Puslapio vaizdai

formed for her a still tenderer ministry'; it soothed | feminine faith to shed a gleam of soft and tear-
the deep sorrows, on which we dare not enter, ful glory upon her death.
which shaded the tissue of her history-it mixed Thus lived, wrote, suffered, and died "Egeria."
its richest cupful of the joy of grief” for her Without farther seeking to weigh the worth, or
selected lips-it lapped her in a dream of beauty, settle the future place of her works, let us be
through which the sad realities of life looked in, thankful to have had her among us, and that
softened and mellowed in the medium. What she did what she could, in her bright, sorely-tried,
could poetry have done more for her, except, in- yet triumphant passage. She grew in beauty;
deed, by giving her that sight " as far as the in- was blasted where she grew ; rained around her
communicable"—that sapreme vision which she poetry, like bright tears from her eyes ; learned
gives so rarely, and which she bestows often as a in suffering what she taught in song ; died, and
curse, instead of a blessing? Mrs. Hemans, on all hearts to which she ever ministered delight,
the other hand, was too favourite a child of the have obeyed the call of Wordsworth, to
Muse to receive any such Cassandra boon. Poetry

“ Mourn rather for that holy spirit,
beautified her life, blunted and perfumed the

Mild as the spring, as ocean deep ;thorns of her anguish, softened the pillow of her

For her who, ere her summer faded, sickness, and combined with her firm and most

Has sunk into a dreamless sleep."

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EXCEPT for commercial purposes, the capital of which the British public know little more than the Danish dominion has been little visited by that it was bombarded by a fleet of their's in 1807. tourists, until of late. But since the coasts of the It seems that Copenhagen existed as a small Baltic have been made more accessible to the town as early as the twelfth century. It did not people of the Continent, the Germans, especially, become a royal residence until about the middle have availed themselves of modern facilities in of the fifteenth century; and, therefore, it is one travelling, and have smoked their meerschaums, of the youngest metropolitan cities of Europe. It and drunk beer, in considerable numbers, in Co- has few architectural antiquities to boast of, and penhagen. Steam vessels lighten the fatigue of its general appearance is modern, from the new a voyage, and holiday tourists are not now afraid buildings rendered necessary by the devastations to undertake a little ramble in Scandinavia. Still, committed by foreign enemies. The troops of the Norway and Sweden are the grand points of at-Hanseatic League pillaged and burnt it in the traction to other nations, and it has been usual thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. In the sixto leave the Danish islands and Jutland behind; teenth century, it was besieged by Frederick I., so that, in fact, a country, remarkable in many then by the Hanseatic troops, and afterwards by respects, is less known to the English than Egypt. Christian III. In the next century, it was twice Amongst the persons who lately steamed to Co-attacked-first by Charles Gustavus, and then by penhagen, in addition to the ordinary cargo of an allied fleet. In the eighteenth century, it was Hamburg wine merchants and cigar dealers, was twice burnt to the extent of one-half each time; Mr. J. G. Kohl, a traveller, who, not long ago, and in 1807, there was Lord Cathcart's memowas taking notes amongst ourselves, which he has rable bombardment. Todefend themselves against since printed. This gentleman seems very se- attack, the Danes have added fortification to forverely afflicted with the cacoethes scribendi as well tification, until the place has been stoutly enveas the cacoethes peregrinandi ; and he has just loped by doubled and redoubled folds of walls and presented the public with six volumes of descrip- ditches. The defences of Paris, notwithstanding tion and dissertation suggested by his tour in the money that has been lavished upon them, are Denmark. Hastily as he runs through a country, inferior to those of Copenhagen. Copenhagen, he has no fears in discoursing on all subjects and however, is Denmark; for the other fortifications objects he meets with. He has dealings with the of the kingdom are very weak, and if the capital letter A in Art, Agriculture, and Academies, and were taken, the whole country might be considered with every other word in the dictionary express in an enemy's hands; and in more respects than ing a general term, until we arrive at Ž in 200- this is Copenhagen Denmark, since it contains logy. He has no love of conciseness and compres- almost all the schools, museums, and government sion: on the contrary, he delights in repetition offices of the kingdom. Indeed, the city is not and verbosity. Though the greater number of merely the chief place of this kingdom, but of all his pages are dull and spiritless, there are portions the Scandinavian lands. The educated Norweof the books that will repay perusal; because gians usually speak Danish; and the literature of they give us information about a country that is, Norway is merely a part of that of Denmark. or ought to be, interesting to us. More than a Consequently, Copenhagen is the great book half of one volume is occupied by a description of market for all those lands. Into no Scandithe Danish capital; and we propose to lay before navian dialect are there so many translations our readers, in the present article, an abridge- as into the Danish ; and the Swedes have rement of Mr. Kohl's prolixity touching a city of course to these translations, in order to obtain a knowledge of foreign literature. The study the most singular. For instance, there as the of northern antiquities can only be carried tower of the Exchange, which is formed by the on with advantage at Copenhagen, where the tails of four enormous dragons twisted together and only valuable collection of Scandinavian remains elevated in the air, whilst their bodies lie flat on is to be found; and there it is side by side with a the quadrangular wall that bears the spire. The noble library abounding with the richest materi- whole is of freestone, and there are stairs in the als for historical investigation. The position of interior. Not far distant is the celebrated round the kingdom between Germany and Sweden, tower, built by Christian IV. The winding pasEastern Slavonia and Britain, has created an sage in the interior rests, on one side, upon the interest amongst its inhabitants for the affairs of outer wall, and on the other upon a pillar that those countries, which leads them to watch with at stands in the centre. It is so broad, and climbs tention the course of events, and even to range the tower so gradually, that Peter the Great, themselves in parties with reference to them. The who left few things unvisited or untried, was able Danish people, it must be admitted, like the to ride up it on horseback, whilst his wife rode scenery of their land, possess little originality. alongside in a carriage drawn by four horses. There are many interesting things to be met with The stranger may wonder to see so many persons certainly in Copenhagen ; and, indeed, if a man moving up and down it ; but the secret is out has a desire to see somewhat of the world, and when he is told that it leads to an observatory as yet save himself as much trouble as possible, he well as to the University library, and visiters are may profitably go there at once, where he will also attracted by the stones covered with Runic find something worth looking at in most branches carvings which are placed in several recesses here of art and science. If, on the other hand, he has and there. The slender tower of the Redeemer's already visited the great capitals of Europe, there Church is one of the most elegant buildings in is no need for him to go to Copenhagen, because Copenhagen. It rises far above the other edifices he will see little to interest him there, that he has of the city, and nearly reaches three hundred feet. pot seen elsewhere of a better class, or on a larger The staircase is not in the inside, but twines scale. In truth, everything in this city, the archi- round the exterior like a wreath round a tall tecture of its buildings, and their position, its pillar. It must really be a dizzy business to museums of art, its schools of science, &c., are climb so high into the air, over steps of copper characterised by a certain mediocrity. One thing so narrow that the foot has some difficulty in about it, however, is admirable, and that is its getting secure hold. Though few people venture situation. The Sound, to which numberless ves- to ascend it, Mr. Kohl did the heroic thing ; but sels give life and animation, the rich beech woods, he frankly confesses he was uncomfortably disand the lovely parks around it, lend it a noble ap- composed, and was frequently beset with fearful pearance, yet, if the mind recurs to some other temptations to leap over the balustrades. The cities, even in this respect Copenhagen cannot contour is extremely graceful, and the artist who maintain rank amongst the first. The situation would obtain a characteristic sketch of Copenhaof Stockholm on the Mälarn is far more pictur- gen always takes care to place himself at a spot esque, and there can be no comparison between where he can introduce it into his drawing. it and the cities on the Bosphorus, the Tagus, and The collections of objects of art are remarkable the Neapolitan Gulf. It may, however, be safely for the excellence of their arrangement, a parasserted that Copenhagen is a fine capital ; and ticular in which the English galleries and muthough dreary enough when a severe winter blocks seums are glaringly deficient. Almost all of np the Sound with ice, and cuts off for several them have been arranged chronologically or hisweeks any communication with the main land, torically—the cabinet of medals, the relics of yet, at a more favourable season its appearance Danish monarchs, in the Castle of Rosenburg ; to the voyager's eye, when he emerges from the the gallery of antiquities; and especially the very narrow entrance into the port, is highly imposing interesting collection of weapons, in the Royal

The architecture of the city is neat and toler- Arsenal. To Dr. Thomson, who has devoted the ably regular; the streets are broad, and the houses greatest part of his life to the study of antiquiare a good height. The artist may look about it, ties, Copenhagen owes the beautiful order of most almost in vain, for any of those picturesque quaint- of these collections. Thus the Armoury in the nesses which delight him in Venice, Ghent, Brus- Arsenal exhibits a complete history of weaponsels, and the old German towns. One part is in- inanufacture, with specimens of the various kinds. tersected with canals, and Amsterdam is forcibly Some articles are remarkable on account of their brought to mind by the sight of vessels towed former possessors, as the swords of Christian IV. along between the houses. Though not a city of and Charles XII. As all are placed according to quaint peculiarity and original character, though the date of their construction, one may perceive the people. are destitute of rdour and poetry, how gradually fire-arms became more light and though no grand works of art await the visiter portable, and how match-locks were exchanged for there, Copenhagen is a place of considerable at- flint, and then for percussion locks. Some of the traction,

swords have hilts of curiously beautiful workmanCopenhagen does possess some ancient build- ship. It seems that the Emperor of Russia had ings that have escaped the fire and balls of a foe, been so much struck with them that he sent an and the slow but equally destructive attacks of artist for the express purpose of taking copies. The time; and amongst these the city towers are about hilt of one is formed by dragons and serpents

twisted together. The basket-hilt of another is tain nymph, and hence its name, which is conconstructed by figures which represent the battle sequently an erroneous one. The collection of of the centaurs. The pommel of a third is com- coins is very good, containing ten thousand Greek posed of a coil of metal figures meant to depict and twenty thousand Roman medals; and the the five senses, which are very artistically care with which those of the early Danish mowrought. No wonder the old poets sometimes narchs have been brought together is exemplary: took swords for their themes, and gave them in- We may search through the British Museum in dividual names. A couple of exquisitely marked vain for a coin of Canute, who was King of Dencannon are pointed out as having been presented mark as well as of England, whilst the Rosenby the Doge of Venice to Frederick IV. on the burg Cabinet has four hundred of that monarche occasion of his visit to Italy. On the surface of struck in this island, and three struck in Denanother, there is a whole genealogical tree of the mark. There is also one of the best collections of Royal Oldenburg House, The great hall of the Anglo-Saxon coins extant. Other chambers conMagazine contains a number of Swedish flags tain objects illustrative of ethnography, works in taken by the Danes, and on one of them is a ivory and amber, and Indian carvings. The couplet which may be thus rendered into Eng- whole forms one of those miscellaneous accumulish

lations of things, procured from the four quarters “ If the cat should leave the house,

of the world, which the princes of former times Then round the table runs the mouse."

took such delight in bringing together. It is, This flag was made by the Swedes in 1658 in indeed, inferior to the magnificent museums at derision of their enemy; and two years afterwards, Dresden and Vienna; still, north, south, east, and when Copenhagen was under siege, the students west have lavishly contributed to its stores. Alongmade a sally out of the city and got hold of it, side the wood carvings of the northern peasant, thus putting an interpretation upon the words we may see an exquisite specimen of Benvenuto that the Swedes had not dreamed of.

Cellini's skill, and a wondrous piece of iron work Decidedly the most beautiful part of Copen. wrought by a Nuremberg smith. Close by the hagen is that adorned by the royal castle and sculpture of a distinguished Danish lady, now gardens of Rosenburg. The castle was erected living, we may perceive a head, cut by a Greek in the Italian style by Christian IV. in 100t. artist, which can never be forgotten by those who The crown jewels and a great number of curious have seen it once. objects are stored in it, amongst which is an ex- It is highly creditable to the Danish people traordinary collection of glass ware, hundreds of that they should have pushed the investigation ancient drinking vessels, beakers, flasks, jugs, of local antiquities with more perseverance goblets of every possible kind, with some of gold and success than any other nation. It may be and silver, with the famous Oldenburg Horn, said, indeed, that primitive times are nearer to which shows how much meaning and poetry our them than to any other people ; and, therefore, ancestors could impress on the commonest things. that they have had a field richer with antique It was no unusual matter in the middle ages to remains to work upon. That may be true, but it fashion drinking cups out of horns, or in the shape is also the fact, that the Danes are distinguished of horns. In this instance, scenes of the castle by a love of history, and historical tradition that life of Germany, in the fifteenth century, are re- arises out of, as well as encourages, their strong presented in miniature silver carvings. The sup- feelings of nationality. Perhaps the greatest atports are models of a turreted and battlemented traction at Copenhagen for those who seek infortress. The body shows a number of pointed struction, as well as amusement, in their travels, roofs, gables, gates, terrace windows, and bal- is the Museum of Northern Antiquities, founded conies. There are sentinels on the towers, and in 1807, and annually increased since that time knights with attendants galloping up to the gates. by large additions. It is under the care of a soLadies are looking out of the windows and over ciety, which had its origin as far back as the year the balconies, In one place we see savage fellows 1744, for the cultivation of northern history and armed with clubs ; in another, dogs and couching " languages. The idea of such a museum first oclions guarding an entrance. On the lid is a curred to the learned librarian of this society, group of minnesingers playing on stringed in. Nyerup, and to his exertions were soon added struments, and round the rim of the mouth are those of Bishop Münter. There is an Institution ladies and supporters carrying the arms of Den- at Copenhagen, founded by Christian IV., in mark, Burgundy, and Brabant. This piece of which a hundred poor students are clothed, fed, workmanship is believed to have been made for and educated. It was the endeavour of Nyerup the Danish King Christian I, as a memorial of to awaken amongst these young men a taste for his journey to Cologne in 1474, to act as arbi- antiquarian lore, and when they were afterwards trator in a dispute between the Emperor and scattered through the country, they became a Charles the Bold. It was dedicated, after the valuable help in carrying out the wishes of the pious fashion of the times, to the three kings of librarian. Ancient barrows, hitherto neglected, Cologne, Balthazar, Kaspar, and Melchior, whose were carefully examined, and the people generally names are engraved on the lid along with sen- were incited to seek, to collect, and to preserve, tences from holy writ. It has been commonly mis- all kinds of relies. The crown caused a comtaken for a similar article which Count Otto of mission to issue, and minute directions were Oldenburg is fabled to have received from a moun- printed for the guidance of village pastors and


schoolmasters, to whom copies were forwarded in the chase or in war. One sees grindstóner throughout the kingdom. It was 'notified that upon which the points and edges of instruments any antiques : wrought in the precious metals were sharpened. Especially remarkable are the which should be sent in would be paid for without long chips of flint (called Flackker by the Danes), insisting upon the right of the crown to have them of which there are a great number. They aco yielded up as treasure trove. The result of such generally very thin, and six or seven inches long vigorous efforts as these has been the rapid ac- by one broad. They have the appearance of havcumulation of objects, and additions are con- ing been cut out of the stone when it was soft with tinually pouring in from all parts. Seven hundred a knife, for they are somewhat bent like a chip of articles have been sent in one year, and important wood. It is affirmed, however, that a blow made as the collection now is, there is every reason for them spring from their bed; but this is difficult to believing, that in process of time, it will become believe. At what period the age of stone ended, much more so. More than half the tumuli in and the age of copper began in Scandinavia, it is the kingdom remain intact, and there are yet impossible to say with any accuracy. Doubtless thousands of acres of virgin soil, in which, doubt there was a time of transition when both metals less, many valuable objects lie interred.

and stone were in use. Some writers tell us that The contents of the museum are placed in shortly before the birth of Christ there was an chronological order. The age of stone is first illus- emigration from the south to the north, and that trated, the days in which the Scandinavians were the use of iron was then communicated; but gold ignorant of metals. Their game was slain, their and copper seem to have been discovered first everyenemies slaughtered, their dress ornamented with where, or at least they were first made use of, for stones. They felled trees, and planed, sawed, they are more readily obtained, and worked with bored, and smoothed them with stones; they less difficulty than silver and iron. Several scraped their chins, cooked their food, and fur- rooms are filled with works in bronze, such as nished their huts with stones. The articles ex- hatehets, swords, chains, rings, cups, and trumhibited here show the manual dexterity of the pets, the finish and elegance of which are surhuman race in the rudest times, and with the prising. Amongst other things, is a curiouslymost intractable substances. There are knives wrought shield, the wonders of which may have with keen edges, and curiously-worked handles, been celebrated by a hoary-headed Scald as the arrow-heads of wondrous neatness and thinness, shield of Achilles was sung by Homer. Some of which prove that the old workers in stone prac- the bronze implements have been merely edged tised an art with ease, which is lost to us—the with iron, as if the latter was then the rarer and people of civilised countries—but not to others, for more costly metal, as we now put an edge of even now a great portion of the earth's inhabi- steel upon a backbone of iron. There are a good tants dwell in the age of stone. Specimens of many objects made of iron in heathen times, but modern workmanship have been judiciously ob- the want of silver articles strikes the visiter amidst tained, and the visiter is thus enabled to compare such an abundance of gold. The collection is things that have been made by people separated rich in amber. Not long ago a mass of work was by thousands of miles or thousands of years. The found in Jutland, which consisted of 3400 pieces handiwork of the Greenlanders may be examined of amber, pearls, and other things. It is supposed along with that of the South Sea Islanders and that the residence of an artist in amber had once the American Indians, and it is said that a re- stood on the spot. markable similarity of style runs through all, The assemblage of Runic carvings is highly however wide the intervals of time and space that interesting, and affords an excellent opportunity divided the labourers. The fashion of the uten- of studying the mysteries of that writing. Not sils, their shapes, the modes of using them, the only has Denmark contributed to this collection, plans of making them—these are very nearly the but Sweden, Norway, Germany, Iceland, Greensame with men who were the antipodes of each land, and North America have sent carvings. other, with men of ante-historical times and men Nay, the Scandinavian antiquaries declare that of to-day. Of some objects there are a great traces of Runic writing have been found in number of specimens, grouped to show the dif- Italy, and they refer us to a MS. of the ferent stages of manufacture, or the various kinds ninth century at Naples, in which Oden and of stone of which the article was constructed. other northern deities are pictured. More reOne may see hundreds of hatchets, of different markable still, they point to a line of scratches sizos, some made of flint, others of porphyry, &c.; on the body of the Lion in St. Mark's Place, hundreds of arrows and other pointed missiles, of Venice, which they say are undoubtedly Runic, many shapes and kinds of stone. Then a block but they have not yet told us what the characof flint is shown, from which an elongated frag- ters mean, or how they got there. The inment has been splintered to form the head of a terpretation of these matters is the chief aim lance. There is the fragment itself, and the of a distinguished society at Copenhagen, called stone instrument by which it was sovered from the Royal Society for Ancient Writings. Its its parent block. Then there is a similar frag- income is considerable, and the field of its oper

which a workman has employed him-ations extensive--having members and, corresself for a while; also one that he has succeeded in pondents in many parts of the world. It has converting into a complete lance-head ; and, edited and published, with translations into varifinally, a lance-head that has been injured by use ous languages, a number of rare and important

ment upon

works relating to Northern History, comprising palm leaves, tenacious as leather, and capable of historical and mythic Saga of Denmark, Sweden, enduring a pretty rough treatment. In most of Norway, and Greenland. One of their recent these the letters are formed by punctures, and publications, entitled " American Antiquities, or colour has been rubbed into the holes ; in some, Northern Writers on America before Columbus," however, the leaves are covered with a gold ground is supposed to prove beyond all doubt that the upon which black letters are laid. The ants are New World was discovered by the Greenlanders very injurious to palm leaves in India, and thus long anterior to the voyage of the Spaniards. frequent transcripts are necessary. It is not too The society also publish their transactions, and much to say that these insects have retarded the issue a periodical, but as these works are chiefly development of the human mind in Asia. A designed for the use of the learned, they occasion- plan has been adopted latterly of steeping the ally distribute short papers for popular use, with leaves in a poisonous liquid, and thus many an inthe view of extending the interest of the people, tellect sucks the honey of science from poisoned and diffusing information amongst them in re- pages. spect to archæology, philology, and history. The building recently erected for the reception

The Museum of Antiquities is deposited in the of the Thorwaldsen collection is a singular strucroyal palace of Christianburg, where the King ture of questionable taste, somewhat in the Egyphas assigned rooms to the society, under whose tian style. It forms a parallelogram enclosing a superintendence it is placed. In the same palace court, and looks quite as much like a mausoleum the best collection of paintings in Denmark is to as a hall of art. In the midst of the court-yard be found. The works of art are principally Dutch is the tomb in which it is intended the remains of and Flemish, and the gallery is poor in specimens Thorwaldsen shall be deposited. The walls of of Italian, French, and Spanish masters. How the building looking towards the tomb are painted it happens that the pictures of the Netherlands in sombre colours, with representations of figures are so widely scattered in comparison with those striving in a race, whilst on the interior of the of more southern lands, we need not now stop to tomb are drawn white lilies on a light blue ground. inquire, and we now only allude to the fact to The position of this edifice behind the royal warn our readers against forming their opinions palace of Christianburg is much to be condemned; on the Italian masters from the insignificant since it seems, by reason of its proximity, to be a specimens to be met with in small galleries. In- dependent building, and yet the styles are disdeed, Italy itself ought to be visited before the cordant, and the relative situations inharmonious. full grandeur of her artists can be truly appraised, The palace is in the French-Italian style, the for some of their finest works have been attached museum in the Egyptian ; and certainly there is to places from which they cannot be removed no connexion between the purposes of a royal without fatal effect. The collection comprises residence and those of a triumphal and monumenabout four hundred Dutch and Flemish pictures, tal temple. The treasures of art which Thorand about eighty from Italy, Spain, and France. waldsen possessed, comprehending not only works The fondness of the Danes for woody landscapes by himself and contemporary artists, but anand marine views is strikingly apparent.

tiques collected during a residence in Italy, were The modern painters of Denmark seem to de- presented by him to his country, and it was for vote their attention almost entirely to the sylvan the preservation of these valuable objects, as well scenery of their own country. Beautiful as it is as to erect a national memorial, that this museum in nature, the repetition of it on canvass soon be was built. It is a pity that the site was not comes monotonous, and one wishes for the intro- chosen with more judgment. It has two stories, duction of objects that are not altogether green. and the principal entrance leads into a hall, It is strange that Iceland, which is capable of af- where equestrian statues and other large works of fording a whole gallery of studies, does not fur- the sculptor are meant to be placed. Thorwaldnish a single landscape ; and even Jutland, with sen was very industrious, and his sculptures are its ancient Hero-graves, its wild woods, its ancient widely scattered over the Continent; indeed, no farm houses and strange people, only sends one sculptor has left behind him more original works. picture.

He was in the habit of repeating his designs with The royal library contains one of the largest differences as to size and treatment. In this collection of books in the world, something like museum one may see his March of Alexander in four hundred thousand volumes. A special divi- four variations. In one we perceive the King sion, comprising about sixty thousand volumes, is standing in his car of victory, looking with delight allotted to Scandinavian literature, and amongst upon the wild movements of his horses prancing them is the completest collection of Icelandic before him, and thinking of his own triumphal works extant. It was Christian III, who first progress. In another he gazes upwards, as if he founded a royal library ; succeeding Sovereigns called upon Jupiter to witness the glory of his increased the collection, and the government to- son. The Horse of Poniatowski, the Angel with wards the close of thelast century purchased a large the Baptismal Cup, and the Graces embracing, number of books at sales in Germany. There are subjects which he cut many times, and alis also a good collection of Hindostanee works; ways with variations. several of which the philologist Rask brought If we compare the various works that Thorfrom India. The books relating to Buddhism, waldsen produced, we cannot fail to be impressed the religion which prevails in Ceylon, are made of with the many-sidedness of his genius-grave,

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