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all sorts of wearing apparel, and luxurious articles of food, but not for money; for neither gold nor silver is much known there as a coin, pieces of iron being used instead. About noon the Mission visited the Rajah Muda Hassim, and delivered to him his share of the presents brought by Captain Bethune, consisting of a handsome box with a musical bird, and a pair of six-barrelled pistols. They then proceeded to a private audience with the Sultan, and found him surrounded with a few slaves, and seated in an arm chair, under the verandah of his private dwelling. His belet and tobacco were near him. When the gold box, with the musical bird, was first presented, he affected the utmost indifference at the sight of the beautiful toy, but his curiosity soon broke through the stiff rules of oriental fashion, and he had it wound up repeatedly, reiterating his unbounded astonishment each time the bird sang.

On March 1st, the trade was formally opened by beat of gong, and prices were partially settled. An English brig was anchored off Paleo Chemain, and the master was anxious to obtain a cargo. The next day (Thursday), | divine service was performed at the mission-house. After which Bedrideer and other Panguans visited the Mission, and represented the necessity of the English interfering to protect Bruni against Sheriff Osman, who, alarmed at the idea of Muda Hassim's seeking an alliance with the English, was making hostile preparations in conjunction, as it was supposed, with Pangeran Usop, who was at that time present in Bruni.

tween them and the other inhabitants of Bruni. Their houses are built in the woods, and very little cultivation could be discovered around. There were some pepper gardens about, but the unsettled state of the country has prevented the proper care being taken with the cultivation of that valuable article of commerce. There were, however, numerous very fat and fine looking cows and goats feeding on the pastures. The utmost luxuriance appeared around, and the walks through the forests were magnificent.

In their rambles they observed the sago tree in profusion; it is a palm, resembling the gomuli, in size and proportions, and also in the shape of its trunk, while the large leaves upon the top are like those of a cocoa-nut. The sago forms the principal article of food among numbers of the inhabitants of the Archipelago, particularly towards the eastern islands. There is no vegetable production that can equal it, in the quantity it produces to the acre. Taking a low average, and supposing that the trees are fifteen years coming to their proper size, it is well known that eight thousand pounds of good food may be reckoned on per annum. The pine-apple grows almost wild, and yet reaches a high state of perfection. The camphortree was also observed. One in particular, with a trunk at least eighteen inches in diameter; it rose upwards of sixty feet before it put forth its branches.

March 4.-Intelligence reached Bruni that great preparations were making by Pangeran Osman to attack the capital. He gave out that he was most anxious to measure his strength with the British. The news threw the court into a state of alarm, as several of the most powerful chiefs attendant on Omar Ali were said to be in secret correspondence with the pirate. What amused the Mission excessively, was to hear the Sultan boast of what he would do, if the Ellannus dared to attack him. He endeavoured to impress on the English present, that he was not at all afraid, although he acknowledged that he had no war boats, that his forts were out of repair, and that the allegiance of his followers was very doubtful.

On the following day, some of the gentlemen took a walk over the hills. The appearance of Bruni from these heights is very irregular and picturesque. Its site has been chosen with great judgment, it being admirably adapted for defence and convenience. Moreover, the scenery around is of the utmost beauty. The town is divided by the river, having a broad channel between the different portions, while at high water it appears a city of canals. However, when the tide is out, the back houses cannot be approached by boats, but are reached by walks along the verandahs of the different buildings, which are usually connected by platforms. The river, when the tide was up, appeared to be about two-thirds of a mile in breadth, and extended in one broad sheet of water, on either side of the city. It is navigable, as far as the town, for the largest junks, which were formerly seen in great numbers anchored off the different mer-ment, and offered to cede any quantity of territory to us, chants' warehouses in various streets. The houses are built in a very primitive fashion. The roofs and sides being made of palm leaves, and occasionally of boards, the latter, however, are seldom employed, as the Borneose have no means of making them but by hewing. Bamboos are scarce around, and are, therefore, but little used.

On searching about near the Kiauggi Sheun, they discovered several veins of coal. Some specimens were taken back with them, which proved, on trial, to be of excellent quality. From the appearance of the hills, they had no doubt that there were extensive coal fields near. In the course of their walk they entered a Kadayan village, but found only the women who were left in charge of the huts. The Kadayans are very hospitable; they are said to be a totally distinct race from the Malays. They are Mahommedans, however, and speak the same language, and there is very little apparent difference be

But yet as long as our countrymen remained near him, he felt that he was safe. The presence of the English in our new settlement, off the mouth of the river, will now render him perfectly secure as long as he remains faithful to his engagements. Muda Hasim expressed himself as very anxious to obtain the friendship of our Govern

in order to insure our presence near him. Poor fellow! he little merited his dreadful fate.

March 5.-The Mission departed, having first cautioned Muda Hasim to follow implicitly the advice given him, and to disregard the threats of Sheriff Osman or any other adversary, and also to feel assured that the British Government had every disposition to afford him protection. He appeared much affected at parting, and embraced the English with great feeling. They then left Bruni in the gun boat, and having fired a salute of twenty-one guns, dropped down the river. They were attended by Bedrideen. On the following morning they landed on Pulo Chermin, and found some veins of excellent coal. Proceeding onwards they reached H. M.'s S. Driver.

March 7.-Bedrideen having taken his leave in order to return to Bruni, H. M.'s S. Driver started for Labuan. The gentlemen of the Mission landed on that small island

and found a cleared space of about fifty acres. They now that he is no more, the Panguans possess great inwalked through the island, and discovered that it was influence over the royal mind. The revenues are princíevery way suited for a settlement and commercial entré pot. pally derived from presents, and partially from traffic and The water is good, timber of the finest quality in great labour of the Sultan's slaves. The length of coast noplenty, the situation central, being about 1000 miles from minally subject to Bruni is about 560 miles, and the Hong Kong, 650 from Manilla, the capital of the Philip- population may be about 250,000, but it is impossible to pines, 980 from Bankok in Siam, 500 from Cochin-China, calculate with any certainty. Agriculture is in a very 700 from Singapore, and 340 from Sarawak. It lies in the low state, but there can be no doubt that our little settlehigh road for ships proceeding to and from China. ment at Labuan will give it such an impetus as to raise Labuan possesses, moreover, what is of the greatest im- the standard of cultivation. In manufactures, the Borportance, we refer to the coal which has been discovered neans have exhibited some skill; their knives are very on the island. This, together with the safe harbour, elegant and of a superior temper, and their brass cannon named Victoria Bay, has no doubt had its influence on are very fine specimens of native art. It is said that the Government, and induced them to select it as the site large quantities of the Chinese brass coins have been of a British settlement. melted down to make these pieces of ordnance, and that they cost several thousand dollars. On the whole, however, the Borneans may be considered as very backward in the scale of civilization, and that they require something to arouse them from their state of lethargy, and that impulse they are sure to receive by the introduction of British Capital and British Industry.

It may not be uninteresting to add a few words on the state of Bruni. It is in practice as in theory a pure despotism—that is, when the Sultan has sufficient energy to take advantage of his situation. Now, however, as the throne is filled with so weak a man, the chief power is exercised by the principal minister. For many years Muda Hasim wielded an almost undisputed authority;

THE DEATH OF THE POET.
BY MRS. CHARLES TINSLEY.
"One more unfortunate,
Weary of breath."-THOMAS HOOD.

KEEP them closed, the curtained windows
Feebler grows the aching sight;
With his brother-bard he saith not,
"Light, Lord! yet more light!"
But for rest from anguish free,
Prayeth he unceasingly.

The strong human pulse is throbbing,
Fearfully, for others yet;
She, his tried one, spirit-stricken,
Hath the deep glance met,
Of his earnest, loving eyes ;-
"Take him, Lord-he hardly dies!"
Tend him kindly ere he leave ns→→

Stern has earth been through the past;
Let him think that mercy groweth
In its wastes at last!-
Late, alas! such truth to own,
Save for them he loves, alone.
Look with reverence on him, dying,
Bowed-not with the weight of years,
But with keen thoughts left to quicken
In his heart's hot tears!
Noble growths these yet shall reach,
Though a life-pulse stopped with each.

Cool the pale brow's haunted fever,
Gorgeous dreams were his of old;"
Rife with radiant shapes, whose glory!
Time may not unfold ;-

Haply on the better shore

He may greet those shapes once more.

Clasp the hand, now damp and powerless;
It was freely stretched to all,"
Willed to own the brotherhood,

Binding great and small;
Hand and heart have struggled well,
Coming years of both shall tell.
Softly tread a solemn moment
Draweth slowly, surely, on ;-
Now one more immortal spirit

From our midst is gone!
But the noble heart and mind
Leave rich treasure heaps behind.
Taking what thyself enricheth,

Let not man thy counsel be,"
"Leave to Christ his little ones;"
Christ has left them thee!-
Be with Him, the good, the just,
A worthy sharer in this trust!

TO B 16, NIGHT POLICEMAN.

SPEAK B 16, and tell me true,
How dost thou pass the night,
Clad in that coat of coarsest blue,
And cape of oil-skin bright?
What dost thou think of in thy walk
Along the gloomy street?
Dost list the midnight straggler's talk
That come across thy beat?

Or dost thou curse the pelting storm,
And shiver in the wind-

And think it must be nice and warm
Within yon lit-up blind?

Dost listen to the cheerful hum

Where that snug party meet, Whose merry laugh and voices come Into the silent street?

"

Dost wonder if the drunken chap,
That just went reeling past,
Will in the kennel take his nap,
Or stagger home at last?
Or dost thou think how sweet a kiss
That housemaid gave to thee,
Or that the cold meat warn't amiss
From number twenty-three?
Or dost reflect on thy past life
How wickedly 'twas led-

.

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Or thinkest thou of thy faithful wife S
And children warm in bed?
Or thinkest, on thy return, to find
Their stock of food all gone?
(Policeman loquitur)

I think of nothing of the kind—~
Move on, young man, move on.

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The Life and Adventures of Zamba, an African Ne- | part of which he exchanged with traders for European gro King and his Experience of Slavery in South goods. Having a great desire to visit civilized countries, Carolina. Written by himself. Corrected and Ar- he expressed a wish to Captain Winton, on one of his arranged by Peter Neilson, London: Smith, Elder, & rivals, to accompany him on his return voyage to America. Co. 1847. The Yankee trader took advantage of his simplicity, and prevailed on him to put on board much of his most valuable property. He embarked with thirty-two prisoners, whom he intended to sell as slaves, about thirty pounds of gold dust, and about two hundred doubloons in gold coin. Captain Winton accommodated him with a handsome stateroom, and they sailed from Congo on the 1st October, 1800. During the voyage he was treated with all the respect which the Captain had been wont to yeild to him; but towards its conclusion, as he lay in his berth, he overchief mate, in which the former declared it to be his inheard a conversation between Captain Winton and his whom there were altogether four hundred and twenty-two tention to sell King Zamba with the other negroes, of on board, as soon as the ship arrived at Charleston, and possess himself of all his property. Zamba's conduct on this occasion showed considerable presence of mind :

This volume purports to contain the autobiography of a Négro Slave, with whom the Editor, Mr. Neilson, was personally acquainted during his residence in Charleston. Notwithstanding the air of truth that pervades it, some readers will have doubts as to its genuineness. The narrative has undergone extensive alterations and corrections in the hands of Mr. Neilson, who has introduced some things, omitted others, and nearly re-written the whole. The father of Zamba was the king of a small territory on the banks of the river Congo, about two hundred miles from the sea the metropolis of which was a village consisting of only about ninety huts, and the royal palace. King Zembola lived in a state of savage grandeur, and exercised despotic power over his subjects. He had a regular standing army amounting to forty men, but on an emergency he could muster, at a day's notice, altogether about one hundred and fifty fighting men. He was a wholesale dealer in slaves, and supplied the slave ships which went to that part of Africa, with their living cargoes. To procure them he, every now and then, went upon a distant expedition for the purpose of capturing prisoners, for sale.

With this redoubtable personage an American slaver, Capt. Winton, traded for many years, to their mutual profit. He had brought fine furniture for the palace, the audience chamber of which was furnished with handsome chairs and tables,~ , the walls being adorned with many fine prints, and a map of London. He also gave Prince Zamba, when a boy, a large violin, and a barrel organ; but what was of more consequence, he not only taught him to speak English and to read, but gave him a Bible. In a war expedition against a brother king, named Daroola, of the Kormontu tribe, Zamba's father was killed, and Zamba became king in his stead. He was at this time only seventeen years of age. Returning home with 130 prisoners, he afterwards married Zillah, daughter of King Daroola, whom he had saved from the uplifted cutlass of one of his men, and who is thus described :

"Zillah appeared to be about a year or so younger than myself. She was tall and exceedingly graceful, her countenance, though its features were somewhat of the African cast, was beautiful, and her figure might vie in elegance, colour excepted, with the finest models of ancient sculpture. She wore massive gold rings in her ears; a necklace of very large pearls, mixed with gold and coral beads, adorned her neck, and solid bracelets of gold of African manufacture, and rings of the same metal, encircled her wrists and ankles. I have little doubt but these jewels would have brought £1000 in Europe."

Zamba's disposition was pacific, and although he kept up his standing army to its former complement, he compelled his warriors to cultivate small plots of land which he gave them, or spend their time in hunting, fishing, or searching for gold dust.

During the first year after his marriage he had collected as much as an hundred weight of gold dust, the greater

Oh,

"At the breakfast table next morning," he says, "I countenance might appear as usual; but Captain Winton endeavoured to command my feelings, so as that my remarked that something was the matter with me. I told him I was suffering much from headache. Zamba,' said he, I know well enough what is the matter with you; you have been dreaming about Africa and your young wife; but keep up your heart, boy, you will find plenty of pretty wives in Charleston. And, by the bye, Zamba, you will there see what you have never seen before, that is women called mulattoes, half white and ready to snap at a king of such property as you.' half black-very pretty girls I assure you; they will be But I was in little humour for language of this sort. After breakfast I said that I wanted to bathe my head ing no objection, I retired shortly afterwards to my berth. with vinegar, and lie down for a while; and Winton makIn the course of the afternoon I contrived to conceal about thirty of my doubloons, by sewing them in betwixt the lining of various articles of my clothing; I also put a little gold dust away in the same manner, but only amongst my coarse clothes, as I looked for nothing less at this cruel captain's hands than to have my fine clothing taken from me. I also stowed away about two pounds weight of gold dust in each of a pair of stockings, which I thrust carelessly into a pair of shoes.”

On their arrival at Charleston King Zamba was sold to a Mr. Naylor, an auctioneer, who treated him well. One of his clerks, a young Scotchman, named Thomson, became greatly interested in the poor betrayed negro, taught him to write and count, and gave him much religious and other instruction. Zamba's lot was more fortunate than that of many of Afric's sable race, ruthlessly torn from their homes and country, and sold into slavery. He gives a very favourable account of the appearance of many of his countrymen and countrywomen at Charleston, both bond and free, but the picture has its dara side; and he relates various fanecdotes of the inhuman treatment of domestic slaves by their masters and mistresses, and of the atrocities of Carolina planters.

Having placed all the property which he had contrived to save from the clutches of Captain Winton, in the hands of his owner Mr. Naylor, Zamba was allowed by that gentleman seven per cent. interest for the use of it.

of the Mussulmans. It does not even appear that Nanuk, the founder of the Sikhs, at any time claimed more honour or respect than that due to a teacher. He did not profess to be endowed with miraculous gifts. The doctrines taught by him were those of a pure Deism. The ends aimed at were purity of life, simplicity of manners, and innocence of conduct towards each other. Nanuk's creed, in many moral matters, strongly resembles that of George Fox. He was equally opposed to war, placed the same high value on human life, and, in his circumstances, with his limited knowledge, pro

In April, 1803, he discovered among a cargo of slaves on board a ship that had arrived from the river Congo, his wife Zillah, who had been carried off by two men while walking one day in a secluded place on the banks of that river. Zamba's master also purchased Zillah, and in 1807 he had regular free papers made out for them both. As long as he remained in Charleston, however, he allowed them to reside in their former position in his own house, but when, on retiring from business, he went to another State in 1819, he had a regular account current, made out from the commencement, and after allowing interest and annual wages to Zillah and her hus-mulgated a very remarkable system of morals and reband, he paid the latter over every penny he was due to ligion. It may be even questioned whether any man him. Zamba then took a small shop, and continued for emerging from society in a rude and corrupt state, withsome years to carry on a limited trade. For the last out revelation, ever struck out a sublimer faith. The twenty years, he tells us, he has lived in retirement, im- philosophers of the ancient world acted together in proving his mind, and devoting part of his time and means schools, and were influenced and encouraged by a geto acts of charity. Zamba and Zillah joined a methodist nerous rivalry; while they never reached a point of church, and were regularly married. His betrayer, Capt. moral and religious knowledge so near to truth as that Winton, lost all his ill-gotten gains by unsuccessful specu- gained by the lonely teacher of the Punjaub. lations, and at last turned a gambler and drunkard. In his distress he was relieved by Zamba, who, by a curious coincidence, was present when he was shot in a duel with one of his gambling friends, some time after.

Zamba's manuscript was forwarded through a white gentleman of Charleston interested in his history, to be published in this country. By the laws of South Carolina any one rash enough to print, or offer for sale, the production of a negro, or any work written on behalf of his oppressed race, subjects himself to a ruinous penalty; while the author, especially if coloured, would be exposed to all the fury of an insulted and excited mob. The volume contains a well-drawn up account of the City of Charleston, and of the various negro conspiracies against the whites. We have few books written by native negroes, and the personal details in this volume would have been all the more interesting, had the style, instead of being so much elaborated, preserved as far as possible, the artlessness and simplicity of the author's manner.

HISTORY OF THE SIKHS, VOLS. 1 & 2.
BY W. J. M'GREGOR, M.D.

THE first of these volumes contains a summary of Sikh History to the days of Runjeet Singh, and a life of that remarkable man, whose feats on the Indus equalled those of Mehemet Ali on the Nile. The second volume is occupied principally with the details of the great campaign which terminated in the overthrow of the Sikh power, and the subjection of Lahore. The author is a medical officer, who, we understand, visited the Court of Runjeet Singh long previous to the death of that monarch. A portion of his work is engaged in the discussion of subjects connected with the medical service of the East-the only portion, and a small one-not of general interest. The first volume is a compilation, to a considerable extent, down to the later period of Runjeet Singh's reign. The Sikhs rose originally as a religious sect; and it is rather remarkable that the tenets of their founder were strictly pacific. Their prophet was a man of higher character, purer thoughts, and of conduct in every way superior to Mahomet, the root

*London: James Madden,

We extract the following particulars of the genealogy, the life, and principles of this very remarkable man :

"Secta was here delivered of two sons, one of whom she named Loh, and the other Kussoo. When arrived at manhood, these became wealthy men, and each built a city, to which he gave his own name: that of the elder being Lahore, and the younger Kussoor, both of which remain at the present day: the former being the capital of the Punjab, and the latter exhibiting traces of an extensive city, about twelve miles from Ferozepore.

66

The descendants of Loh and Kussoo continued to

possess Lahore and Kussoor; but after a long series of years, when Kulrao was king of Lahore, and Kulput was king of Kussoor, the latter raised a large army, and made war upon the former, whom he vanquished, and took possession of Lahore, expelling Kulrao from the Punjab. Kulrao, after his defeat and flight, took refuge in the Dekhan, with Amrit, king of that country. The king treated the fugitive with great distinction and kindness, bestowed his daughter on him in marriage, and at his death left him heir to his kingdom. By this princess Kulrao had a son, named Sodee Rao, who succeeded his father. He made conquests in Hindostan, and became a great king. One day his wuzeer told the Sodee Rao, that though king of so many countries, his proper kingdom was the Punjaub, from which his father had been expelled by Kulput, and was never able to return and regain his kingdom.' Sodee Rao, on hearing this, collected a large army, and set out for Lahore. He engaged his uncle in battle and defeated him, driving himself and all his children out of the Punjaub. After this he ascended

the throne of Lahore.

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'Kulput, after his defeat, became a wanderer on the face of the earth, and at length reached the holy city of Kassir, known in modern times by the name of Benares. It was then, as now, the great resort of learned Hindoos, and here Kulput began to study the books of the Hindoo religion, called Béds.' While thus employed, he found a passage which stated that tyranny was a great sin, and so long as a man exercised it he had no right to expect mercy.' Reflecting on this sentence, and considering that he himself had behaved as a tyrant to his brother, in making war on and dethroning him, he resolved on going to Lahore and asking the forgiveness of Sodee Rao for the tyranny he had practised towards his father.

6

"On reaching Lahore he sought an interview with Sodee Rao, and began reading the Béds to him. On hearing the third Béd, Sodee Rao relented, and, embracing his uncle, said, You ask forgiveness, which I grant, and as a reward for your reading the Béd to me, I will give you my kingdom, and as a beggar will wander in the jungle.'

Kulput replied-'You are a good man, Sodee Rao, and though my descendants may be Gooroos and rulers,

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yet yours will eventually enjoy their rights and privileges, and become great sirdars and kings.'

"Sodee Rao, on hearing these words, took his departure, and Kulput became, once more, king of Lahore. From the circumstance of his being a reader of the Béds, he was surnamed Bédee. His descendants were named Bédees; and Nanuk being one of them, was called (Nanuk) Bédee. This tribe continued to be Gooroos until the time of Ram Dass, who was the first Gooroo of the Sodee tribe, and hence named (Ram Dass) Sodee.

The Sodees are numerous at the present day about Muckawal, and on this side the Sutlej, at Macheewarah, which, in fact, belongs to two sirdars of the Sodee tribe. It is difficult to reconcile this story of Loh and Kussoo with the Mussulman account of the Punjab. Either it is altogether fictitious, or the descendants of Loh and Kussoo must have reigned in the Punjab long anterior to the Mussulman dynasty; but then it is equally difficult to explain the circumstance of Nanuk being a descendant of Kulput Bédee, unless we suppose that the dynasty descended from the family of Kulput to the time of Putturugepal, the last Hindoo king of the Punjab. The records of Jeipal, Annudpal, and Putturugepal, are so scanty, excepting as regards their contentions with the Mussulmans, that we know nothing of their private history, and, for want of a better explanation of the terms Bédee and Sodee, we must suppose that Nanuk was a lineal descendant of Kulput, and Ram Dass equally so of Sodee Rao.

"Nanuk's intellect was precocious. At the early age of four, he was sent to the village school, the master whereof was a Deist; and wishing to inculcate the same principle in his youthful scholar; but the boy, to his great astonishment, instead of yielding implicit credence, inquired of the teacher What proof he could give of the existence of a God?' Such a question naturally inspired the man with a wish to know more of his scholar; and on making inquiry, he was told that Nanuk was the gift of a fukeer. On hearing this, the schoolmaster renounced the world and became a fukeer himself. As Nanuk advanced in years, he became partial to fukeers, dividing his property amongst them; and though he wanted proof of the existence of a Deity in his boyhood, he soon became a firm believer in one.

"His partiality to the fukeers led him often into serious scrapes with his father. One is related by Malcolm, Nanuk having received a sum of money from his father to purchase salt at one village, in order to sell it in another, happened on the road to fall in with some fukeers, with whom he wished to commence a conversation; but they were so weak from want of victuals, which they had not tasted for three days, that they could only reply to the observations of Nanuk by bending their heads, and other civil signs of acquiescence.

"Nanuk, affected by their situation, said to his companion, My father has sent me to deal in salt with a view to profit; but the gain of this world is unstable and profitless; my wish is to relieve these poor men, and to obtain that gain which is permanent and eternal.' His companion (Bala Sandhu) replied-Thy resolution is good; do not delay its execution.' Nanuk immediately distributed his money to the hungry fukeers, who, after they had gained strength from the refreshment which it obtained for them, entered into a long discourse with him on the unity of God, with which he was much delighted. His father did not at all approve of this mode of laying out his money; and though his sister Nanukee interceded, Nanuk no doubt, was punished. His father used the utmost endeavours to turn the attention of his son to worldly matters; and with this view built a shop for him at Sultanpore, in the Bist Jalindhur, and furnished it with various articles of merchandise; but instead of turning them to any account, he bestowed the whole on fakeers. Failing in his object by this means, his father insisted on his marrying, thinking, no doubt, that this step would cause him to renounce his wandering life. He was, accordingly, married at Wittala; but he speedily left his home, and went to the jungle in search of fukeers; and wherever he heard of them, there he proceeded. Nanuk had now publicly become one of them; and his

natural talents, though still a boy, soon won for him a high place among them. He became a teacher at the early age of eleven years, and had followers; among the rest, Murdana, a musician, who afterwards attended him in his travels; and from being a Mussulman, became a convert to the tenets of Nanuk. Two other of his followers are celebrated: the one, named Boodha, and the other, Lehna. To these Nanuk taught his doctrines, which were those of pure Deism.

Nanuk endeavoured to conciliate, or reconcile, both Hindoos and Mussulmans, by forbidding the former to worship images and idols; while he deprecated the intolerance of the Mussulmans to the Hindoos; and, above all, forbade the slaughter of the cow-an offence which is to this day visited by the severest punishment among the Sikhs; the loss of life being often the penalty incurred for killing the animal.

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The precepts of Nanuk were those of peace with all mankind; and he inculcated an abhorrence of war among people, believing in God, on whom his firm reliance was placed for every thing; and, acting on this principle, he was regardless of worldly matters, and divided everything he had with his fellow-creatures.

On the whole, Nanuk's tenets evince a zealous desire to remove all the abuses and idolatries of the Hindoos, and the intolerance of the Mussulmans.

"Nanuk's time was spent in offering praises to God in poetical effusions; and he made no distinction between Hindoos and Mussulmans. The poems of Nanuk are celebrated. He traversed Hindostan and Scinde, and, according to some authors, visited Mecca. He appears to have been a match for the Moollahs, as the following anecdote, related by Malcolm, will show ;- How darest thou, infidel,' said the offended Mahomedan priest, turn thy feet towards the House of God?' Turn them, if you can,' said the pious but indignant Nanuk, in a direction where the House of God is not,'

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"Nanuk did not deny the mission of Mahomet, though he reprobated his oppressive cruelty and intolerance to the Hindoos, and, above all, the slaughter of the cow; for these crimes he believed the prophet had justly died. Nanuk considered himself a successor to Mahomet; and that he was destined to restore, by his example, precepts, and writings, the whole of mankind to the worship of God. He urged the indoos and Mussulmans to read their Scriptures, and obey the doctrines taught there. But, while inculcating faith in one supreme Deity, and offering their praises to him alone, he did not forget that good works were equally incumbent; and that to these tenets of faith and works they should look for mercy, and it mattered little to what caste he belonged."

The peaceful tenets inculcated by Nanuk, form a pleasing contrast to the present warlike and quarrelsome habits of the Sikhs; but the cause of this change will be manifested in the sequel.

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Towards the latter part of his life, Nanuk dwelt on the banks of the Ravee, and established his family there. He had two sons; the one named Suchmee Doss, and the other Sree Chund; the former became a man of the world. He had two sons, whose descendants remain at the present day. Sree Chund was a fukeer, and from him are descended the Oodasee fukeers.”

"Nanuk's precepts for the guidance of his followers are contained in the "Grunth," or Holy Book of the Sikhs. It was begun, and the first part of it written, by Nanuk and his immediate successors. This part is named Adi Grunth, to distinguish it from the second portion, composed exclusively by the great reformer Gooroo Govind, Nanuk's successor. This second part is accordingly named the 'Dasuma Padshah ka Grunth,' or Book of the tenth King."

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