Puslapio vaizdai

all sorts of wearing apparel, and luxurious articles of food, I tween them and the other inluabitants of Bruni. Their but not for money ; for neither gold nor silver is much houses are built in the woods, and very little cultivation known there as a coin, pieces of iron being used instead. could be discovered around. There were some pepper

About noon the Mission visited the Rajah Muda Hassim, gardens about, but the unsettled state of the country has and delivered to him his share of the presents brought by prevented the proper care being taken with the cultivaCaptain Bethune, consisting of a handsome box with a tion of that valuable article of commerce. There were, musical bird, and a pair of six-barrelled pistols. They however, numerous very fat and fine looking cows and then proceeded to a private audience with the Sultan, goats feeding on the pastures. The utmost luxuriance and found him surrounded with a few slaves, and seated appeared around, and the walks through the forests were in an arm chair, under the verandah of his private dwel- magnificent. ling. His belet and tobacco were near him. When the In their rambles they observed the sago tree in profusion; gold box, with the musical bird, was first presented, he it is a palm, resembling the gomuli, in size and propora affected the utmost indifference at the sight of the beau- tions, and also in the shape of its trunk, while the large tiful toy, but his curiosity soon broke through the stiff leaves upon the top are like those of a cocoa-nut. The rules of oriental fashion, and he had it wound up re- sago forms the principal article of food among numbers peatedly, reiterating his unbounded astonishment each of the inhabitants of the Archipelago, particularly towards time the bird sang.

the eastern islands. There is no vegetable production On March 1st, the trade was formally opened by beat that can equal it, in the quantity it produces to the acre. of gong, and prices were partially settled. An English Taking a low average, and supposing that the trees are brig was anchored off Paleo Chemain, and the master was fifteen years coming to their proper size, it is well known anxious to obtain a cargo. The next day (Thursday), that eight thousand pounds of good food may be reckoned divine service was performed at the mission-house. After on per annum. The pine-apple grows almost wild, and which Bedrideer and other Panguans visited the Mission, yet reaches a high state of perfection. The camphorand represented the necessity of the English interfering tree was also observed. One in particular, with a trunk to protect Bruni against Sheriff Osman, who, alarmed at least eighteen inches in diameter; it rose upwards of at the idea of Muda Hassim's seeking an alliance with sixty feet before it put forth its branches. the English, was making hostile preparations in conjunc- March 4.- Intelligence reached Bruni that great pretion, as it was supposed, with Pangeran Usop, who was parations were making by Pangeran Osman to attack the at that time present in Bruni.

capital. He gave out that he was most anxious to On the following day, some of the gentlemen took a measure his strength with the British. The news threw walk over the hills. The appearance of Bruni from these the court into a state of alarm, as several of tho most heights is very irregular and picturesque. Its site has powerful chiefs attendant on Omar Ali were said to be been chosen with great judgment, it being admirably in secret correspondence with the pirate. What amused adapted for defence and convenience. Moreover, the the Mission excessively, was to hear the Sultan boast of scenery around is of the utmost beauty. The town is what he would do, if the Ellannus dared to attack him. divided by the river, having a broad channel between the He endeavoured to impress on the English present, that different portions, while at high water it appears a city he was not at all afraid, although he acknowledged that of canals. However, when the tide is out, the back he had no war boats, that his forts were out of repair, and houses cannot be approached by boats, but are reached that the allegiance of his followers was very doubtful. by walks along the verandahs of the different buildings, But yet as long as our countrymen remained near him, which are usually connected by platforms. The river, he felt that he was safe. The presence of the English in when the tide was up, appeared to be about two-thirds of our new settlement, off the mouth of the river, will now a mile in breadth, and extended in one broad sheet of. render him perfectly secure as long as he remains faithwater, on either side of the city. It is navigable, as far ful to his engagements. Muda Hasim expressed himself as the town, for the largest junks, which were formerly as very anxious to obtain the friendship of our Governseen in great numbers anchored off the different mer- ment, and offered to cede any quantity of territory to us, chants' warehouses in various streets. The houses are in order to insure our presence near him. Poor fellow ! built in a very primitive fashion. The roofs and sides he little merited his dreadful fate. being made of palm leaves, and occasionally of boards, March 5.-The Mission departed, having first cautioned the latter, however, are seldom employed, as the Bor- Muda Hasim to follow implicitly the advice given him, neose have no means of making them but by hewing. and to disregard the threats of Sheriff Osman or any Bamboos are scarce around, and are, therefore, but little other adversary, and also to feel assured that the British used.

Government had every disposition to afford him protecOn searching about near the Kiauggi Sheun, they dis- tion. He appeared much affected at parting, and emcovered several veing of coal. Some specimens were braced the English with great feeling. They then left taken back with them, which proved, on trial, to be of Bruni in the gun boat, and having fired a salute of excellent quality. From the appearance of the hills, twenty-one guns, dropped down the river. They were they had no doubt that there were extensive coal fields attended by Bedrideen. On the following morning they near. In the course of their walk they entered a Kadayan landed on Pulo Chermin, and found some veins of excelvillage, but found only the women who were left in charge lent coal. Proceeding onwards they reached H. M.'s S. of the huts. The Kadayans are very hospitable ; they are. Driver. said to be a totally distinct race from the Malays. They March 7.-Bedrideen having taken his leave in order are Mahommedads, however, and speak the same lan- | to return to Bruni, H. M.'s S. Driver started for Labuan, guage, and there is very little apparent difference be. The gentlemen of the Mission landed on that small Island and found a cleared space of about fifty acres. They now that he is no more, the Panguans possess great inwalked through the island, and discovered that it was in fluence over the royal mind. The revenues are princievery way suited for a settlement and commercial entré pot. pally derived from presents, and partially from traffic and The water is good, timber of the finest quality in great labour of the Sultan's slaves. The length of coast noplenty, the situation central, being about 1000 miles from minally subject to Bruni is about 560 miles, and the Hong Kong, 650 from Manilla, the capital of the Philip- population may be about 250,000, but it is impossible to pines, 980 from Bankok in Siam, 500 from Cochin-China, calculate with any certainty. - Agriculture is in a very 700 from Singapore, and 340 from Sarawak. It lies in the low state, but there can be no doubt that our little settlehigh road for ships proceeding to and from China. ment at Labuan will give it such an impetus 'as to raise Labuan possesses, moreover, what is of the greatest im- the standard of cultivation. In manufactures, the Borportance, —

-We refer to the coal which has been discoyered neans have exhibited some skill; their knives are very on the island. This, together with the safe harbour, elegant and of a superior temper, and their brass cannon named Victoria Bay, has no doubt had its influence on are very fine specimens of native art. It is said that, the Government, and induced them to select it as the site large qnantities of the Chinese brass coins have been of a British settlement.

melted down to make these pieces of ordnance, and that It may not be uninteresting to add a few words on the they cost several thousand dollars. On the whole, how-, state of Bruni. It is in practice as in theory a pure ever, the Borneans may be considered as very backward despotism-that is, when the Sultan has sufficient energy in the scale of civilization, and that they require some- ! to take advantage of his situation. Now, however, as thing to arouse them from their state of lethargy, and that the throne is filled with so weak a man, the chief power impulse they are sure to receive by the introduction of is exercised by the principal minister. For many years British Capital and British Industry. Muda Hasim wielded an almost undisputed authority;

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« One more unfortunate,

Weary of breath."-Tuomas Hood.
KEEP them closed, the curtained windows

Cool the pale brow's haunted fever,
Feebler grows the aching sight;

Gorgeous dreams wero his of old;. $?*
With his brother-bard* he saith not,

Rife with radiant shapes, whose glory '} %!
" Light, Lord! yet more light!"

Time may not unfold ;
But for rest from anguish free,

Haply on the better shore
Prayeth he unceasingly.

He may greet those shapes once more.
The strong human pulse is throbbing,

Clasp the hand, now damp and powerless ;
Fearfully, for others yet;

It was freely stretched to all,
She, his tried one, spirit-stricken,

Willed to own tho brotherhood,
Hath the deep glance met,

Binding great and small;
Of his carnest, loving eyes ;-

Hand and heart have struggled well,
“ Take him, Lord-he hardly dies !”.

Coming years of both shall tell.
Tend him kindly ere he leave us--

Softly tread! a solemn moment
Stern has earth been through the past;

Draweth slowly, surely, on ;-
Let him think that mercy groweth

Now one more immortal spirit
In its wastes at last!

From our midst is gone
Late, alas ! such truth to own,

But the noble heart and mind
Saye for them he loves, alone.

Leave rich treasure heaps behind.
Look with reverence on him, dying,

Taking what thyself enricheth,
Bowed-not with the weight of years,

Let not man thy counsel be,

2, But with keen thoughts left to quicken

« Leave to Christ his little ones;
In his heart's hot tears!

Christ has left them thee !7
Noble growths these yet shall reach,

Be with Him, the good, the just,
Though a life-pulse stopped with each.

A worthy sharer in this trust!

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SPEAK B 16, and tell me true,

Dost wonder if the drunken chap,
How dost thou pass the night,

That just went reeling past,
Clad in that coat of coarsest blue,

Will in the kennel take his nap,
And cape of oil-skin bright?

Or stagger home at last ?
What dost thou think of in thy walk

Or dost thou think how sweet a kiss
Along the gloomy street ?

That housemaid gave to thee,
Dost list the midnight straggler's talk

Or that the cold meat warn't amiss
That come across thy beat ?

From number twenty-three ?

Or dost reflect on thy past life
Or dost thou curse the pelting storm,

How wickedly 'twas led-
And shiver in the wind-

Or thinkest thou of thy faithful wife 4

'sce And think it must be nice and warm

And children warm in bed ? .

1* ! SI Within yon lit-up blind ?

Or thinkest, on thy return, to find

ells... Don Dost listen to the cheerful hum

Their stock of food all gone?

** W KTO Where that snug party meet,

(Policeman loquitur) Whose merry laugh and voices como

I think of nothing of the kind in
Into the silent street ?

Move on, young man, move on it. T. D.

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By A7 Ese eisen mit viszinon, P. LITERARY


[] The Life and Adventures of Zamba, an African Ne- | part of which he exchanged with traders for European gro King., and his Experience of Slavery in South goods. Ilaving a great desire to visit civilized countries, Carolina., Written by himself. Corrected and Ar- he expressed a wish to Captain Winton, on one of his arranged by Peter Neilson, London : Smith, Elder, & rivals, to accompany him on his return voyage to America. Co., 1847.

The Yankee trader took advantage of his simplicity, and This volume purports to contain the autobiography of a Prevailed on him to put on board much of his most valu

able property. He embarked with thirty-two prisoners, Negro Slave, with whom the Editor, Mr. Neilson, was

whom he intended to sell as slaves, about thirty pounds of personally acquainted during his residence in Charleston. gold dust, and about two hundred doubloons in gold coin. Notwithstanding the air of truth that pervades it, some

Captain Winton accommodated him with a handsome readers will have doubts as to its genuineness. The narrative has undergone extensive alterations and corrections 1800. During the voyage he was treated with all the

stateroom, and they sailed from Congo on the 1st October, in the hands of Mr. Neilson, who has introduced some respect which the Captain had been wont to yeild to him ; things, omitted others, and nearly re-written the whole.

but towards its conclusion, as he lay in his berth, he overThe father of Zamba was the king of a small territory on the banks of the river Congo, about two hundred miles chief mate, in which the former declared it to be his in

heard a conversation between Captain Winton and his from the sea'; the metropolis of which was a village consisting of only about ninety truts, and the royal palace. whom there were altogether four hundred and twenty-two

tention to sell King Zamba with the other negroes, of King Zembola lived in a state of savage grandeur, and ex

on board, as soon as the ship arrived at Charleston, and ercised despotic power over his subjects. He had a re

possess himself of all his property. Zamba's conduct on gular standing army amounting to forty men, but on an

this occasion showed considerable presence of mind :emergency he could muster, at a day's notice, altogether about one hundred and fifty fighting men.

He was a

“At the breakfast table next morning,” he says, “I

endeavoured to command my feelings, so as that my wholesale dealer in slaves, and suj ied the slave ships countenance might appear as usual; but Captain Winton which went to that part of Africa, with their living car- remarked that something was the matter with me. I goes. To procure them he, every now and then, went told him I was suffering much from headache. Oh, upon a distant expedition for the purpose of capturing pri-Zamba,' said he, I know well enough what is the rat

ter with you; you have been dreaming about Africa and soners, for sale.

your young wife; but keep up your heart, boy, you will With this redoubtable personage an American slaver, find plenty of pretty wives in Charleston. And, by the Capt. Winton, traded for many years, to their mutual pro- bye, Zamba, you will there see what you have never seen fit. He had brought fine furniture for the palace, the before, that is women called mulattoes, half white and audience chamber of which was furnished with handsome ready to snap at a king of such property as you.'

half black-very pretty girls I assure you; they will be chairs and tables,

s, the walls being adorned with many fine ! But I was in little humour for language of this sort. prints, and a map of London. He also gave Prince After breakfast I said that I wanted to bathe my head Zamba, when a boy, a large violin, and a barrel organ; ing no objection, I retired shortly afterwards to my berth,

with vinegar, and lie down for a while; and Winton makbut what was of more consequence, he not only taught In the course of the afternoon I contrived to conceal him to speak English and to read, but gave him a Bible. about thirty of my doubloons, by sewing them in betwixt In a war expedition against a brother king, named Da- the lining of various articles of my clothing; I also put a roola, of the Kormontu tribe, Zamba's father was killed,

little gold dust away in the same manner, but only amongst

my coarse clothes, as I looked for nothing less at this and Zamba became king in his stead. He was at this cruel captain's hands than to have my fine clothing taken time only seventeen years of age. Returning home with from me. I also stowed away about two pounds weight 130 prisoners, he afterwards married Zillah, daughter of of gold dust in each of a pair of stockings, which I thrust King Daroola, whom he had saved from the uplifted cut- carelessly into a pair of shoes.” lass of one of his men, and who is thus described :

On their arrival at Charleston King Zamba was sold to

a Mr. Naylor, an auctioneer, who treated him well. One “Zillah appeared to be about a year or so younger than of his clerks, a young Scotchman, named Thomson, bemyself. She was tall and exceedingly graceful, her countenance, though its features were somewhat of the Afri- came greatly interested in the poor betrayed negro, can cast, was beautiful, and her figure might vie in ele- taught him to write and count, and gave him much regance, colour excepted, with the finest models of ancient ligious and other instruction. Zamba’s lot was more sculpture. She wore massive gold rings in her ears; a necklace of very large pearls, mixed with gold and coral fortunate than that of many of Afric's sable race, ruthbeads, adorned her neck, and solid bracelets of gold of lessly torn from their homes and country, and sold into African manufacture, and rings of the same metal, en- slavery. He gives a very favourable account of the circled her wrists and ankles. I have little doubt but

appearance of many of his countrymen and countrythese jewels would have brought £1000 in Europe."

women at Charleston, both bond and free, but the picture Zamba's disposition was pacific, and although he kept has its dará side; and he relates various lanecdotes of the up his standing army to its former complement, he com- inhuman treatment of domestic slaves by their masters pelled his warriors to cultivate small plots of land which and mistresses, and of the atrocities of Carolina planters. he gave them, or spend their time in hunting, fishing, or Having placed all the property which he had contrived searching for gold dust.",

to save from the clutches of Captain Winton, in the hands During the first year after his marriage he had collected of his owner Mr. Naylor, Zamba was allowed by that as much as an hundred weight of gold dust, the greater gentleman seven per cent. interest for the use of it.

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In April, 1803, he discovered among a cargo of slaves | of the Mussulmans. It does not even appear that on board a ship that had arrived from the river Congo, Nanuk, the founder of the Sikhs, at any time claimed his wife Zillah, who had been carried off by two men while more honour or respect than that due to a teacher, walking one day in a secluded place on the banks of that He did not profess to be endowed with miraculous gifts. river. Zamba’s master also purchased Zillah, and in The doctrines taught by him were those of a pure Deism. 1807 he had regular free papers made out for them both. The ends aimed at were purity of life, simplicity of As long as he remained in Charleston, however, he al- manners, and innocence of conduct towards each other. lowed them to reside in their former position in his own Nanuk's creed, in many moral matters, strongly resemhouse, but when, on retiring from business, he went to bles that of George Fox. He was equally opposed to another State in 1819, he had a regular account current, war, placed the same high value on human life, and, made out from the commencement, and after allow- in his circumstances, with his limited knowledge, proing interest and annual wages to Zillah and her hus- mulgated a very remarkable system of morals and reband, he paid the latter over every penny he was due to ligion. It may be even questioned whether any man him. Zamba then took a small shop, and continued for emerging from society in a rude and corrupt state, withsome years to carry on a limited trade. For the last out revelation, ever struck out a sublimer faith. The twenty years, he tells us, he has lived in retirement, im- philosophers of the ancient world acted together in proving his mind, and devoting part of his time and means schools, and were influenced and encouraged by a geto acts of charity. Zamba and Zillah joined a methodist nerous rivalry ; while they never reached a point of church, and were regularly married. His betrayer, Capt. moral and religious knowledge so near to truth as that Winton, lost all his ill-gotten gains by unsuccessful specu- gained by the lonely teacher of the Punjaub. lations, and at last turned a gambler and drunkard. In We extract the following particulars of the genealogy, his distress he was relieved by Zamba, who, by a curious the life, and principles of this very remarkable man :coincidence, was present when he was shot in a duel with

“Secta was here delivered of two sons, one of whom one of his gambling friends, some time after.

she named Loh, and the other Kussoo. When arrived Zamba's manuscript was forwarded through a white at manhood, these became wealthy men, and each built a gentleman of Charleston interested in his history, to be city, to which he gave his own name : that of the elder published in this country. By the laws of South Caro- being Lahore, and the younger Kussoor, both of which

remain at the present day : the former being the capital dina any one rash enough to print, or offer for sale, the of the Punjab, and the latter exhibiting traces of an exproduction of a negro, or any work written on behalf of tensive city, about twelve miles from Ferozepore. his oppressed race, subjects himself to a ruinous penalty ;

" The descendants of Loh and Kussoo continued to while the author, especially if coloured, would be exposed possess Lahore and Kussoor ; but after a long series of

years, when Kulrao was king of Lahore, and Kulpat was to all the fury of an insulted and excited mob. The volume king of Kussoor, the latter raised a large army, and made contains a well-drawn up account of the City of Charles- war upon the former, whom he vanquished, and took ton, and of the various negro conspiracies against the possession of Lahore, expelling Kulrao from the Punjab. whites. We have few books written by native negroes,

Kulrao, after his defeat and fight, took refuge in the

Dekhan, with Amrit, king of that country. and the personal details in this volume would have been treated the fugitive with great distinction and kindness, all the more interesting, had the style, instead of being bestowed his daughter on him in marriage, and at his so much elaborated, preserved as far as possible, the death left him heir to his kingdom. By this princess

Kulrao had a son, named Sodee Rao, who succeeded his artlessness and simplicity of the author's manner.

father. He made conquests in Hindostan, and became a great king. One day his wuzeer told the Sodee Rao,

that 'though king of so many countries, his proper kingHISTORY OF THE SIKHS, Vols. 1& 2. *

dom was the Punjaub, from which his father had been exBY W. J. MʻGREGOR, M.D.

pelled by Kulput, and was never able to return and re

gain his kingdoin.' Sodee Rao, on hearing this, collected The first of these volumes contains a summary of Sikh a large army, and set out for Lahore. He engaged his History to the days of Runjeet Singh, and a life of uncle in battle and defeated him, driving himself and all that remarkable man, whose feats on the Indus equal his children out of the Punjaub. After this he ascended

the throne of Lahore. led those of Mehemet Ali on the Nile. The second vo

Kulput, after his defeat, became a wanderer on the lume is occupied principally with the details of the great face of the earth, and at length reached the holy city of campaign which terminated in the overthrow of the Sikh Kassir, known in modern times by the name of Benares. power, and the subjection of Lahore. The author is a

It was then, as now, the great resort of learned Hindoos,

and here Kulput began to study the books of the Hindoo medical officer, who, we understand, visited the Court religion, called • Beds.' While thus employed, he found of Runjeet Singh long previous to the death of that a passage which stated that 'tyranny was a great sin, monarch. A portion of his work is engaged in the dis- and so long as a man exercised it he had no right to ex cussion of subjects connected with the medical service ing that he himself had behaved as a tyrant to his bro

pect mercy.' Reflecting on this sentence, and consider of the East-the only portion, and a small one-not of ther, in making war on and dethroning him, he resolved general interest. The first volume is a compilation, to on going to Lahore and asking the forgiveness of Sodee a considerable extent, down to the later period of Run

Rao for the tyranny he had practised towards his father. jeet Singh's reign. The Sikhs rose originally as a re

"On reaching Lahore he sought an interview with So

dee Rao, and began reading the Béds to him. On hearligious sect; and it is rather remarkable that the tenets ing the third Béd, Sodee Rao relented, and, embracing of their founder were strictly pacific. Their prophet his uncle, said, “ You ask forgiveness, which I grant, and was a man of higher character, purer thoughts, and

as a reward for your reading the Béd to me, I will give of conduct in every way superior to Mahomet, the root

you my kingdom, and as a beggar will wander in the jungle.

· Kulput replied— You are a good man, Sodee Rao, * London: James Madden,

and though my descendants may be Gooroos and rulers,

The king

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yet yours will eventually enjoy their rights and privileges, , natural talents, though still a boy, soon won for him a and become great sirdars and kings.'

high place among them. He became a teacher at the “Sodee Rao, on hearing these words, took his depar- early age of eleven years, and had followers; among the ture, and Kulput became, once more, king of Lahore. rest, Murdana, a musician, who afterwards attended him From the circumstance of his being a reader of the Béds, in his travels; and from being a Mussulman, became a he was surnamed Bédee. His descendants were named convert to the tenets of Nanak. Two other of his folBédees; and Nanuk being one of them, was called lowers are celebrated : the one, named Boodha, and the (Nanuk) Bédee. This tribe continued to be Gooroos un- other, Lehna. To these Nanuk taught his doctrines, til the time of Ram Dass, who was the first Gooroo of the which were those of pure Deism. Sodee tribe, and hence named (Ram Dass) Sodee.

Nanuk endeavoured to conciliate, or reconcile, both The Sodees are numerous at the present day about Hindoos and Mussulmans, by forbidding the former to Muckawal, and on this side the Sutlej, at Macheewarah, worship images and idols ; while he deprecated the intowhich, in fact, belongs to two sirdars of the Sodee tribe. lerance of the Mussulmans to the Hindoos ; and, above It is difficult to reconcile this story of Loh and Kussoo all, forbade the slaughter of the cow-an offence which is with the Mussulman account of the Punjab. Either it is to this day visited by the severest punishment among the altogether fictitious, or the descendants of Loh and Kussoo Sikhs ; the loss of life being often the penalty incurred for must have reigned in the Punjab long anterior to the killing the animal. Mussuiman dynasty ; but then it is equally difficult to The precepts of Nanuk were those of peace with all explain the circumstance of Nanuk being a descendant of mankind; and he inculcated an abhorrence of war among Kulput Bedee, unless we suppose that the dynasty de- people, believing in God, on whom his firm reliance was scended from the family of Kulput to the time of Puttu-placed for every thing; and, acting on this principle, he rugepal, the last Hindoo king of the Punjab. The re- was regardless of worldly matters, and divided everycords of Jeipal, Annudpal, and Putturugepal, are so thing he had with his fellow-creatures. santy, excepting as regards their contentions with the " On the whole, Nanuk's tenets evince a zealous desire Mussulmans, that we know nothing of their private his- to remove all the abuses and idolatries of the Hindoos, tory, and, for want of a better explanation of the terms and the intolerance of the Mussulmans. Bédee and Sodee, we must suppose that Nanuk was a “Nanuk's time was spent in offering praises to God in lineal descendant of Kulput, and Ram Dass equally so of poetical effusions ; and he made no distinction between Sodee Rao.

Hindoos and Mussulmans. The poems of Nanuk are ceNanuk's intellect was precocious. At the early age lebrated. He traversed Hindostan and Scinde, and, acof four, he was sent to the village school, the master cording to some authors, visited Mecca. lle appears to whereof was a Deist ; and wishing to inculcate the same have been a match for the Moolahs, as the following principle in his youthful scholar ; but the boy, to his anecdote, related by Malcolm, will show ;— How darest great astonishment, instead of yielding implicit credence, thou, infidel,' said the offended Mahomedan priest, “turn inquired of the teacher. What proof he could give of the thy feet towards the House of God ?' • Turn them, if existence of a God?' Such a question naturally inspired you can,' said the pious but indignant Nanuk, . in a dithe man with a wish to know more of his scholar ; and rection where the House of God is not,' on making inquiry, he was told that Nanuk was the gift “ Nanuk did not deny the mission of Mahomet, though of a fukeer. On hearing this, the schoolmaster renounced he reprobated his oppressive cruelty and intolerance to the world and became a fukeer himself. As Nanuk ad- the Hindoos, and, above all, the slaughter of the cow ; Fanced in years, he became partial to fukeers, dividing for these crimes he believed the prophet had justly died. his property amongst them ; and though he wanted proof Nanuk considered himself a successor to Mahomet ; and of the existence of a Deity in his boyhood, he soon became that he was destined to restore, by his example, precepts, a firm believer in one.

and writings, the whole of mankind to the worship of “ His partiality to the fukeers led him often into God. He urged the windoos and Mussulmans to read serious scrapes with his father. One is related by Mal- their Scriptures, and obey the doctrines taught there. colm, Nanuk having received a sum of money from his But, while inculcating faith in one supreme Deity, and father to purchase salt at one village, in order to sell it offering their praises to him alone, he did not forget that in another, happened on the road to fall in with some good works were equally incumbent ; and that to these fukeers, with whom he wished to commence a conversa- tenets of faith and works they should look for mercy, and tion; but they were so weak from want of victuals, which it mattered little to what caste he belonged.' they had not tasted for three days, that they could only The peaceful tenets inculcated by Nanuk, form a reply to the observations of Nanuk by bending their pleasing contrast to the present warlike and quarrelsome heads, and other civil signs of acquiescence.

habits of the Sikhs; but the cause of this change will be “Nanuk, affected by their situation, said to his com- manifested in the sequel. panion, My father has sent me to deal in salt with a view “ Towards the latter part of his life, Nanuk dwelt on to profit ; but the gain of this world is unstable and pro- the banks of the Ravee, and established his family there." fitless ; my wish is to relieve these poor men, and to ob- He had two sons ; the one named Suchmee Doss, and the tain that gain which is permanent and eternal.' His other Sree Chund ; the former became a man of the companion (Bala Sandhu) replied— Thy resolution is world. He had two sons, whose descendants remain at good ; do not delay its execution.' Nanuk immediately the present day. Sree Chund was a fukeer, and from distributed his money to the hungry fukeers, who, after him are descended the Oodasee fukeers.” they had gained strength from the refreshment which it

“Nanuk's precepts for the guidance of his followers obtained for them, entered into a long discourse with him are contained in the “ Grunth," or Holy Book of the on the unity of God, with which he was much delighted. Sikhs. It was begun, and the first part of it written, by His father did not at all approve of this mode of laying Nanuk and his immediate successors. This part is named out his money; and though his sister Nanukee interceded, Adi Grunth, to distinguish it from the second portion, Nanuk no doubt, was punished. His father used the composed exclusively by the great reformer Gooroo Goutmost endeavours to turn the attention of his son to vind, Nanuk's successor. This second part is accordworldly matters ; and with this view built a shop for him ingly named the · Dasuma Padshah ka Grunth,' or at Sultanpore, in the Bist Jalindhur, and furnished it • Book of the tenth King.' with various articles of merchandise ; but instead of turning them to any account, he bestowed the whole on

The following summary of Nanuk's doctrines is also fakeers. Failing in his object by this means, his father taken from Dr. M'Gregor's work :insisted on his marrying, thinking, no doubt, that this “ The Grunth is written in the Goomooki character, step would cause him to renounce his wandering life. He a modified species of the Nagari.' It is placed in the was, accordingly, married at Wittala ; but he speedily holy temple of Umritsir, and constantly referred to in all left his home, and went to the jungle in search of fukeers; matters by the Sikhs. Though the followers of Nanuk and wherever he heard of them, there he proceeded. were forbidden to worship or pay homage to any object Nanuk had now publicly become one of them; and his l but the Supreme Deity, they have so far forgotten bis

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