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country because failing in production. And in nearly all the general propositions of anything 1842, another allusion was made to the same fact. approaching to a definite nature that have as yet
Such are, as we have said, the leading features been much brought under public discussion. of the money case of Ireland ; on which is based upon the subject of extending the Poor Law the expectation in that country, that England system in Ireland, as much has been already shall not enforce repayment of the present ad- said as we have at present room for, with the
exception of this short remark that it is deThe supporters of this case hold out a warn- sirable to bear in mind, viz., that the moing, that if the attempt be made to enforcement the extended Poor Law shall come into repayment, confusion will widely and generally operation in Ireland, not less than five mil. ensue-disputes, litigations without end, violence, lions of people will have to be supported : and, perhaps, bloodshed without limit;--and that mainly, of course, by what is known as out-door whether the attempt be or be not successful, it relief ; and this in a country which has been acwill have disastrous consequences to the revenue, knowledged in parliament by Sir Robert Peel inasmuch as the contributions of Ireland will be and Mr. Chancellor Goulburn, to be too poor to ruinously lessened.
bear the burthen of the Income and Assessed A large irrevocable expenditure is inevitable Taxes ! under any circumstances. To look after the bad With reference to the other measure-piz., debts will require all the disposable force, and State reclamation of waste lands--we repeat that heavily strain the resources of the empire. To it is a plan which, in any or all of the thousand recover but one-sixth of the arrears of Irish shapes under which it has been advocated, is ('hurch monies, some years ago, required a scarcely to be considered as other than a forced, money-expenditure, on military and police, of partial, and temporary remedy, likely to be speedily more than double the amount obtained; and blood outstripped by population, and at best giving but was plentifully spilled in the attempt. And even a short breathing time to look about us for someif success crown the effort, the drain will be so thing better. great upon the exhausted resources of the Irish All changes upon these two measures, and community, that their ability to consume taxed modifications or combinations of them----such as articles must be seriously affected, and, conse- giving permanency in any way to the Labour quently, the revenue produced by those articles Rate system now in activity--state-management must inevitably decline and fall away.
of private properties will be found open, in vaIt is farther urged upon the consideration of rious degrees, to the objections already urged, and those who are to decide the important question of to several others peculiarly incident to them. "payment” or “non-payment," that the monies selves. which have been and shall be advanced on ac- What, then, is to be done? count of the present calamity, are in no way and First.-Secure to yourselves the time for doing by no means an addition to the capital of Ireland, anything. Get this by temporary measures. Let but a replacement of what has been destroyed, the men of war land their useless guns, and go, viz., the capital invested in the potato crop, on merchants' account, or on the Government acwhich maintained the people and paid their rents. count, to what food-markets are yet open to us,
If, then, the attempt be made to recall these and bring back what may keep the people alive monies-beginning with an instalment next year during the awful months before us. Make what --it requires to be shown how Ireland has so in- improvements experience may suggest in the creased her capital, as not only to supply the working of the temporary Labour Rate system. maintenance of her people in future, and the dis- Interfere, for the benefit of both, and for the peace charge of her rent-obligations, but in addition, of the country, between landlord and tenant. to furnish a sum representing a certain propor- Experimentalise, to any extent you choose, upon tion of the capital necessary for those purposes in waste lands; and then avail yourselves of the time the present year.
you may have thus gained, to cast about for the How, it is asked, has she increased her ca- means of laying the foundations, deep and solid, pital? What measures for this purpose have of your permanent remedy. been adopted, or are in contemplation? Should Money-money-money—the sinews of war, not their full development (if such measures but equally the sinews of prosperity in peacem-is there be) precede demand ; which—that develop- what is wanting. Not Treasury grants doled out, inent can alone, by any possibility, enable Ireland or shovelled out, at emergencies, to be inevitably to meet and satisfy ?
much wasted-no dram-drinking by habit ; but Reason, policy, and justice, it is therefore a fair and regular action of the natural stimulants urged, combine to warn England from playing of the body-politic. the clamorous creditor, and throwing away an The money-capital of Ireland is in part drained opportunity to show her disposition of kind and away from her ; in part hoarded up, or otherwise friendly dealing with the distressed and dis- unhealthily stagnant. Absentees take five miltracted sister-country.
lions annually out of the country. The absence We now return to the question of the great re- of rich consumers re-acts upon industrial entermedial measures for Ireland ;
prise, making it decline and fade away. ManuPoor Laws, and reclamation of waste lands, factures thus gone, the classes wko would have we have before commented on, as comprisi dg found labour upon them, and, consequently, a comfortable subsistence by wages, are necessarily | Why should they “ draw over the profits” of the compelled to swell the crowd pressing for a bare land away from her, and refund her nothing, in subsistence upon land.
this her distress, save some such bounteous gift Not only is the increase of capital thus checked, as the three pounds which an absentee landlord. but the manufacturing products yet required by recently remitted towards the distress in the disthe Irish community have to be bought from trict where his extensive property lay. another country, and paid for in hard money. Where that lusus naturæ, a well managed This swells, by some millions more, the drain ; estate of an absentee, is really to be found, it and then come a thousand minor issues, in the assuredly will not be the worse managed by reason payments of interest on mortgaged estates, pen- of his personal residence there. And large as may sions on the Irish establishment, quit and crown be the subscriptions which a few, we fear a very, rents, and other gleanings from the Irish revenue very few indeed, may have sent over to Ireland, in ordinary times, after the reduced government their personal expenditure is due in addition at expenditure in Ireland is provided for. In skort, the present crisis. eight or nine millions are but a moderate estimate By getting the absentees back, the heaviest of the combined amount of all these items of item of direct drain of money from Ireland will drain ; and this, be it remembered, from a country at once be checked; and the beneficial results to which, on taxes equally imposed on both coun- industry in every branch, from the largely intries, is able to yield no higher a sum than four creased expenditure in that country, will speedily millions ; whereas the British receipts are nearly manifest themselves. forty millions !
Meantime Government have something in their The Irish money-capital not drained away is power. In ordinary years there is a sum avein small private hoards, or in the Savings' Banks, raging £600,000 or more, remitted from Ireland with the humbler classes ;-and in building specu- to the British Exchequer, after providing pay lations (small fourth and fifth-rate houses), and and maintenance of the large military force, dethe public funds,—with the classes above them. fraying the cost of the Ordnance Establishment, The decay and nearly total destruction of manu- the Judicial Establishment, Vice-Regal Court, factures in Ireland precludes or renders unsafe and Secretaries' departments, &c. This sum is any more profitable investment,
part of Ireland's contribution to the general exUnder these circumstances it is idle to expect penditure of the empire. Increase the items of that there can be vigour and healthful action in that general expenditure in Ireland, and the Irish the body-politic. A change must be effected in money will be spent on the same objects as now, these circumstances—an entire and total change: with no loss to the empire, but with a gain to imotherwise no change in the results, save that poverished Ireland. Dockyards, and a division from bad to worse, is rationally, or possibly, to of the fleet in Irish harbours, would come under be expected.
one obvious item of the transferred expenditure, How, then, is capital to be retained, made to and others are so equally obvious that we need circulate, and increased in Ireland ?
not here delay with their enumeration. Check the drains first of all. Dr. Johnson's The question which may naturally be asked illustration of the word absentee, by reference to here is, How are the absentees to be induced to Ireland, should never be forgotten.
return? Coaxing and beseeching them to do so
will scarcely effect this object. Are they, then, “ Absentee:-One who is absent from his station, or
to be taxed; and if taxed, to what extent? employment, or country.” “A great part of the estates in Ireland are owned by absentees, and such as draw over
The Repeal party in Ireland are very ready to the profits raised out of Ireland, refunding nothing."
answer this, and say, that without abjuring for
the future Irish Parliament the right and power Why should the absentees be “absent from to use even the harsh and forced measure of a their station” at this frightful period, when the personal tax to compel residence, their cherished energies of every citizen of every class are needed, project of “Repeal” contains within itself the and ought to be given, to bring their country safo means of dispensing with compulsory means. through her perils? Why should they be “ab- We defer the examination of this assertion to sent from their employment”_their rightful em- the next number of this Magazine, in which we ployment : taking care of the people by the sweat propose fully to state the case, which, as Irish of whose brows their luxuries have been supplied ? | Repealers, we make in favour of this object.*
BALLADS FROM SCOTTISH HISTORY -No, I.
THE DEATH OF JAMES III.
It was a low and lonely house, hard by old Milton Moss,
Down drops that corse-like thing, and in that lowly house is laid.
Can this be he! the son of him who wore TIE FIERY FACE,
AN EVENING REVERIE.
As I view thy blue eye beaming
With ray of softest light,
'Mid the starry islets bright;
To the fast-closing sbades of the night: As I gaze, an entrancing feeling
The soul's unbidden flight-
And wraps them in delight.
With thee, a fair angel of light!
O'er a sea of azure bright, Where silvery beams are playing
'Mid the golden isles of light:
We gaze upon the mighty spheres,
As we hurry along in our flight.
Through heaven's own climes we fly,
The Power that reigns on high;
And unheard of hopes blight the sigh.
That voice so soft and sweet,
No ear but mine to meet ?
R. H. P.
THE ULSTER TENANT-RIGHT.
When the British farmers' friends began to be pensation Bill of 1845, Lord Stanley remarked converted, twelve months since, under the tuition that a similar custom resembling “tenant” right of Sir Robert Peel, it was remarked that the con- existed in some parts of England ; and had been formists amongst the great landowners of Ulster enforced there at common law, but he proposed no were considerably over an average. Many of scheme for securing this property by statute. The these noblemen and gentlemen, like Lord Ashley Earl of Lincoln's bill was equally defective in and the Earl of Ellesmere, have been real con- this particular ; although a leading member of verts of Manchester and Tamworth; but others the Cabinet asserted that no statute law existed were said to be actuated by remembering that the on this subject. Even Mr. Sharman Crawford's tenant-right stood between their rent-rolls and bill, while recognizing the tenants' claim to comforeign corn. The tenure of land, indisputably pensation for future improvements, would afford the great Irish question, next to food, has been no security for the property already acquired ; discussed in each session of the present Parlia- in some cases by inheritance, but by the vast mament; but the Tenant-Right of Ulster, although jority of the holders through actual purchase. its most remarkable and interesting feature, has The Marquis of Londonderry, during the discusbeen almost entirely overlooked. Mr. Sharman sions of 1845, on the tenure of land in Ireland, exCrawford, in several successive sessions, has pressed his utmost satisfaction and delight with pressed the Tenants' Compensation Bill on Par- the working of the Tenant-right ; which, he said, liament, with such success, that, in 1845, Lord converted the farmer's land into his saving bank ; Stanley introduced a measure of his own, so bad and in one of his recent manifestos he claims a in quality that it was withdrawn; and, in last large credit for respecting this Tenant-right; as session, the Earl of Lincoln brought in a better, if the noble Marquis had besought public confibut still imperfect measure, which fell aside, in dence by a certificate of honesty in his own handthe confusion of business, at the close of the ses- writing, and given under his own signature ; sion. During these discussions, the Times and while his statement undoubtedly implies that other journals referred to the Tenant-Right of some people are less scrupulous regarding their Ulster in terms of the greatest disapprobation ; neighbour's property than the owner of Castleas a scheme devised by the farmers of that pro- reagh ; for a man never dreams of claiming vince to usurp the lawful property of helpless credit for å practice observed by all his peers. landowners. An association for the protection of The noble Marquis, however, very happily dedistressed landowners seemed as natural and scribed the working of the Tenant-right. It connecessary an institution as any of Mr. Bond Cab- verts the farmer's land into his saving bank. bell's plans of benevolence, or as the society for He pays a price on entry, and an annual rent; the relief of distressed needlewomen. It is, there while his leading object is not to draw all he can fore, a bold step of the newspapers in the interest out of his land within a given time, but to raise it of the English tenant farmers, to describe, by the higher in the scale of improvement, with the term “ tenant-right,” a leading idea in their ar- purpose of increasing its selling price. And the ticles, from the date of the last Corn Law ; even recognition of the custom by statute is now only although, on examination, their theory resolves requisite to render the description of the noble itself into nothing more substantial than a harm- Marquis accurate, and virtually convert the less nineteen years' lease. This description of farm into a saving bank. At present, when tenant-right has no affinity to the existing custom a man has à few hundred pounds in a bank, he of Ulster. A tenant-farmer there is absolutely can check for it with the same facility whether the joint-proprietor of his acres; and they are he votes for or against his landlord ; but many openly sold in the market at his demise, or by of the Ulster tenantry feel that if they voted himself on his retirement from farming. Their against the agent's candidate, their " Tenantsale is advertised in the newspapers, their value right” might be forfeited, and their bank become forms part, and in the majority of cases the most insolvent. They require express statute law to valuable part of the farmer's property; while in guard them from contingencies of this nature ; insolvencies the tenant-right is recognised, va- and their claim is perfectly just and reasonable. lued, and sold, for the benefit of creditors. The The custom originated, probably, during the civil farmer is, in point of fact, part-proprietor with wars previous to the Revolution, when the owners the original landowner-—under this exception, of the greater part of Ulster held their lands in that the tenant's portion of the private property gift from the Sovereign, and kept them by their is not secured by statute law, but upheld by steel. The Eastern and North-Eastern counties the custom of the country. With the sale were divided amongst a few noblemen and miliof leases all farmers are familiar, but this custom tary adventurers, who were bound to settle, on applies not only to leaseholders, but also to tenants- their new estates, a certain number of families at-will. A man cannot enter on a farm in Ulster from Scotland and England. Internal dissensions without purchasing and paying for the previous had reduced a previously populous district to a tenants' right; but he calculates on again effect- wild and natural state. The colonists had to ing a sale when circumstances induce him to quit build new houses, reclaim their fields, keep watch possession. In the discussion on the Tenants' Com- and ward, and frequently do battle in the midst The price pre
of their labours. The original undertakers were acre. A late nobleman, who had the reputation therefore, rendered anxious, by necessity, to dis- of a good landlord, at one period intimated to his charge one part of their contract, in clustering, tenantry that he would confirm no sales made for round their towers and castles the stipulated more than ten pounds per acre. number of men, to till their lands, and guard viously paid had been £15, £20, and £25; and them from the inroads of “ the wild Irish,” who the nobleman had probably fifteen thousand acres; struggled for possession of the country. Ulster so by this anouncement, he abstracted one hundred was, strictly, a military colony, and the farmer thousand pounds from the property of his tenantry, kept his tenure with his life. Many leases were and added it to his own private fortune. He thus then granted, on lives renewable for ever, by per- placed a limit on “the saving's bank,” checked sons whose descendants would gladly cancel them agricultural improvement, and compelled prudent now, but the written letter remains. Undoubt- men to let down the character of their lands to edly, at the time, some implied arrangement was the standard of ten pounds. This sum has, since formed with those colonists who did not obtain that period, been taken for the average in Downleases, by which they were allowed a permanent shire; although the price often rises higher. Last interest in their land, and its improvements, on summer, we knew a farm of sixty acres, in the payment of a small annual rent. This interest neighbourhood of the Great Britain's last restinggradually grew into a marketable commodity ; place, sold for £1200, although the annual rent and in a land where the farmer went forth, to was at the rate of 34s. per acre; and the owner plough or reap, with his life in his hand, the ar- intimated that on the expiry of the life by which rangement was perfectly equitable. In the lapse the lease hung, the rent would be increased to of years, by sales and other means, the tenant- 42s. per acre. One half of the sum was supposed right spread, from the descendants of the original to stand for buildings, and the other half for the settlers, to all classes, Protestants and Roman tenant's right or good-will; but the buildings Catholics; holding ground neither on lease nor were not worth £600, while the land was worth from a middleman, but directly from the landlord, more, although, by the mode of transfer, the real and even from year to year. Some learned antiqua-value was given for the land; and the arbitrary rians trace the right to ancient feudal law, and average of £10 was observed. it may have commenced at the East, in the days The Devon Commission in 1844 perambulated of the kings of Sodom, so far as we know. The Ireland from the Cove of Cork to the Giant's practical and present questions are not how and Causeway, examining farmers, land-agents, and where it began, but where does it exist ? what is proprietors on the tenure of land; and printed it worth ? can it be preserved? and, should it be their evidence in several blue books of more than maintained ?
a thousand folio pages each. These books, like A practice that has existed for one hundred most Parliamentary volumes, cannot be said to and fifty years, and is neither immoral nor im- have been published in the ordinary acceptation politic, should carry prescription. Even if it were of the term. They are for sale, but nobody buys shown to be “impolitic;" the interested persons them. They may be read, but few rcaders have should be compensated on its abolition. Slavery sufficient daring to attempt the achievement. is immoral and anti-christian ; but we paid the A man with a secret cannot place it in better West Indian planters for their slaves. The tenant-keeping than by having it printed in some of right is perfectly moral, and we believe it to be these books, where the public will never find it highly politic; but if the farmers of Ulster are to out. The volumes of the Devon Commission lose it, they should receive its value. The Times contain, however, a vast amount of useful inforattacked it as a means of occupying their capital, mation, and prove conclusively the value of the and thus preventing them from cultivating the soil tenant-right to Ulster. properly, but even these evils, if they exist, are It has raised the value of land, for it appears not to be rectified at the cost of two or three on evidence that the rent paid to the landowners hundred thousand industrious men and their fa- is greater than in those parts of Ireland where no milies. The national debt may be an inconveni- such participation of landed property exists. It ence, but honest men never propose repudiation secures the owner against arrears; for the value as the remedy.
of the tenant right being always equivalent to five There is no calculation of the property thus or six yeașs' purchase of the rent, he has the held in land by the farmers of Ulster ; but we most convenient guarantee for any debts that the believe it is not under ten millions sterling. tenant may accumulate. It prevents those agraSeveral difficulties exist in making up an ac- rian outrages common in other districts, because corate calculation. The selling price from te- the outgoing tenant is always a man of some nant to tenant varies with the state of the land, property, and is very rarely the sufferer by ejectwith its position, and with the character of the ment. It provides for the owner a tenant of landlord." During the last two or three years, it capital or credit ; for the farmer must have conhas been so low as six pounds per acre; and we siderable means before he can even enter on have known, in the same period, forty-three twenty acres.
It allows to the industrious man pounds per acre paid. At one period on the an abiding interest in the soil which he cultiDownshire estates, farms sold as between tenants vates ; and encourages his exertions by the surest in sone districts at twenty pounds; in others, at of all inducements. It gives the tenant “a savthirty; and in a few so high as forty pounds per ings' bank,” which should have no limit, into