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shadowed forth-fitted in all its arrangements for a thousand—be seen in the history of the noto: the PEASANT COMMUNITY--the present church of rious silk-mills of Edinburgh. That population, Landlordism having been permitted to pass quite too, it must never be forgotten, must, if it can be away? Be it far from us to speak dogmatically reared at all, be reared by long struggle, not in of the future ; but if, under such circumstances, Ireland as a separate country, but in conflict with cheered on, too, by the friendly neighbourhood the action of advanced, experienced, and powerful and the world-famous example of the English England. The question amounts therefore to this people, Ireland should remain amid Nature's -Who is to uphold the efforts to rear the new activities a spectacle of stagnation and death Manchester in face of the old one? How are these then should we despair of the final destinies of imperfect and tentative attempts to be upheld, in man on this planet, and account the hope of uni- competition with the accomplished and overwhelmversal civilization as a dream and very delusion. ing energy of the most perfect industrial organi

It is farther necessary that the people of this zation the world has ever seen? Shall they be country be convinced that no other form of ci- screened from competition by the barrier of movilization—no state which does not spring from nopoly? Or, in other words, is Ireland—already an organised peasant community-is open to Ire- too poor--tobe taxed all over, for indefinite years, land, or possible for it, in its existing relations until it learn to accomplish what Manchester can with the other parts of the world. This vital now accomplish, as the fruit of ceaseless progress truth requires the more to be impressed, because and inventive toil ? Thus, and no other way, of the impracticable and inapplicable visions can such an end be accomplished ; and is not which, from time to time, have been cherished the bare statement of the question in this light regarding that country. One delusion especially adequate demonstration of its impracticability ?* has widely diffused itself-the hope, viz., of con. Not all the waterfalls and rivers in the world, verting Ireland into a manufacturing country;-a coupled with Mr. Hudson's railroads, will suffice hope so widely spread abroad, that, on the pub- to convert Ireland into a manufacturing country, lication, a few years ago, of a work by Sir R. unless capital on capital, to untold amount, shall Kane, men's minds became astir regarding the first be sacrificed in the effort to bring up an inpossibility, or rather certainty, of the speedy experienced people to the habitudes and capabierection of new Birminghams and Manchesters, lities of one whose skill is a growth of centuries. not in one only, but in many of its favoured lo- Sir Robert Kane forgot that the forms and praccalities. Now, in the first place, no manufacture tices of accomplished industry are so essential to can be favourably placed—be the natural faci- the construction of an industrial community; that lities what they maymunless amid a population in absence of these, natural advantages of the skilled, or capable of speedily becoming skilled, highest order are only useless elements ; but his in reference to its special purposes.

Without mistake was venial ; nor knew we how very far a that population, natural advantages avail little; delusion of this sort could go, or how large a creand the difficulty of procuring it, or rearing it dulity may co-exist with parliamentary leaderwhere it is not, may-to take one instance among ship, before both were unfolded, to the amazement

of reflecting men, by the recent imaginations of have nothing to do with their special dogmata, but it ought Lord George Bentinck. If the minor acts of to have to do with the existence of a church or churches; this most difficult time shall at all survive, and taking especial care that the church be one applicable to the state of a peasant community. It is needless to con

become known to posterity, assuredly none of ceal that in regard of the Romish Church there are obstacles them will excite stranger emotions than that a to the reception of the foregoing opinion in the minds of proposition to invest sixteen millions of money in many of the well-meaning of our countrymen. The pre: Irish railways should have been gravely listened sent writer begs to avow his opinion, with all deference, but firmly, that it is vain to expect that the Irish will ever be to by Parliament, and discussed as a probably other than Roman Catholics. By the term ever, he of course remunerative scheme! Who knows not that railmeans any visible or assignable period of historical time; and bis opinion rests on the presumed persistence of manifest causes. These canses, partly in the character of the # The fallacies afloat regarding the effect of the UXION people, partly in the attitude of bostility to English Proin destroying Irish manufactures, obtain their solution in testantism, into which their history has led them, are, in a fact which much illustrates the foregoing, argument. his estimate, perfectly adequate to produce the foregoing Doubtless the small manufactories of Ireland have been effect; but by no means does it follow that the Irish will destroyed by England, and probably the absorption began not reform their own church. The existing beggary of the about the time of the Union; but the cause was the impeople, their want of information, and their readiness to mense, rapid, and resistless development of manufacturseize hold on religious consolation as the compensation ing by machinery, which destroyed wholly, and without for the ills that in their case seem very hardly apportioned, hope, all power of competition by hand labour, or by small concur in the meantime in endowing the Romish Priest-establishments. The same thing that took place in Banhood with an influence which no priesthood ought to pos- dor and among the now back lanes of Cork, happened in sess; but the effect would terminate with its cause; and many districts both of England and Scotland; and the the spread of education by the national system, aided by cause in all these cases was the same. The effect, of that culture which comparative ease of circumstances course, was disastrous to localities, but to the entire comwould impress on a national character peculiarly sensitive munity it cheapened the article produced; and it is this to external impulses, would necessarily abate the influence identical state of affairs which now places a barrier in the of the hierarchy, and constitute in Ireland a church whose way of the rise of Irish manufactures. Assuredly it is not pretensions would be satisfied with the privilege of coun- worthy in men, who should know better, to attribute an selling in the spiritual concerns of the people : nor, with action, so very clear and distinct, to the union of two parFrance in our eye, as well as the Catholic churches of Ger-liaments! And if Ireland had done justice to herself, if many, can we, speaking very politically, say that an insti- she had developed her great agricultural resources, or tution thus reformed would operate as a hindrance to the been in a condition to do so, she, too, would have recogadvancement of a people in whose hearts it had obtained nised the advantage; for she would have felt the benefits and preserved a seat.

of that of which she complains.

ways are comparatively useless, unless to a coun- you shrink from doing even yourselves ? Perfecttry whose people and their pursuits demand fre. ly do we recognise the truth, that the authors of quent and swift interchange of intercourse ? Could this poor law hope good from it, only in so far as even a child indulge in the foolish dream, that to by the foregoing indirect action it shall render its create the need for that intercourse it is simply own provisions useless ; do they discern, on the necessary to spend profound sums in enlargement other hand, that they inevitably, and without of its facilities? Would a road along the flanks chance or possibility of reward, peril Ireland of Ben Lomond establish prosperity and manu- in this hope--that if this single expectation gives facturing activity on its summit? or will railways, way in a country which has already baffled and multiplied even ad infinitum, convert an agricul. put to nought every expectation formed concerntural and stationary people into a migratory and ing it, they shall lose every means of touching it commercial one? It is vain, by mistakes or lures again--they shall sacrifice that alone, whose exlike these, to endeavour to shun the inevitable istence creates social power, and duty, and order, question. The ostrich can hide its head, but it -riz.: the surplus wealth? The Irish landlords ! cannot ward off the impending doom ; and come Does Lord John Russell know them? Even now, that doom of a surety will, if we longer contend half fool, half tyrant, the Irish landlord would, with ordinances that have so emphatically pro- were justice meted to him, be found to have lost claimed their superiority to all human--at least, every privilege, because he has abandoned all auto all British-policy, if we see not before us a thority by trampling on every duty;* and shall multitudinous people claiming to be recognised they—a class so hated and so bafiled the true in their fatherland, challenging it as their right- practical foes of the peasant, and whom the peaful home, and demanding that in the British em- sant, as things exist, has reduced to helplessnesspire they alone shall not be held as aliens, not shall they contend with a peasantry armed with merely from the cherished place of their nativity, legal power, and resolutely determined, as a but, in very truth, from any place or abode within Right and a Religious Duty, to enforce to reaGod's wide universe.

lise this poor law ? Think again of it, my Lord! Already have you folded your hands in

half-confessed despondency in regard to the task POSTSCRIPT.

to which, in the course of providence, your enerThe foregoing Essay was written early in the gies have been summoned ; and now, add to the year ; and at that time the author did not know warnings of the benevolent, but acute Prelate of that the views which had been forced on him by Dublin, the assurance of one who knows that an intimate practical knowledge of many districts country well, that your scheme is a baseless of Ireland were receiving the support of one of chimera, and that two brief lustrums will not the most distinguished thinkers in this country, pass over us, ere by its direct and inevitable acThe course of legislation, however, has hitherto be- tion this Irish landlordism, as useless in its fall, tokened no trace of the influence of opinions of as unhonoured during its existence, shall have this class; but instead, two modes of action have been swept from the face of the earth ! been proposed, on which it seems necessary to

II. In opposition to this fearful poor law, which, offer only a few remarks, and these of the most in sad truth, is, par excellence, the very worst general kind.

measure that could be proposed for Ireland, a I. As anticipated, a poor law has been brought measure that can have no beneficial operation forward, of the most sweeping description, and it unless among a people actuated by those mutual seems likely it will be carried.

the charities ; that respect for each other's property, history of civilization contains no instance of the and personal pride of independence, which are existence of a poor law of any higher aim than precisely what Ireland wants. In opposition to to provide for the few exceptional evils insepar- this exterminating act, an extensive, and, in the able from the best-constructed organisms; in the main, excellently planned scheme of emigration, present case it is meant to act as the reorganiser has just been laid before the British public, under of the country—as the grand reforming or revivi- the high authority of Archbishop Whately, and fying agent of the ENTIRE STATE, There is of other eminent names. The chief features of it course only one mode by which it can thus act- are, of course, to remove the Irish peasantry to not directly, but indirectly. It must, by its moral

* Let us be believed! We have written these hard words influence, render its own provisions unnecessary, with inequivocal pain: it is, besides, a crime, in circumand that moral influence can only operate on the stances like the present, of no slight dye, to utter condemlandlords-converting them, as it is hoped, by nation, or even disparagement, without grounds whose

soundness are beyond all roubt. Well, then, of these Irish arousing fear into willing and able social regene- landlords in the mass-for there are bright and noble exceprators. Alas! alas! Never in the whole course tions--a more useless set of functionaries does not exist of Utopian scheming was a dream relied upon But so far from this being a Saron grievance, as reported

amid the countless multitudes composing British society; more utterly baseless than this! Induce the Irish ad nauseam in Conciliation Hall-verily you may select the landlords by terrifying them to regenerate Ireland? districts in Ireland occupied by Englisli proprietors, simply Surely you must make them alle first! Surely by the appearance of a comparatively happy peasantry. The you must endow them as a class with a knowledge, trace Irish landlords guilty, and which pass quite current, a virtue of statesmanship, which no such class ever in most districts, positively degrade humanity. In every had before ; or if you do not, why delegate to them, utierly unfit for any position which could make a man deand by a machinery so infinitely hazardous, did / pendent on them.

Until now,

some other country, until sufficiently few shall of the Irish race, ere it can be considered a safe, remain to admit of the construction, in Ireland, of permanent, and orderly integrand, and not a mere an English agricultural system--landlords as they dependency, of our mighty empire. Or is it the are, farmers with capita , to be imported as the removal, at the expense of some of our predilecmanagers of large farms, and the peasants to contri- tions, of obstructions lying, verily on the surface bute agricultural labourers. Now, in the first place, of their existing condition-obstructions whịch, it must be noticed, that this scheme, as compared positively and inevitably, prevent their advancing with ours, has one very great and obvious disad-along any line of civilizațion ? ,,Our decision, in vantage; that, instead of one great deportation, regard of such a question, will, to future times, which at the very worst is involved in ours—viz., be no slight indication of the character of the age that of landlords, it involves, directly and inevi- in which we live. tably, an immense deportation of peasantry, and, III. One word, in conclusion, on another subagain, a great importation of capitalist farmers. ject. Some minds are startled by the supposed difLike the proposal offered in the foregoing paper, ficulty of realising such views as we have sought this one starts on the assumption of the existence at present to expose. The evil, it is said, is maniof a rooted social incompatibility, to be destroyed fest--the removal of it, easily accomplishable by only by the removal of one of the parties; for the absolute power; but what English ininister would idea of its being necessary to remove the Irish dare attempt to accomplish a task of so unusual from their own waste but most prolific island, in a description ? The greatest difficulty in finding search of circumstances in which food may be a minister to dare such an act is in finding one obtained in return for moderate labour, is too to dare to say he would do it ; for in this, as in absurd to be set forth even as an economical usual affairs, the right way is by far the easiest hypothesis;—wo differ, however, as to the party and the least complex. But we need seek for no to whom we should leave possession of that coun- such man among dilletanti politicians, whose sin: try. Ethically speaking, it would not be very cerity is measured by their fidelity to party, and difficult to determine how this question should be who are satisfied with as much liberalism as will decided; and be it observed, that the emigration glitter in the drawing room. That men capable proposed disposes, in the most summary way, of of strong convictions are still to be found, and the practical objection to our scheme, for it as- that they can, when the exigency demands it, sumes that the Irish peasantry only require to be trample on our miserable existing political secplaced in circumstances not more unfavourable tions, has been demonstrated by the ever memorthan the peasantry of other origins, to rise of able example of last year ; and while some such themselves into a civilised industrial society. energy would amply suffice, even for the necessi

This being granted, then, what we earnestly de- ties of Ireland, it is certainly only by its exertions, mand is, the grave and manifest interest of the and not by the expedients of any red-tapering, British nation at this momentous crisis. Is it that this portion of the empire can now be previrtually to abandon the Irish people? Is it to served from a most disastrous, and, perhaps, utter declare that Ireland must, in the main, be weeded overthrow,

FAIRER PROSPECTS. Ort when I sit begloomed, and dull and sad,

So on some hill-top have I gazing stood, And look around upon my barren life,

What time the vallies all in gloom were laid And find in it no spot, or good or glad,

By rainy clouds that overswept the wood, Nor any fruitage worth its toil and strife

And uplands chequered by the moving shade. 19 Sudden the prospect brightens, and I see

Sudden the sun peeps forth, and I behold A host of objects good and great, and grand,

Some far off town, roof, casement, and church spiro And countless blisses that but wait for me,

Start from the gloom and gloss like molten gold, Untrodden paths throughout a goodly land.

As 'twere that instant traced in lines of living fire!

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The Asphodel is gleaming beside the lonely lake, For Lydia's princes sleep beneath her wise and mighty
Gleaming in silent sunshine from many a sedgy brake;
Where marble columns once arose, this lily, fair of day They once gazed on these distant hills, snow covered now
In pallid loveliness, looks forth-'mid ruin and decay.

as then; Vast heaps and creeping weeds-where the ancient temples Tbey, too, once gazed on this fair scene with bright and

The smooth Gygæan lake reflects the blue unruffled sky; stood, Where countless thousands sleep beneath the matted un.

beaming eye! derwood; In broad noon-day the fair green sward lay void, and calm, I sat among the countless dead-to other worlds I soughtand still

These thousands breathed now as I breathe, felt, suffered, The breezes sighing o'er the plain—from snow-crowned

loved, and thought; classic hill.

And on the grand sepulchral mounds, I knelt ja solemn

prayer With solitude around, where destruction's band had been, Before God's throne.--Ye mighty dead: when shall I meet Wild thronging thonghts of by-gone days re-peopled all Cybele's glorious temple rose, in gorgeous pomp and power

t ***C. A. M. w. Imagination reigned supreme in that dim dream-like hour.

ye there?

the scene;

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1 Is consequence of the Government having determined | of the Kiagge. It was surrounded by the most luxuriant to form a settlement on the island of Labuan, off the foliago, and beneath the tree was the tomb of a Malay mouth of the Bruni River, the following particulars rela- Rajah, and the graves of several chiefs. These last tive to the British Mission to Borneo may prove interest - resting places of the natives are marked by two pieces of ing to our readers. The vast resources of the Indian wood (though occasionally stones are used) from one to Archipelago have never been developed, and the late two feet in height, and placed two or three feet apart. Government, desirous of extending British interests in The earth over the grave is raised a few inches, and that quarter of the globe, despatched Captain Bethune, supported by four narrow boards, so as to form a paralleloR.N.C. B., with a complimentary letter and presents to gram. They generally appear very neat.

The same Omar Ali, Sultan of Bruni. The gallant officer was also custom prevails amongst the people of Macassan, and commissioned to report upon the best locality for a also among the Bugis ; the only difference is, that they British settlement on the north-west coast of Borneo. more commonly use stone than wood.

At the time of Captain Bethune's arrival at Bruni, in At four o'clock, P.m., the boats anchored near the H. M. S. Driver, accompanied by Mr. Wise, much con- Sultan's palace, and were saluted with twenty-one guns fusion prevailed in the country. The Raja Mudah Has- placed in battery on the banks of the river. Having sim, uncle to the Sultan, and likewise his chief minister, hastily dressed, the members of the Mission proceeded to had entered into engagements with the English, to do the Hall of Audience, which is about sixty feet in length, all in his power to extirpate piracy. By these means he by thirty in breadth. The central portion of the floor is had entailed on himself the enmity of a numerous body elevated above the rest, and seems at night as a sleeping of native chieftains, who thus saw the channel through place for a small body of men who act as a guard. At which they obtained their principal profits suddenly the further end of this elevation stands the throne, which closed against them. The tragio ' results that ensued resembles a Chinese bed-stead covered with a canopy. last year will prove that the fears entertained by the The foot-stool, about a yard and a quarter wide, is comgentleman to whom we are indebted for this information posed of a large plank of black ebony, which is very were by no means groundless.

plentiful in this part of Kalamantan. Pillars rise from Mr. Brook, the Rajah of Sarawak, having been ap- the sides of the raised platform, which serve to support a pointed Her Majesty's confidential agent in Bruni, had canopy of cotton cloth. The Sultan's house is built on the charge of conducting the negotiations ; he was accom- piles, so that when the tide rises, the water reaches panied by his own gun-boat, the Driver's pinnace and within a foot of the floor, which is so inartistically made, first cutter, all well manned and armed. Early in the that the stream may be seen beneath through openings morning, February 27th, 1845, Mr. Brooke, Captain at least an inch in width. Even in their rooms at the

Bethune, and Mr. Wise, started for the capital, leaving Mission House, whenever the tide rose higher than the Driver at anchor off the south-east end of Muanu usual, the English were in constant dread of being Island, which lies at the mouth of the river. The flooded; and this was also the case in the palace—for the soundings were regular until they approached Pulo Cher place that is dignified by that name is not much better win, where they found the channel very narrow, having in its appointments than the houses of Panguans. It is been partially blocked up to obstruet the advance of an altogether a very poor building, particularly if compared enemy.

with that of the Sultan of Temate; the latter, however, They arrived off Pulo Cherwin about noon, and an- receives a Dutch pension, which enables him to live in chored there. This island is connected to the main by greater style than his neighbours. a reef of rocks. Continuing their route, in the afternoon Having arrived at the Hall of Audience, our countrythey came up with the boat of Panguan Bedrideer and men found the Sultan seated on the throne under the the state barge, bearing the complimentary letter. Join-carved canopy, and surrounded by his principal Rajabs, ing the procession, the English party pulled slowly to- j and also by bodies of armed men. Muda Hasim sat at wards the capital of Bruni. The river was about half a the foot of the throne, whilst his brother Bedrideen, havmile in width ; the banks were in parts very lofty, risinging met the British at the steps, conducted them to the sometimes to the height of two hundred and fifty feet, Sultan, who received them with affected indifference; inand presently sinking again to fifty. The sides of the deed, throughout the whole interview, he appeared to take river were occasionally perpendicular, in other places little notice of the proceedings, either through false notions sloping gently, “and covered either with denso forests, of dignity, or through a natural inaptitude for business. or luxuriant though rank grasg. Very few houses were This lethargic manner may be partly accounted for by his observed as they passed along. A mile and a half below having been shut up nearly all his life with his women the town was a small fort mounted with five guns. At and slaves. The custom of his country prevents him other points there were said to be batteries with large from going out unless in state, and attended by a numerpieces of ordnance. The course of the river for five miles

His look would denote that he had some below the small fort is almost straight; near it, and again Arabian blood in his veins, having more the appearance at the town, the stream takes a sharp turn, The of a Caucasian than a Malay. English observed a fine upas tree growing directly oppo- Muda Hasim opened the silk packet containing the site the first range of houses, and near the footpath complimentary letter and the translation, the latter made leading over the hills to the coal formation on the banks | by Buduicen, and very beautifully copied by Pangeran Ishmael, another brother of the chief minister. The | medans. There was a few years back a rich Parsee merdocument having been read in public, a royal salute chant, who carried on a great trade. It is reported that was immediately fired. Mr. Brook with his party then there are no Arabs in Bruni, although two or three huna withdrew, ench member of the mission shaking hands with dred are called Hajë, from having visited Mecca as Omar Ali Saipudeen and the principal Rajahs. The flags pilgrims. Great respect and deference are always shown and decorations of the Audience Chamber, added to the to these holy men. The few Dyaks who frequent the varied colours of the dresses of State worn by the several town come generally from the neighbouring hills for the Rajahs and persons present, gave an animated appearance purpose of barter, or to bring the small tribute due to the to the scene; and, judging from Mr. Brook's descriptions Sultan. The population may exceed twenty thousand. of other receptions he had met with, every circumstance According to some, there are about three thousand boats of respect attended the delivery of Her Majesty's letter. in use in the town.

ous train.

Some American travellers who visited Bruni a few The first night was passed by our countrymen in some years before had several interviews with the Sultan and degree of uncertainty and distrust, their position being Muda Hasim. The latter appeared a little embarassed by no means very secure. The town was full of chiefs hoswhen he received their first visit, but he endeavoured to tile to Muda Hasim, and, of course, inimical to the Eng. imitate, as far as possible, our European manners, and lish. These Panguans were striving to obtain an influ. was consequently awkward and constrained. He how- ence over their sovereign Omar Ali. There can be no ever made tea for them, and showed his proficiency in | doubt that their principal object in endeavouring to recivilized manners by not presenting them with betel. move Muda Hasim was to break off his negotiations with After sitting with his guests some time, he proposed that the English, as they well knew, that is a good understandthey should visit Omar Ali, and promised to accompany ing was come to with the British Government, all chaneo them. Two boats having been called, they were rowed of continuing their piratieal pursuits would be thrown to the Sultan's residence. Having mounted a ladder, overboard. they found themselves near the door of a dimly-lighted Mr. Brook had obtained a complete influence over hall, on the floor of which a number of men were fast Muda Hasim, Bedrideen, and the principal chiefs of his asleep. Passing this entrance they were shown into a party ; but they themselves acknowledged that their masmall verandah furnished with a bamboo settee, a few jority was very small. The situation of the English was chairs, and a mat. IIaving given them sufficient time to by no means enviable ; for Omar Ali might easily be admire the splendour of the apartinent, the Sultan worked upon to commit any atrocity. Muda Hasim's made his appearance. Being of a very inquisitive dis- enemies, although they were not at present in sufficient position, he fatigued his visiters with questions, and force, contrived afterwards to obtain the consent of the appeared extremely anxious to learn their names and Sultan to his murder, and that of his brother. It was residences, and also what business had brought them into this fearful assassination that led to the late operations of those parts. Having at length been satisfied, he offered Sir Thomas Cochrane. them tea and betel. He detained them so long that it So great was the insecurity, that one of the Mission was nearly daylight before they were conducted to their wrote at the time :-“I hope all will go well ; but our beds, which they found to consist of a common mat and return to the ship I shall hail with great satisfaction ; pillow, with the addition of a rug spread over them. The there we are in security—the anchorage is excellent, the Malays were exceedingly anxious to behold the foreigners scenery very magnificent, and our point d'appui, Palo lie down to rest, and several visited them for the express Labuan, within view. These people (the Bornians) are purpose. Muda Hasim came to see if they were com- not, in my opinion, sufficiently advanced in civilization fortable, and then took his leave.

for Europeans, even in the same character of members of When the British Mission had retired, the assembled a friendly mission from a foreign power, to treat with, multitude quietly withdrew, and two chiefs accompanied except with an imposing force. The quarrels of the chiefs them to the house selected for their residence. The pin- I look upon as no addition to the safety of our position ; nace returned to the ship, and the cutter and gun-boat and, although thirty Englishmen may do wonders if atanchored in the river, abreast of the house in which the tacked, yet the prospect is by no means cheering." Mission resided. It was an edifice built like the rest of They were, however, undisturbed that evening. It this extraordinary city, on piles of wood, with the water rained heavily during the night ; and when they rose in flowing beneath. The number of boats passing up and the morning, everything appeared fresh ; the scenery down the river was very great, and the population of the around was very beautiful, a fine river running between town appeared to be considerable. The inhabitants are moderately-high hills, clothed with verdure and trees, principally Malays, professing the Mahommedan religion; with the country around partially cleared for cultivation. and, as is usual in those countries, whose intellect is The town consisted of about three thousand houses, built gwayed by the prophet, the women are confined at home. on piles ranged along either bank, within a short distance The principal Panguans possess large harems. The Sul- of the shore. The dwellings of the Sultan and the differtan has above one hundred fair tenants in his house, ent chiefs are each distinguished by their respective banwhile Muda Hasim contented himself with eighty. None


which produced a good effect, and assisted to enliven but the wives of the poor are seen about the streets. a very extraordinary scene. The poor people crowded There are but few Chinese, perhaps on the whole not around the English, anxious to barter provisions for thirty; formerly they were much more numerous, but con- empty bottles, bits of iron, and other trifles. It is a retinued oppression, and the insecurity of life and property, markable fact, that whatever these people seek after, have contributed to drive them from their favourite haunt. either to beg or purchase, they always prefer strength to. Some of those that have remained bave become Mahona 'fineness. They are the most importunate beggars for

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