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not, in particular, afford us anything like the amount of one-that of rendering everything subsidiary to religion. personal observation we were entitled to expect from one The whole object and aim of the civil authorities is the who, after having accompanied two of the only three em- advancement of their faith. And since they are clothed bassies to China, had fortified his knowledge of the coun- with despotic power to accomplish this end, we should try by a lengthened residence. By comparing it with suppose they would wield an overpowering influence for the previous works of Du Halde and the Jesuits, Marta- the spiritual benefit of the people.” There is some spirit nus, and Marco Polo, we find it little other than a com- in Mr. Kip's observations, but they sadly overlay one pilation. It is gratifying, therefore, to find Mr. Mont- another with manifest contradictions. gomery Martin addressing himself at once to the most
Christmas in the Olden Time, or the Wassail-Bowl. striking deficiency in British-Chinese statistics and intel
By John Mills, Author of the Old English Gentleligence--the great commercial topics which the subject
man,' &c. &c. With Illustrations by Duncan, Eninvolves. The time may come when the importance of
graved by Dinton. London: Ilurst. our having a hold on China for colonial ptırposes can no longer be overlooked. And, although the first part of
1846—7 has received no better Christmas story-things his publication before us relates only, as yet, to a por-wlrich now happily appear as regularly in December as tion of this department, yct, as involving the topography, turkey and chine, roast beef and plum-pudding--no better population, productions, government, revenue, and bank- Christmas story, if any so geniaj and purely English, as ing system-and the treaties and intercourse with Eng. the “Wassail-Bowl.” It pictures the revival of
a right land, Russia, France, America—description of the consu- merry Christmas” by the Squire—“a fine old English lar ports of Canton, Amoy, Foochoo, Ningpo, and Shang- gentleman”—who assembled his neighbours, tenants, and hai ; also of Hong Kong, Chusan, Macao, and Keachta-dependents, to feast and revel in his ancient baronial hall it brings out a valuable mass of important matter. The
as his forefathers long before the battle of Hastings
had done. author's painstaking character and accuracy are establish
That nothing may be wanting, sufficient ed. His style is clear and unembarassed, if not brilliant. diablerie, or spiritual machinery, is brought into play, And a work under his name cannot fail in taking rank as
while the great moral of steadiness and temperance is an authority on a subject like this. The present part is inculcated by one of the actors, Tom Bright by name, illustrated with a fine map. But we cannot say much for having been in early life subjected to all the fantasies and the typography.
agonies of delirium tremens, and relating his own history
in his reformed old age for the benefit of the amazed Christmas Holidays in Rome. Edited by the Rev. listeners by the Squire's Yule log. In Tom's tale there
Wm. Ingraham Kip, M.A. ; Rev. W. Sewell. London: is a good deal of wild and bold, but, at the same time, illLongmans. 1817.
regulated imagination. It is so much easier to complicate
marvellous incidents of this sort than to unravel them. There is no mistaking the character of this little volume,
The “Wassail-Bowl” is wound up with an animated to which the Rev. Mr. Sewell, “ to make assurance doubly
description of the popular Christmas games of Merry Old sure," has attached his name. Heralded by a poetical motto from the Lyra Apostolica ; with one preface dated and is further enlivened with some joyous carols. Alto
England, in which young and old, rich and poor, engage; from Exeter College, and another dated from Albany on Christmas; and written by a reverend gentleman who gether, there is a heartiness and warmth about this story
* for an English fireside,” which ought and will secure it announces himself as author of “ The Double Witness of the Church,” - The Lenten Fast,” &c., the book is likely volume edition of Mr. Mill's popular " Old English
a cordial welcome. We rejoice to see a very neat oneto be regarded as edifying in Puseyite circles, where the Gentleman"-a fiction as original as it is racy and tendimus in latium will always secure it a welcome. The
national-and the first, as it is likely long to remain the via media is, however, observed throughout with toler
best tale illustrative of English Field Sports in the lanable decency. The writer states that he has "en
guage. deavoured to look at the Church of Rome without prejudice; and while his investigation strengthened the un- The History of Don Quixote de la Mancha. London : favourable view he before had of the practical working of
James Burns. 1847. that system, he still has not withheld his tribute of praise
Slightly curtailed of its fair proportions—and endowed from anything he saw which was truly Catholic.” As with all the external advantages of Mr. Burns's admirable Mr. Kip avowedly had for “his primary object in visit- taste as a publisher-we have here a new edition of the iming Rome"
“to witness the Christmas services,” his mortal work of Cervantes, divested of cumbrous matter, notion of what is Catholic is easy to be defined. And and revised for general reading. The object was, to place yet he quotes irreverently of friars,
in the hands of the mass of our reading population—and “White, black, and grey, with all their trumpery." especially of the youth of England—an edition of Cervantes And talks scornfully of indulgences :
in a convenient yet not too condensed form ; and that ob
ject has been accomplished. " One of the most fatal of their doctrines is that of indulgences. It seems to be expressed so broadly and unequivocally; and there can be but one way of under- Reflections on the Career of the late Premier. Blackstanding it. Over the door of almost every church is the
wood, Edinburgh and London. 1847. inscription--- INDULGENTIA PLENARIA QUOTIDIANA PERPETUA Tuis performance is very like painting dead game, and it PRO VIVIS ET DEFUNCTUS."'--p. 274.
is about the most superfluous task an author could proThe admiration of our author for the Papal Government pose to himself. He only makes out, after 122 superbly is boundless and breathless. " The theory on whieh the printed pages, that Sir Robert's course has been anyo Roman Government is founded is," he says, "a noble I thing but open, sincere, and consistent; and we marvel
that he could ever have screwed up his resolution to pendium. The Geography is of great merit as an inithe pitch of undertaking these lucubrations, since it is tiatory work, from the simplicity and effectiveness of its hardly possible he could have expected anybody to differ construction. It is amply illustrated with little skeleton from him on the subject. The author, of course, is maps ; has tables of heights of mountains, lengths of triumphant in carrying his point; all that we have to rivers, and even an index; and will be found a useful say is, that it is one of those points on which every one is first book. agreed. The publishers have done their part. No work
PAMPHLETS AND TRACTS. could be more handsomely got up.
The Doctrine of Jehovah. Addressed to the Parsis. A.
Preached on the occasion of the baptism of EDUCATIONAL AND JUVENILE WORKS.
two youths of this tribe, in May, 1839. By John Simple Arithmetic, as connected with the National Coin
Wilson, D.D. Third edition. Edinburgh : White. age, Weights, and Measures. By Henry Taylor (34 The Drainage Act; an Analysis and Exposition of the edition). London: Groombridge. 1817.
Act 9 and 10 Victoria, cap. 101, with an Appendix. À SUFFICIENT attestation of the merits of that part of
By William Stuart Walker, Esq., Advocate. Blackthis work which relates to the current coinage of the
woods, London and Edinburgh. 1847. realm, is the fact of its having originally found a place in
Mr. Walker is favourably known for his analysis of the Banker's Magazine. Its object is to establish a
public acts. His pamphlet on the recent Poor Law is of decimally-arranged scheme of calculation for money, acknowledged usefulness. The present analysis, amidst weights, and measures.
the rush of applicants for drainage loans, cannot be much 1. Elements of Geometry, symbolically arranged (2d less so. Digested into proper chapters, according to the edition). London : John Murray.
nature of the provisions; and accompanied by an Ap2. The First Principles of Algebra. London : John pendix containing the Act itself, with all its necessary Murray.
official forms and documents; as well as an ample Index ; 3. Progressive Geography for Children (4th edition). we can securely recommend Mr. Walker's Exposition. London : John Murray.
Remarks on the Consequences of the Entire Change Tag two first of these little school books are published of our Colonial Policy in British North America. by command of the Lords of the Admiralty, for the use Blackwoods, Edinburgh and London. 1847. of the Boys of Greenwich Hospital. The Geometry, by The faint struggle which the Canadas made in resismeans of its abbreviations and symbolical signs, forms a tance of Free Trade has, now that it has passed irrevohighly condensed epitome, equal to Euclid's Elements, cably, changed, and most naturally, into a demand for consisting of eighty-six propositions, advancing as near free trade in its fullest extent—not the shadow without as Euclid towards the unsoluble problem of the Quadra- the reality.
This is but just. And the author has ture of the Circle. It is followed up by a short set of shown, by a careful consideration of all the restrictions exercises. The Algebra, besides all the simpler rules, still left affecting the Canadas, that their position under fractions, involution, and evolution, presents the several the new measures is an unfair one, so long as the Navitheories of the equations, arithmetical and geometrical gation Laws are unrepealed, and their intercourse reprogression, and the operations on Surds ; and is, with stricted almost exclusively to Britain, instead of being the few exercises appended, an excellent School Com-extended, as it ought, to all the markets of the world.
The topics of public interest during the month have The discussion the Montpensier marriage has been famine, fever, railways, the factory bill, the budget, generated a miserable squabble between M. Guizot the French quarrel, and the Mexican war.
and the Marquis of Normanby; in which M. Guizot, General Taylor, who was, till recently, Appropriator- although Premier of France, does not seem to have in-Chief for the United States in the expedition against acted “like a diplomatist.” We, of course, do not Mexico, sent a letter to a friend, who transmitted it to a mean that either of the contending parties should newspaper, and thus it came out that the General could have followed the example of a late Irish Attornot do what he was required to accomplish, from the want ney-General; thrown down his brief, trampled his wig, of money and of men. The letter discloses several State cast away his gown, bought powder and a pistol, and secrets, and may serve to enlighten the Americans re- sought the aid of “a friend ;" but M. Guizot has conspecting the cost of a fighting character.” They have fessed a shabby transaction, and that is not diplomanow passed a resolution of thanks, and voted medals for tic. The sting of his crime rests in the confession. M Monterey; and, before going farther, they should call in Guizot might have cheated his rival ; and few of his orthe bills and square the accounts. General Taylor says der would have censured his conduct. Diplomatists live that they cannot afford to capture the city of Mexico. Ile to cheat each other; and a Prime Minister of France bas neither men por money -- nothing to fit him for the could not be blamed for pursuing bis vocation ; but it task but the will; and no man could be more willing to was worse than a crime it was a blunder to confess. reb his neighbour for the purpose of his party than the The French Court are irritated now with the Marquis of unworthy successor of Washington in the command of the Normanby, because they believe that he favours the opCnited States forces.
position. They even wish for a treaty of peace with the
British Court, if a clause be inserted for the removal of have employed Commissioners—to have paid money—and, Normanby. The clause will not be inserted, and the in January last, to have held Cabinet Councils for the treaty will not, therefore, be signed; but a war between promotion of this bad system ; for the whole project must the courts, fortunately, does not break the peace between have been viciously bad ; because the details could bare the nations.
been altered in Committee. So far as we comprehend The Budget shows the usual fortune of the Whigs. the scheme, it includedWith a surplus of nearly three millions on the year's 1. Power to lend not more than £10,000,000 to railtransactions, they are obliged to borrow largely to meet way companies in Ireland duriøg the next four years. the calls from Ireland. A sum of two millions has been 2. On condition that these companies paid one-third of already paid for Irish relief; and the estimate until har- the cost of their works from other sources, as the sharivest is eight millions more. This is the great fact of the holders' guarantee for the Government's two-thirds. Budget-an increase of the national debt by eight 3. And that the line was approved by a Government millions, and the repeal of no taxes. Mr. Hume was commission. anxious to free copper ore from a small impost yielding 4. That the Government claim should be considered as £40,000 yearly ; but even that sum could not be spored; a first mortgage, preferable to all other debts. and, as in the estimates for next year, the ends scarcely 5. That the advance should bear interest at threc and meet, there is little hope in the future for the tea asso- a-half per cent.
II ciations-for the anti-malt tax societies—for the repeal of So we concluded that our share of the public money the window tax—the reduction of the duty on wood-tho to be involved in Irishi railways would be safe, if the abolition of the paper duty-or the commutation of the tax returns paid even two and a half per cent. We knew, of on newspapers ; while the income tax is a perpotuity course, that large sums of money had to be paid for Mr. Muntz, the member for Birmingham, the boldest Ireland, and we thought it more reasonable that the peoman in the House, proposed to meet the difficulty with ple should be employed in doing something-making a ** cash down." He insisted that every year should stand railway even—than in carrying stones from one plot on a on its own merits, and that we should pay now instead hill, for the profitless exercise of removing them back of hereafter for our benevolence. The rule would be again. useful. It would have been well for us if our immediate The most virtuous indignation was, however, expressed ancestors had only obtained the benefit of Mr. Muntz's against the plan, as being a horrid system of spoliation, advice, and followed it. If the last war had been paid The member for South Lancashire called it a seheme to tar for in cash, its expenses would have been reduced by one the industrious people of England for the benefit of Irish half or three-fourths.
landowners ; forgetting, evidently, that the industrious The second reading of the ten hours' bill was carried people have been taxed ere now, in the same way, for the by a large majority. The bill may be amended to eleven benefit of Liverpool merchants. Even the Member for hours by the Government, but with that exception it will Renfrewshire insisted that the landlords of Ireland should be passed. It appears that 1 in 13 of all the Manchester be compelled to perform their duty before relief was sought mills are standing ; that one-third of the nuinber are for the people of that country; although reliof had someworking short time; that 1 in 15 of the operatives are times been sought for Paisley, while yet the landlords of idle ; and one-third of the remainder are on short time. Renfrewshire had only done their duty “indifferently The operation of the ten hours' bill would equalise this well.” state of matters, and would take no more froin the aggre- Finally, 332 members voted against the second reading, gate working hours, or the collective wages, than the thus depriving the country of the amusement to be derecent speculations in cotton and the stagnation in busi- rived from a Bentinck Ministry, destroying the iniquitous ness have taken already.
bill, and convincing most people, out of the House, at Lord George Bentinck's railway resolutions produced the same time, that the success of a motion depends more the great debate of the month, and, we suppose, of the upon the mover than the measure. session. A ministerial crisis was produced. Meetings We understand that some changes are to be made on of the Irish Members were held at the Premier's. The the Government plans, and that a part of this hated bill Cabinet threatened to resign; and the country party in- may be ingrafted on them. timated their willingness to take office. Many hard Notwithstanding the noble efforts made by private inwords were exchanged; and the thinking part of the world dividuals and public benevolence-a benevolence measured were amused to find the Whigs, who have been manufactu- by millions, a million monthly, an advance that few coniring great railway schemes for Ireland, during the last ten munities could meet-famine and fever are thinning the years, so crotchetty on the subject at last. During the de- i hovels, and crowding the grave-yards of Ireland. Even bate, the minor Whig speakers denounced the scheme as in the north and west of Scotland, where, for the summer, visionary and utopian. The Chancellor of the Exchequer more than two hundred thousand persons must be sufeven declared that one-fourth of the money required for ported by private benevolence, there is reason to fear that constructing railways, and only one-fourth, would be paid disease has, in many instances, sprung from absolute for labour! After reading the speeches, we were tempted want; while, in Ireland, nothing yet told equals, we fear, to ask what could have induced the Whigs in past years to the horrors that may be revealed before harvest time.
PRINTED BY GEORGE TROUP, 20, DUNLOP STREET, GLASGOW.
A TALE ILLUSTRATIVE OF THE DOMESTIC MANNERS OF GERMAN SWITZERLAND,
alore made any
It was the last day in June, when, with many pounds a year, my father was a rich man. Yet, tears, and an infinite deal of pleasure, I bade adieu excepting the extraordinary effort he had made to my schoolfellows at a German boarding-school, in sending me, to please my mother, to a German where I had passed two years in learning, under academy, he rigidly maintained the customs of a sort of military discipline, every variety of ac- his ancestors, like the rest of his fellow-citizens; complishment, ' from the making of artificial which, I had learned enough from my schoolfelflowers and paste-board boxes, to philosophy, lows to know, were very different from the habits ballet-dancing, and metaphysics, with good Ger- of great towns in other countries. man and tolerable French. In the two last I had My brother Albert, a handsome youth of seconsiderable
progress, when I was venteen, came to meet me as far as Strasbourg; recalled to my home at Z-, one of the prin- and I shall never forget my joy, when, at the end cipal towns of German Switzerland; for my father of my journey, I sprang from the Diligence, and thought he had already spent too much money on was clasped in my mother's arms. My father had my education, and my mother was impatient to left his office an hour sooner than usual, to acclasp me again in her arms. For my part I soon company her and my little sister Cleopha to reforgot my schoolfellows in the joyful hope of meet-ceive.me in the great yard of the post-house, and ing her, and my favourite brother Albert, and my his broad happy face was bright with ‘smiles as little sister Cleoplia on the morrow.
he kissed me in his turn; and even our maid Rosa, Of my father I had no very distinct idea, for, who was there to carry my baggage, shook me according to the usual habits of most of his fel-like an old friend by the hand. low-citizens, he was all day, except at dinner, in I thought our white-washed house had never his ofice, and all the evening in a coffee-house, or looked so bright and gay, as when, surrounded by a club. I knew that he did not belong to one of my family, all laughing and talking together, we the five or six rich families who consider them- approached it, and entered its old paved passage. selves the chiefs of our little world, and, priding The walls of the staircase were only white-washed, themselves on a certain indefinable kind of nobi- but though it was common to three families, the liry, devote their principal energies to maintain walnut tree steps and huge linen closets on the their money undiminished, which they have landing-places were all bright with hard rubbing. mostly gained by trade, and their blood, without Nor did the extraordinary cleanliness of our the contamination of inferior alliances. But still dwelling-house on the third story strike me less he was a town-counsellor, and one of the most forcibly. My German school had been clean and respectable and wealthy citizens of Z- His orderly, but my father's house was the perfection father had been burgomaster, or chief magistrate, of neatness, and tears filled my mother's eyes and he had inherited a property of not less than when I admired it—for all the niceties of the five thousand pounds, with a handsome old house household resulted from the labour of her own in a principal street, near the outskirts of the hands. She, and a charwoman, and her servant, town, with a pretty garden, court-yard, and run- had all been busily employed for more than a ning fountain. It contained two flats, or apart- week in putting things in order for my reception. ments, besides that occupied by his family, which “ Now I have got you to help me in my
housewere together let for sixty pounds a year, so that, hold affairs, dearest,” she said; “ I need no longer with the profits of his business as a silk merchant, get up at five o'clock in the morning.” (a trade in which even the five or six noble fami- I looked at my mother anxiously. Pale, delilies are engaged), and his place of town-counsellor, cate, and prematurely old, she seemed little equal which brought him somewhat less than twenty to labour of any kind, and yet her small hand
# Late Miss Burdon, authoress of “the Forresters," “ the Ward of the Crown," &c. &c. VOL. XIV.-30. CLX.
was spoilt by toil. Her sweet unpretending man- The following day was my father's name-day, ner, though it could not be called graceful, was which it was the custom to celebrate as a fête, by as decidedly that of a gentlewoman as any one I giving what is called a family party, to which had seen since my absence. I remembered she none but relations are invited. As eating and was gifted with an extraordinary talent for music, drinking are the principal amusements on such which, as no singing societies existed in her time, occasions, we were all very busy during the day had never been cultivated; and, even as a child, I in making the necessary culinary preparations. had' venerated her for the calm good nature with My little sister was sent into the town on different which she had ruled our rebellious humours. I commissions, which greatly delighted her, because kissed her, and told her “ it was pleasant to me the pastry-cook gave her a tart, and the grocer a to think the time was at last come when I could handful of raisins. It was my task to go in search of be useful, I hoped, to her in many ways."
the most important articles, and especially of cerAs I looked around me, it seemed not a day tain little cakes resembling wafers, called huppli, had passed since my departure. All things re- which are an indispensable part of a desert. They mained the same. Our household consisted only are sold for ten a halfpenny: and a good woman of one maid, and a lad, who, when not employed who made them was in the habit of coming once in the office, kept the garden in order. Rosa was a fortnight to fill the little tin box in which my a native of Aargan, and wore the white linen mother kept them on her stove to preserve their sleeves, black boddice, and two long tresses of crispness; but for some reason she had delayed plaited hair down her back, which are the cos- her visit, and at the last moment I was sent in tume of her canton. Whilst I was a child, neither quest of her. The great difficulty in Swiss housemy brother nor I had ever known the imprison- keeping is to know where things can be purchased. ment of a nursery, nor the tyranny of a nursery. If you want a piece of roast pig you must clamber maid; and I found my little sister was allowed up a dozen flights of dark stairs, where your nose to run alone to and fro to the town day-school, is regaled by a combination of refreshing odours, and to play on the street during holidays with her till, after knocking at half a dozen wrong doors, companions, or to do little errands for her mother, you arrive at a bed-room, heated to suffocation by just as I and all my playfellows had done half a an enormous stove, where an old woman in a dozen years before. Her hands and arms had night-cap will undertake to furnish you not only lost their beauty for want of gloves, but nobody with the pig in question, but with every variety cared for that, for she was the best knitter and of wild swine, and tame swine, of venison, game, reader of her class, and the merriest little creature and poultry, hot and cold, with sauces, or without; living
and in spite of the stairs, and the smells, and the The walnut tree chairs and tables wore as stove, and the night-cap, when the old woman's bright a polish as formerly - the stuff-covered productions arrive on your table they would tempt sofa, and the small square carpet, spread under the appetite of the most fastidious epicure, the table before it, were still as good as new-the Though I saw shoals of fish in our lake basking geraniums and cactus were in blow, as in former happily in the sunshine, I began to imagine that years, in the window--my father's spitting-box not a single fish out of water was to be found stood in its accustomed corner-and the huge old throughout the whole town, when I discovered by: blue and white stove, which had warmed our fore- accident that an ample supply was to be procured, fathers, still occupied nearly a quarter of the not at a fishmonger's, for that with us is an unroom. My father's mother, an old lady in a clean known trade, but in a shipmaster's cellar. Mushlace cap, cotton gown, and silk apron, who arose rooms I purchased at a milliner's ; whilst, in anoto welcome me, held the same eternal stocking ther shop, I found pens and candles, oil colours, in her hand which she had been knitting ever and Parmisan cheese on the same shelves; and since I remembered her. It was her custom to though the grocer would have supplied me to my sit all day in a little projecting window, command heart's content with tea and Bologna sausages, ing a view up and down the streot-nor did she ho could not furnish me with an ounce either of leave it till my mother told us that supper was barley or rice. Almonds and raisins he condeready in the dining-room. She then led the way scends to sell, but dates and figs he leaves to the through the adjoining bed-rooms, which were apothecary, who likewise keeps a plentiful supply those of the family; though the curtainless beds, of pot herbs, which are not to be discovered in covered down flat, with white coverlids, trimmed any other corner of the town. The varieties of with lace and embroidery, had no appearance of bread are without end, and every individual baker ever being occupied, and no other evidence ap- excels in some particular kind. One has a repupeared of the chambers being used as dormitories. tation for short bread, another for long; one makes In fact, I well knew that in my mother's esta- tea cakes, another twist; the conductor of a Diliblishment the affairs of the toilet were conducted gence sells the best white bread in the town, and with the utmost simplicity, and that all the bed the depôt for country brown loaves is in a tailor's rooms were open as passage rooms to all the fa- front parlour. My last task was to purchase the mily from an early hour of the day.
huppli. I naturally concluded they were to be Wo spent a merry evening; though our supper found in a shop. But in vain I walked up and only consisted of soup and a fried omelette—and down the steep old narrow street to which I had we were all in bed and asleep before half-past ten been directed—no visible traces either of the old o'clock,
woman or her huppli were to be found. In des