening Genevese doctor, delivered in such terms as the the Pope in his own Babylon, and with directing his efforts following:

in every quarter against the Roman power; he at the “If England desired in the present day, as her princes same time zealously pursued the great cause of the desired in the seventeenth century, to restore Popery signed to England that station as Queen of the Protestant

Reformation in Europe and in the world, and thus asif the number of those unfaithful ministers, who ahjure World, which has been, and ever will be, her glory and her the Gospel for the Pope, should multiply in her bosomif that superstitious madness should spread to their con- strength, so long as she shall remain true and faithful to gregations—if the heads of the Church should continue this great calling. This was his third ruling passion, to slumber, and, instead of rescuing their flocks, allow -religious liberty--the greatness of England-the prosthem to proceed towards the wolf that is waiting to de- perity of Protestantism. Where is the statesman that vour them if the government, not satisfied with gran

has ever had in view nobler and more beneficial objects ? ting liberty to Popery, should encourage it still farther by endowing its seminaries, paying its priests, building its “ Cromwell thought it his vocation to be in the whole churches, and restoring throughout Great Britain the world what he was at home--the great champion of repower of the Roman bishop......then would England pro-ligious liberty." bably be convulsed by a crisis, differont, it might be, from that which startled the reign of Charles, but not the less slender samples of this sort:

In another place it is said, and we give but formidable. Again the earth would quake , again would it open to pour forth devouring flames.”

“ It is the Protector's glory that he discerned in Rome The object of this work, we have said, and it is the chief enemy to the liberty, prosperity, and piety of

nations. This in our days is called prejudice and superone never lost sight of, is to arouse the anti-Ca- stition. Severe lessons will teach the nations, to their tholio feelings or slumbering religious prejudices of cost, which of the two is right—their modern leaders, or the British nation; and, to effect this, the deeds the great man of the seventeenth century." and the name of The Protector are made the It is throughout forgotten, or wilfully overbattle-word. The great, if not actuating motive looked, that Elizabeth, to whom Dr. Merle will of Cromwell, during his whole career, is repre- scarcely, we imagine, allow the very name of sented as deadly and determined hostility to the Protestant, was, politically, as much entitled to Papal power and the Catholic religion. The love be called “the Defender of the Faith,” as was of liberty, the interest and glory of England, were Cromwell, who is thus honourably designated by always subordinate to what our author considers I him. In referring to the massacre of the Protes

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tants in Piedmont, which, together with the “Irish | intervention of the English chief rescued from the venSt. Bartholomew," are described in the strong geance of the soldiers of Louis XIV., already marching and warm language to which the remembrance against that city to execute the orders of the court to the

last extremity."'* of these horrors and atrocities naturally move

We have already shown the animus of this every Christian man, whether Romanist or Pro

work, and, if further illustration were required, testant, our author expatiates upon the zeal displayed by Cromwell to obtain redress and justice in the moral thus drawn from the tumult at

it might, among many other passages, be found for the persecuted Waldenses, who, upon his

Nismes. powerful interposition, were restored to the same

· Had Cromwell's spirit animated the English governreligious liberty which they had enjoyed undis

ment in our days, the iniquity of Otaheite would never turbed for centuries. On the authority of Neale, have been committed ; and we should not have seen the and we should have preferred that of an original priest-party in France inveighing, on the one hand, against letter or State document, we are told that, after the three northern powers for annihilating the indepenhis effectual interposition for the Protestants of dence of Cracow, and, on the other, making war upon a peo

ple who have never known a master, and who, as regards Piedmont,

moral power and political and religious life, are certainly “ This Defender of the Protestant faith, wishing to far superior to the Cracovian citizens. The energy with give the Pope and the petty princes of Italy a lesson cal- which this little nation has held in check for several years culated to strike them with terror, gave out, that as he the people who consider themselves the first in the world, was satisfied they had been the promoters of this persecu- is a pretty clear proof that it deserves to be independent. tion, he would keep it in mind, and lay hold of the first | The priest-party of France, by protesting against the ocopportunity to send his fleet into the Mediterranean to cupation of Cracow and by provoking the assault on visit Civita Vecchia and other parts of the ecclesiastical Otaheite, has had the unenviable honour of furnishing the territories, and that the sound of his cannon should be civilized world with the most notorious example in modern heard in Rome itself. He further declared publicly that times of that blindness which strains at a grat and swalhe would not suffer the true faith to be insulted in any lows a camel.part of the world."'*

Cromwell, we have seen, had the wisdom to As “ Defender of the Faith,” Cromwell did reject the counsels, and refuse the supplications of not, however, rashly engage in war.

So far as the Protestant pastors of France, and the flocks remonstrance and negotiation could reach, sound they rashly instigated to insurrection. policy, apart from religious sentiment, must have by other means, says the writer of the above led him, as they did Elizabeth, to stipulate in all passage, “ he should come to the support of the his treaties for protection, or freedom of conscience, Protestants—by his moral influence, and not by to those professing the reformed faith. But, as his armies.” And, as often as churchmen and is here truly said, “ Cromwell was no less prudent theologians indulge in meddling and dictation, than brave.” England was never once plunged raise the cry of war, or counsel armed interby the Protector into a religious war—a war of position, statesmen would do well to pause, and polemic opinion. The Protestant pastors, in the to deserve the praise bestowed upon Cromwell, south of France, had at one time nearly insti- for not rushing into war without first counting the gated their flocks to actual rebellion, and Oliver, cost; upon him who—when the French Protestants at this crisis, seems, though very cautiously, to “fasted and prayed publicly for the preservation have felt his way.

of the protector, calling him plainly their only “ Agents sent by the Protector into France seriously hope next to God”—wisely kept England free of urged him to declare in favour of the oppressed and per- the quarrel. secuted religion. The most influential French pastors corresponded with the heads of the Council of State in tector's zeal for religious liberty-for freedom of

Our author considers, and most justly, The ProEngland. The fermentation and enthusiasm were general throughout all the south; and the Protestants, imagining conscience as one of his noblest characteristics. the eve of their deliverance to be at hand, fasted and So fairly, though with a high hand, did Cromwell, prayed publicly for the preservation of the Protector,

as soon as his power was somewhat consolidated, calling him plainly their only hope next to God!!

carry himself among hostile sects, that his bioBut Cromwell was no less prudent than brave."

grapher, Villemain, has, upon this neutrality or It was by his “ moral influence," not the less Catholicity of spirit, shrewdly founded a plausible powerful certainly from being backed by his vic- charge of hypocrisy ; for how, in an age when torious fleets and armies, that he could most effec- the petty distinctions of rival religious denominatually aid the natural allies of Reformed and tions, when mere forms were held of greater imRevolutionized England-the Protestants of the continent. It was in this way that, at a sub- | Cromwell alone have remained indifferent to the

portance than the essentials of christianity, could sequent period, he interposed for the Protestant watch-words and badges of sect? How could he, citizens of Nismes, when called to sharp account at that momentous period, when interference and in a quarrel with the bishop and the magistrates faith were so closely allied, remain neutral and of the city. This, by the way, was the special indifferent to the triumph of his own faith of act which entitles the Protector to the gratitude Puritanism, unless, a consummate hypocrite, he of Dr. Merle D'Aubigné, who, in his introduction, really viewed each sect merely as the instrument states

of his ambition and statecraft, and had no religion “As I am myself descended from Huguenot refugees, it seemed to me that I had a debt to pay to this illustrious of any kind, that was not subservient to his policy?

Thero were, perhaps, some of my forefathers The thought is natural in M. Villemain, though, among those inhabitants of Nismes, whom tho powerful

One of the Author's ancestors quitted Nismes a few

years after Cromwell's intervention, and found a refuge *Neale, Hist. Puritans, ii. 654, 655.

at Geneva.

man.

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we are persuaded, far from just. Cromwell, nothing to diminish the responsibility of England and of whatever varying opinions may be formed of his her government: she is great in every way; but all impurely christian character, certainly believed him- partial judges must acknowledge, that it is from the seven

hilled city whence flow those torrents which have inunself a religious man. Even what Dr. Merle dated this interesting and unhappy nation with ignorance, describes as a Biblical affectation of language" superstition, servility, and wretchedness—with humiliation, —an affectation, by the way, coming fast into famine, pestilence, and death. The papacy by vitiating vogue in our own day—was more a charac- the revelations of Christianity, by establishing again in the teristic of his age, than the studied utterance of gospel to abolish evorywhere, by retarding the nations

world a sacerdotal caste, which it was the object of the hypocrisy. And the ennobling distinction will wherever she was dominant, and by keeping them in all ever remain to Cromwell, that, as his mind respects in the rear of the others—will have to answer ripened, and his power advanced, so did his before God and man for the poverty and sufferings she has

entailed on an island, which, before it was subjected to elevation and expansion of spirit. His severity to the Irish Catholics was mainly that of a poli- which is now, alas ! at the lowest step in the scale.

the Pope, was at the head of all christian countries, and tician, and directed almost solely against those “The Oratorians, * charmed, it would seem, by the intriguing and restless priests whose object it fruits which the waters of Popery have produced in Irewas to subvert his government, and disturb the land, have formed the pious design of introducing them peace of the community; and the self-same policy Hill to draw from the bowels of the earth the bitter

into England. They are digging at the foot of the Quirinal led to his frequent checks of Presbyterian inter- water that causeth a curse, and their friends in England are ference with his purposes.

as earnestly engaged in making the canals and reservoirs Dr. Merle D'Aubigné makes very frequent for its reception. The special danger of their exertions mention, if not boast, of his own excessive libe- consists in this : the workmen have been brought up in

the midst of Protestantism, whose light and strength they rality or perfect tolerance, though it is doubtful

are now turning against it. If it were merely a question how far Romanists, Unitarians, Free-thinkers- of some few dirty and ignorant monks, such as Rome and all not included in the denomination evangel. manufactures in Italy, Spain, Portugal, and elsewhere, lical, are included within his pale. He even con

there would be no cause for tear. But these vermin will demns some of the acts of Cromwell, and the re

not creep in until later, to eat into the tree and destroy its

fruits. The fashionable Oratorians have the task of clearligious restrictions which he at first imposed upon ing the way for them. If the State and the Church envy the Catholics. Yet he considers The Protector, England the condition of Ireland, let them hasten to give upon religious considerations, not merely justified, their aid to this noble project conceived at Oxford, carrybut honoured in his severity to the Irish Catho-ing on at Rome, and which will soon be in execution

through England. But if the misery of Ireland, if its lic priesthood; and it seems very probable that dead and living corpses, fill their hearts with sorrow and he considers the recent Catholic Emancipation as alarm; then let Church and State act energetically, a wrong and most dangerous concession, going each in its own sphere, and let them labour earnestly in much too far, since it admits Papists into Parlia- building dykes to stop the water thut coineth by the way ment.

of Edom, water as red as blood. A question of suicide

is now pending in England. But we must quote the passage which, with many others, justifies our conclusion, and makes If we desire to see what Popery makes nations in these us strongly doubt whether Dr. Merle be really days, we have only to cast our eyes upon Belgium, which the ultra-tolerant Protestant which he sincerely We shall find there a fertile soil, a land offering immense

next to Ireland is the most popish country in Europe. believes himself.

resources, and a people once at the head of European In these days he will be severely reproached for his manufactures and commerce, but of whom the fourth part intolerance of Popery in Ireland. I shall not suffer

is now reduced to mendicancy and is dying of hunger. tho exercise of the mass,' he said. Let us examine the Will it be said that here, as in England, the government matter seriously.

is in fault? Impossible! for the Belgian government "If Cromwell had truly at heart the prosperity of since 1831 has been the most catholic in Europe. In Ireland, it is evident that he must have desired to see

consequence of the prevalence of jesuitism in that kingthat country renounce the mass and the Pope.

dom, subsequent to the Revolution, the number of priests “Nothing can be more superficial, nothing more false, has been augmented by 2600. More than 400 convents than those opinions so prevalent on the Continent and have been opened, whence issue in all directions Franeven in the British isles, which ascribe all the misery of ciscan friars, capuchins, and other sluggards of the same Ireland to the absentecism of the great gentry, to the brood (we are not aware if there are any Oratorians); conduct of the English government, and to other causes

and these priests and monks have invaded everything, of a similar nature. We may admit that these circumstan

enslaved everything. ces have exerted a certain influence on the condition of

“ The result soon appeared: Belgian pauperism has this unhappy people ; but the true source of evil must be taken its place at the side of Irish pauperism ; and in looked for elsewhere. Can we see the difference which Belgium its intensity is in direct proportion to that of exists between episcopalian England, presbyterian Scot- Popery. The wretchedness is far more aggravated in the land, and popish Ireland, and not iminediately perceive Flemnish provinces, which are entirely subject to the priests, the origin of the woes of the last-named country! Or than in the Walloon (French) provinces, which were once will it be pretended that the Irish people are of a race protestant, and whose spirit is nearer that of Protestanism. inferior to others ?

"Such,' says a correspondent, “is the state to which “ The influence of religions is immense. Godliness is Belgium has been reduced by the clerical party in less profitable unto all things, having promise of the life that than fifteen years.?

. now is, and of that which is to come. It is the priests

“If therefore Oliver Cromwell loved Ireland, if he dewho have made the Irish what they are; or rather it is a sired its happiness and prosperity, he must have wished degrading religion which has debased alike priest and above all things to see Popery and the mass dissa pear, people-a gross superstition, a corrupt system of morals, and to behold the establishment of evangelical Christianity ideas false and out of date, which have robbed this nation and of the Bible.” of its energy, and engendered in it carelessness, impru- Is this a true picture of the condition to which dence, and misery. Priests, degraded by error, have thenıselves degraded their poor flocks.

We would say

*Mr. Newman and bis friends,

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Belgium has been reduced “ by the priests in only | lyle's work has so very lately been widely diffifteen years?" —Belgium, long the favoured seat fused, we must be chary in the use of Oliver's of arts, manufactures, and industry, and at the pithy and pregnant utterances. The following same time Catholic-yet so changed in only fif- was directed against those“ busy and meddling" teen short years! If such statements are to be Presbyterian ministers, as Cromwell considered implicitly received, bad as our opinion of some them, who had taken refuge in the castle of of the tendencies, moral and political, of the Edinburgh, which he had invested, and who Roman Catholic religion is, we must go a step rejected his frank and politic invitation to come farther, and become immediate converts to Dr. down, on the faith of his protection, to preach, on D'Aubigné--sympathizers in the political no-Po- a Sabbath during the siege, in their respectivo pery outcry which shows symptoms of renewal churches. “ The Scotch clergy,” says Carlyle, pending the coming election.

never got such a reprimand since they first took Every one is at present bringing forward his Ordination.” The letter was addressed to the panacea for Irish misery, and Dr. Merle D'Au-Governor of the besieged fortress. bigné's remedy, if not quite all that is required,

Edinburgh, 9th September, 1650.

""SIR-The kindness offered to the ministers witli is at least worthy of attention, were it only as an illustration of the ease with which some gifted might have met with the like. If their Master's service

you was done with ingenuity (ingenuously), thinking it men in their closets abroad can solve the most (as they call it) were chiefly in their eye, imagination of difficult problems, social, political, and religious, suffering would not have caused such a return. and lay down the law, or indicate the right path, liberty to preach the Gospel; though not to rail, nor,

"The Ministers in England are supported, and have to British legislators and rulers, who, in this case, under pretence thereof, to overtop the Civil Power, or might with advantage study at Geneva.

debase it as they please. No man hath been troubled in As the Gospel is the only means of saving Ireland, England or Ireland for preaching the Gospel ; nor has how then can we impart to its wretched inhabitants this any minister been molested in Scotland since the coming infallible remedy ?

of the army hither. The speaking truth becomes the " In the first place, let there be no attempt to intro- ministers of Christ. When ministers pretend to a glorious duce either a clerical and traditional religion, or a rational. Reformation, and lay the foundations thereof in getting to ist and unitarian system. What we must give them is themselves worldly power, they may know that the Sion the Gospel

, nothing but the Gospel, the entire Gospel. promised will not be built with such untempered mortar. Fashionable people may amuse themselves in their drawing-rooms and boudoirs with Puseyite or Socinian notions ;

"I have nothing to say to you but that I am, sir, but a nation requires positive and living elements. Chris

your humble servant, tianity in all its simplicity, with all its richness and its

OLIVER CROMWELL.')) strength, can alone sare from this mortal sickness. “If truth is the first means, christian lore is the second.

On the 12th of September, Cromwell sent another Charity never faileth : its effect is sure, it is a living letter to the governor, to refute the complaints made by word which shall never fall unto the earth. To preserve the inhabitants, and particularly by the ministers. Ireland, there must be a great manifestation of the spirit

You say,' writes Oliver, “you regret that men of truth in the fruits of christian lore.

of civil employments should usurp the calling and “ I will add, however, a third means. A respectable employment of the ministry; to the scandal of the ecclesiastical form is necessary to encourage the poor Reformed Kirks. Are you troubled that Christ is catholies, whom the calumnies of their priests perpetually preached ? Is preaching so exclusively your function? alarm with the disunion and disorder of protestant sects. Doth it scandalize the Reformed Kirks, and Scotland in In their house of bondage, they have contracted certain particular? Is it against the Covenant ? Away with the wants which ought to be respected. The two protestant | Covenant, if this be so ! I thought the Covenant and churches, which are the most numerous in Ireland, the these professors of it could have been willing that any episcopalian and the presbyterian, present all that can be should speak good of the name of Christ : if not, it is no desired; but let them be circumspect, and walk together Covenant of God's approving; nor are these Kirks you in harmony.

mention in so much the spouse of Christ. " Another question here occurs : To gain the Irish people, must we not first put out of sight that which

"You err through mistaking of the Scripturcs. Ofiends them, break the bonds which unite tho episco- Approbation [i. e. ordination, solemn approbation and palian church to the state, and by giving the former power- appointment by men] is an act of conveniency in respect ful community more liberty, give it also greater energy of order; not of necessity, to give faculty to preach the and lito?"

Gospel. Your pretended fear lest error should step in, The Rev. Baptist Noel and Sir Robert Inglis, is like the man who would keep all the wine out of the ** one of the most estimable Christians and public country lest men should be drunk. It will be found an men in England,” are quoted cre it is farther unjust and unwise jealousy, to deprive a man of his

natural liberty upon a supposition he may abuse it. When said

he doth abuse it, judge. “If it were clearly established that the cause of erangelical Protestantism in Ireland has been abandoned by If the acts of Cromwell, where policy interferců, the state, then our own exertions would, under God's were not always consistent with a real and enblessing, have far more strength and efficiency. Faith larged toleration, his sentiments were in general which worketh by love has power in spiritual things only. free and noble, and far indeed in advance of

" Such thoughts as theso were not altogether foreign most of those around him, whether lay or clerical. to Cromwell. Although he desired to have recourse to the law against the chiefs of Popery, he was willing to In one of his remarkable speeches he thus rebukes behave very differently towards the people."

the members of his Parliament, many of them of Readers, unacquainted with previous works the sect to which he himself belonged, as well as relating to The Protector, will often find the the Presbyterians, for their encroaching and inquotations from the letters and speeches of tolerant spirit, and direct attacks upon the reliCromwell not the least interesting and instruc-gious freedom of their fellow-subjects. tive portion of this volume; but as Mr. Car- Is there not yet upon the spirits of men a strange

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