Puslapio vaizdai


large portion of the imperial business, they would | us; but then he quoted from Porter and
be most conveniently located in that country, we
should like to see his wish gratified. And we
have no doubt that, if the Irish people were rich,
they would consume a greater quantity of taxable
articles; but the way to make them richer is to
give the farmer security for the fruit of his toil
and improvements; to dissipate the idle dream,
that capital employed in manufactures and com-
merce is insecure in that country; to render it-
as it may be easily rendered- -a more copiously
producing land; to put its fields in heart, and
its farms in order; to drain its bogs, and deepen
its rivers; to make its leading highways of iron:
to work in Ireland as everwhere else, is the way

loch, neither of whom was acqainted with the
subject. Sir R. Kane's work on the "Industrial
Resources of Ireland," like his instructions "how
to preserve potatoes" in 1845, is from beginning
to end a mass of ill-digested crudities. He
quoted, as we have said, from M'Culloch, who, in
the edition of his Commercial Dictionary for
1846, page 789, says—

to riches.

7. Mr. O'Connell, in this paragraph, winds up his case; and we shall not express any opinion farther than is already contained in our notes, how far the case is made good; but

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The only real and effectual legislative encouragement the manufacture has ever met with, has been the reduction of the duties on flax and hemp, and the relinquishing of the absurd attempts to force their growth at home." This was written at a time when the Ulster Flax Society were making the most anxious efforts to extend the growth of flax when they had raised its average quantity and value at least twenty! five per cent.—when the English manufacturers were regularly sending purchasers to that mari ket-when the Belfast manufacturers had almost

the value of that grown in Ulster alone averaged from £1,500,000 to £2,000,000 annually. Mr. M'Culloch is, notwithstanding, a great commercial authority.

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8. With the state of Belfast we are minute-entirely ceased to import foreign flax and when ly acquainted; and our statement was not that Belfast was prosperous in comparison with other places in Ireland, but that it was absolutely soor, at least, prosperous as compared with large towns in any other part of the world. Only two or three towns in Scotland or England have in-linen creased with equal rapidity since the date of the Union. Mr. Porter, in his "Progress of the Nation," page 176, says

"For reasons already given, this method of showing the extension of other branches of the woollen manufacture is not equally available; but, when it is seen, that since the beginning of the century the population of the principal towns in Yorkshire has been far more than doubled, this fact must be taken as a strong corroboration

of the opinion already expressed, as to the general prosperity of the manufacture.

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Dundee, we are told, manufactures as much as all Ireland-and for manufactures we should read exports, because Dundee buys more than it makes. It is very probable that a single nail manufacturer in Dudley uses up more iron than half-a-dozen pen-knife makers in Sheffield": but it does not follow that he does an equal or a greater business. The circumstances are similar in this case-Dundee makes a heavy, and Belfast a fine article. A yard rd of the one may be four, five, and sometimes ten times the price of the other. We presume that cambric handkerchiefs cost ten times the price of cotton bagging by the yard, and yet contain less than a tenth part of the material. The exports of linen from Ireland were:




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34,563,868 yds.› ei 43,482,565 yds. 111 ......................55,113,265 yds...

Since then there have been no regular accounts kept; but the trade has increased in, at least, equal proportions, as we shall immediately, see and in that ratio the exports of 1845 would be 85,000,000 yards.

Mr. O'Connell quotes some statements regarding a decrease in the direct foreign exports, and, undoubtedly, the only direct trade that to France has fallen; but every person conversant with the business knows that the exports are

Tried by the same rule, the prosperity of Belfast has been much greater than any of these towns. It is principally built on the estate of the Marquis of Donegall; and it was remarked at the death of the late Marquis-two years since that the population had been multiplied by ten from his birth to his death a large increase in the life of one man, who died without attaining to remarkable longevity. From 1834 to 1846, the population of the town and suburbs is said to have been doubled; and nobody suspects any increase of that kind respecting towns that are not absolutely prosperous. 9. We are pained to find Mr. O'Connell toss-made chiefly through Liverpool. ing Mr. Muggeridge's blue book of the handloom With regard to the number of flax mills, we, Commission at our head so unmercifully. We in Scotland, should not have to tell Mr. O'Concertainly thought that Muggeridge's report was nell, or Sir R. Kane, that they afford no criterion never more to be resuscitated. An almanac of of the business transacted, because until recently, 1800 would have been higher authority. Mr. perhaps even yet, a great quantity of yarns was Kirk is a very well informed and very cautious imported from England; while for many fabrics gentleman, and Mr. Moncrieff had evidently mis- the yarn was hand-spun, and for some of the taken the character of the Commissioners, who, finest is even yet hand-spun. However, we find we believe, were sane men; while Mr. Sproule that the increase of flax mills in the three counmerely committed the common error of mistaking tries, from 1835 to 1839, was 45, of which 17 Tyrone his own county, for Ulster. Sir R. Kane were in England, 13 in Scotland, and 15 in Ireis, perhaps, the heaviest authority brought against | land. The number stopped in the same period

was 23, of which 12 were in England, 7 in Scot-porary, but terrible sufferings. Could Ireland land, and 4 in Ireland. The real increase, therefore, was 5 in England, 6 in Scotland, and 11 in Ireland. The increase of operatives employed

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have gone to the market to borrow eight millions in that confidence with which Sir Charles Wood talks of the sum? Could it have been obtained on Irish account alone at 3 per cent.? We fear not.

11. We are anxious to see local affairs under local management; while general business can be most fitly transacted by a central body.

12. We have hopes that the mournful anticipations of our correspondent will not be fulfilled. Parliament, we trust, will rob him of his reasons for pressing this question. For our own part, we have merely given space for the statement of these reasons: and that we consider to have been just, both to those who seek, and those who resist this great change.


Travels in the Interior of Brazil, principally through the Northern Provinces, and the Gold and Diamond Districts, during the years 1836-1841. By GEORGE GARDNER, F.L.S., Superintendent of the Royal Botanic Gardens of Ceylon. Octavo, pp. 562. London: Reeve, Brothers.

THIS narrative of Travels is introduced with singular modesty. The author disclaims having given any better account of the wide Empire of Brazil than many previous trayellers, but states that he has described portions of it that either remain unvisited or undescribed. The main object of his wanderings through "antres vast and deserts idle" was natural science, and especially botany, for which, during his medical studies, he had imbibed what may be termed a passion. The glowing descriptions which Humboldt had given of the magnificent scenery and rich Flora of the tropical regions he had traversed, determined the choice of Mr. Gardner; which was farther confirmed by the advice of Sir William T. Hooker. He was finally sent out under distinguished patronage, a missionary of science; and, with no little personal hardship, and some danger, he contrived to penetrate into little-visited, if not wholly unknown parts of the interior, besides those places on the coast which have often been described by European travellers. The narrative of his varied adventures, in those far-spread desultory wanderings, forms not only to the enthusiast botanist, but to the general reader, an exceedingly entertaining, and also instructive, book, from the new view which it gives of the society of Brazilparticularly in its less-known provinces. It is, however, from a middle region-neither well known nor very remote that we glean our first specimen of Mr. Gardner's unpretending and agreeable narrative. The scene is on the Rio San Francisco:-

"The North Americans, particularly those of the back settlements, are celebrated for their inquisitiveness; but this seems to be a very general failing with all those who are shut out from frequent intercourse with strangers: a curious instance of this feeling occurred a few days after I returned to Penêdo. I had brought letters from Maccio to a gentleman who lived here with a married brother; they were among the most respectable people in the place. Although not yet eleven o'clock, I found the lady, a remarkably fine and good-looking woman, with her husband, busily engaged at cards, she lying in a hammock, while

he was seated on a chair beside her; she had recently been smoking, an almost universal accomplishment among the and the floor beneath bore strong indications of excessive ladies in the interior-as a long pipe was lying near her, expectoration. I was desired to be seated, and was immediately inundated with a flood of questions from the good lady, who possessed a great volubility of tongue. Among a host of others, I may enumerate the following: What countryman are you? What is your name? How old are you? Are you a medical man? Are you married? Are your father and mother alive? Have you any sisters? What are their names? Have all your countrymen blue eyes? Have you churches and priests in your country? Do oranges and bananas grow there? &c. &c. If, however, she was inquisitive about my concerns, she herself. Thus she informed me that she was married when was not much less disposed te tell me all that related to she was nineteen years of age, that she was now five years married, and in that time had presented her husband with yearly gifts-all of whom were alive, with the exception Her husband, she said, was thirty-six years of age, and she desired me to feel his pulse, as he was always complaining of bad health. I soon discovered his complaint to be indigestion-one of the most frequent ills that Brazilians are subject to; arising, no doubt, from the enormous quantities which they eat, and that genethe late heavy suppers which they indulge in. I had then rally not of the most digestive materials, as well as from to feel her pulse in turn, and she seemed quite pleased when I told her it was an excellent one. I afterwards became very intimate with them, and spent many agreeable hours in their society."

of one.

It is not a new discovery, that industry and science are more powerful to ward off scarcity, or actual famine, than a rich soil and favourable climate. At Peba, in this fine province, Mr. Gardner found the inhabitants in as low a condition as are at present all the Irish and Scottish Highlanders, and from causes not very dissimilar. Their chief food is fish and mandiocca, and the partial failure of both necessaries had thrown them into a state of starvation. Their modes of fishing do not seem anything in advance of those of the natives of New Holland.—Wherever Mr. Gardner went he found abundance of patients, and a very remarkable degree of ignorance and bigotry among the priests. At Ico, a considerable town in the interior province of Ceara, one of his frequent visiters was a priest, who was very inquisitive regarding all that related to England, and who asked the stranger if he was baptized. On being told that the stranger had been bap

tized in the Protestant faith, the priest said, “Ah, then, you are a pagan." The pagan was, however, expected to cure all manner of diseases.

The last fifty or sixty years, or the events which they have witnessed, have produced, in all quarters of the world, a greater number of remarkable men than many previous generations. One of these is the Barão de Parnahiba, who, having risen from the lowest class of the people, now rules the province of Pianhy, in which he resides, with absolute sway; though, like so many others, it sends deputies to the National Chambers at Rio. The Barão possesses talents for government; and, though the enactment of some good laws has made him unpopular with the higher orders, his infringement of the principles of political economy, in a way which Lord George Bentinck might quote with approbation, has made him a favourite with those who like to get their beef or farinha at a law-prescribed rate. But, though compelling his neighbours to sell cheaply, he contrives to send his own cattle to a distant and better market. The history of this uneducated man is not a little curious. We quote only its commencement:


"To those who are interested in the history of Brazil, a slight sketch of the life of so extraordinary a man as the Barão de Parnahiba may not be uninteresting, as his name is intimately connected with the establishment of the Independence of the Northern provinces. IIis father was a native of the Azores, and was very poor when he arrived in Brazil, but he soon married a lady possessed of a small property. Of the family resulting from this union, the subject of this notice was the eldest, being born in the year 1776. His only education consisted in being able to read and write, and in acquiring a slight knowledge of arithmetic. His first occupation was that of a cowherd (vaqueiro) to his father, who died when he was only twenty years age, leaving him a Fazenda worth about 1500 cruzados, (£200 sterling); during his childhood, he was brought up by a god-mother, who at her death left him another Fazenda of nearly equal value. After his father's death, not content with the occupation of vaqueiro, he began to purchase cattle, with the view of taking them to Bahia for sale, to which place he continued to go every year, till about twenty-five years ago; although from that period, up to the present, he has never failed to send annually a drove of cattle to the same market. Shortly after his father's death, he was enlisted, as was then the custom, into the cavalry militia: here he was soon advanced to the post of corporal, which he held for a long time; he was next elevated to the rank of ensign, and about the same time was appointed treasurer of the national rents. Occupied in this manner, he continued till the period of the declaration of Independence, when his name had acquired but little weight in the province, being better known for his cunning disposition and uncouth manners, than for any more emibent qualities. It was his custom to bestow gifts and attentions, and be very obsequious to all persons high in authority, such as governors, judges, &c., providing always men, horses, and provisions, to bring them up from In this manner he ingratiated himself into their favour, and after their arrival was always their most obedient servant; and without regard to their line of politics, was ever a staunch supporter of their measures: he made it his endeavour, on all occasions, to gain the good opinion of the religious part of the community, by showing himself to be a great friend to all that belonged to the church, on which account he was anxious to be appointed director of its festivals, on which he did not hesitate to spend considerable sums. In this manner he obtained the good-will and friendship of the priesthood."

the coast.

By playing his part adroitly in the endless subsequent revolutions, the Barão, by adhering to the cause of the Emperor, promoted his own views of interest and ambition. Profiting by every turn of affairs, he gradually rose

in station and influence, till created a noble on the coronation of the Emperor, and invested with the government of his province.

Our traveller found the Barão, or Governor, exceeding friendly and hospitable, during his long residence in a place which only one Englishman had visited previously. The life and habits of this chief are quite those of the head of a Highland clan some centuries since. "He dines," says Mr. Gardner, "quite in the old baronial fashion-his table, which is very long, extending from one end to the other of a large room. He sits in a chair at the head of it, and his guests are seated on long forms at each side, the lowest place being often filled by his commonest shepherds.

Those who select entertaining reading for young persons-which, at the same time, gives, or insinuates, useful information-will find much admirable material in this volume. Nowhere are more diverting tame monkeys, or such enormous boa-constrictors, to be heard of. One of the latter, a few days before Mr. Gardner reached a halting-place, had actually swallowed a horse,(!) and, of course, paid with its life the penalty of its voracity. One of the most attractive sections of the volume is an account of an expedition to the Diamond District, and the manner of working the mines and diamond washing, which is no longer a government monopoly-every man who chooses trying his own luck, and finding the usual reward of the great majority of those whose trade is gambling. The history of one is nearly that of all. Not one in a hundred thousand adventurers obtains the great prize.— Mankind have had abundant lessons of the superiority of honest, patient industry, to the precarious chance of lucky hits; and the miners of Brazil afford another warning to small and great speculators.

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I was assured," says the traveller

"I was assured, by one of the most extensive miners in the district, that the excitement produced by this kind oflife is like that of a gambler-whoever enters upon it never renounces it. The district which gives rise to this curious source of industry is comprised within the space of fourteen leagues square, and it is beneath the mark to state, that 10,000 individuals subsist entirely upon the product of diamonds and gold extracted from its soil. It is not, however, so much the miners, as the shopkeepers, who reap the greatest share of profit from this source of industry, all of whom trade more or less in diamonds and gold-dust; which they take from the miners in exchange, for the supply of their own wants, and those of their slaves. It is rare to meet with a miner who is not in debt to some shopkeeper, to whom he is bound to give in payment the product of his washings, at a lower rate than he could obtain, if he had the advantage of offering them in an open market to the highest bidder. The life of a shopkeeper, though not so exciting as that of a miner, is one, however, less subject to risk; he generally soon grows rich, while the poor miner struggles on in poverty, his greatest source of happiness existing in hopes that are seldom realised.

Slaves are allowed to work, on their own account, on Sundays and holidays, not on the serviços of their masters, but anywhere else, except on the royal preserves; and it is was told to me as a remarkable fact, that most of the largest diamonds found in this district have been found by slaves on these occasions. It is not, however, an unfair inference to conclude, that as the blacks are most expert thieves, some of those stones at least have been stolen. Better opportunities now exist for more readily disposing of diamonds thus obtained, than when the working was entirely in the hands of the Government. In those days they were mostly disposed of clandestinely to contraband dealers, many of whom used to hide themselves in the mountains by day, and at night visit the

haunts of the slaves to purchase the stolen property; even the shopkeepers were deeply in these illicit transactions. The Juiz de Paz, who was during the period of my visit, one of the richest merchants in the city, owes his fortune to the following circumstance. At the time Brazil still remained under the dominion of Portugal, he was proprietor of a small shop, and occasionally made a journey to Rio de Janeiro to purchase goods. One evening, returning from one of these long journeys, having retired to rest earlier than usual, he heard some one knocking at his door, to which he at first paid no attention, concluding it only to be some customer, but, as the noise continued, he at last arose, when he saw a slave who had come to offer a large diamond for sale that weighed about two pennyweights and a third. The price asked for it was six hundred mil-reis, at that time equal to about £180 sterling; but not having so much money in his possession at the moment, he was obliged to borrow some for the occasion. Early next morning, he set off on his return to Rio de Janeiro with his purchase, stating to his friends that he had forgotten some important business which could only be settled by his presence. On reaching the capital, he found it necessary to use great caution in endeavouring to dispose of his prize, as all trade in diamonds was at that time contraband, any one found dealing in them being condemned to ten years' transportation to Angola, on the coast of Africa, his property being at the same time confiscated, and sold for the benefit of Government. At last he was prevailed to dispose of it for 20,000 mil-reis, about £6,000, which amount was paid to him in hard dollars. Never having seen so large a sum of money, he was perfectly astonished at its amount when it was brought to him, and, after regarding it for some time, he asked, with great simplicity, if it all belonged to him. Shortly afterwards, the individual who bought the diamond sold it for 40,000 mil-reis, and when the Juiz learned its great value, and found that he might have sold it for at least a third more than he received, his mortification, it is said, was so great as to affect his mind."

This man recovered from his chagrin, and is again active as ever in his old trade.

In the course of his perambulations Mr. Gardner twice visited the Organ Mountains-a view of which curious chain forms an appropriate frontispiece to his work. was a zealous collector, and has been much more fortunate


"In Brazil, as in all other countries, there is more crime in large towns than in the agricultural districts. This arises from the greater facilities which exist in the former for obtaining ardent spirits; yet, among the black population, intoxication is not often observed, even dense as it is in Rio de Janeiro.

"On most of the plantations the slaves are well attended to, and appear to be very happy. Indeed, it is a characteristic of the negro, resulting no doubt from his careless disposition, that he very soon gets reconciled to his condition. I have conversed with slaves in all parts of the country, and have met with but very few who expressed any regret at having been taken from their own country, or a desire to return to it. On some of the large estates at which I have resided for short periods, the number of slaves often amounted to three or four hundred, and, but for my previous knowledge of their being such, I could never have found out, from my own observations, that they were slaves. I saw a set of contented and well-conditioned labourers turning out from their little huts, often surrounded by a small garden, and proceeding to their respective daily occupations, from which they returned in the evening, but not broken and bent down with the severity of their tasks. The condition of the domestic slave is, perhaps, even better than that of the others; his labour is but light, and he is certainly better fed and clothed."

Mr. Gardner, however, throws doubt over his statements when he speaks of the general dread subsisting of revolt among the black population, and talks of the "ascertained mental inferiority" of the negroes. It is from the numerous and free mixed race, who unite "the superior intellect of the white with the inferiority and cunning of the black," that he anticipates the greatest future mischief. From the "savage rapacity'' of this race, the whites, whom it hates, are doomed to suffer. unqualified assumptions are liable to grave doubts.

Tales of Female Heroism. London: James Burns.


ONE of Mr. Burns's attractively got up books, professing to illustrate the fortitude and devotion of which

women are capable, rather in a feminine and domestic

than most men of science, as he has not only secured, but aspect than a brilliant one." Notwithstanding the entransmitted, his vast treasures in safety to England.

As the institution of slavery in Brazil has lately been complicated with our commercial relations with that empire, we are glad to find an intelligent Englishman bearing the following testimony to the comparatively comfortable condition of the slaves :

thusiasm that might be enkindled at the theme, the book is rather a dull one. The stories of Lady Grisell Baillie, Winnifred Countess of Nithsdale, and Flora Macdonald, are somewhat threadbare in themselves, and, in this in

stance, by no means improved in the telling. Lady Grissel, for instance, is served up from an unpublished volume by Lady Murray of Stanhope, written about the middle of the last century; the tale has been twenty times

since then with twice the spirit. From this commemoration of the heroic daughter and preserver of a persecuted Whig (Sir Patrick Home of Polwarth)—and from a memoir of Madame Larochejacquelein besides, we might perhaps have anticipated that this little volume was free from the usual faults of Mr. Burns's series. Our delusion was dissipated, when we encountered the following sentences in the memoir of Lady Banks, who defended Corfe Castle against Oliver Cromwell.

Previous to my arrival in Brazil, I had been led to believe, from the reports that have been published in Eng-told land, that the condition of the slave in that country was the most wretched that could be conceived; and the accounts which I heard, when I landed-from individual whom I now find to have been little informed on the point-tended to confirm that belief. A few years' residence in the country, during which I saw more than has fallen to the lot of most Europeans, has led me to alter very materially those early impressions. I am no advocate for the continuance of slavery; on the contrary, I should rejoice to see it swept from off the face of the earth -but I will never listen to those who represent the Brazilian slaveholder to be a cruel monster. My experience "The historian of the siege records that they made among them has been very great, and but very few acts shirts of the surplice, broke up the organ, and used the of cruelty have come under my own observation. The pipes as cases for powder and shot; while the lead of the very temperament of the Brazilian is adverse to its gene-roof was rolled into shot, and fired against the castle, ral occurrence. They are of a slow and indolent habit, which causes much to be overlooked in a slave, that by a people of a more active and ardent disposition would be severely punished. Europeans, who have this latter peciliarity more strongly inherent in them, are known to be not only the hardiest taskmasters, but the most severe pinishers of the faults of their slaves.

"All this profanation, however, did them no service. The shot took little effect on the walls of the castle, and made no impression on Lady Banks, who was as determined as ever to hold out."

These statements are evidently taken for an awful sacrilege on the part of Oliver, and something like miraculous


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In Scotland, where we do not consecrate stone and lime, we have perhaps a different vocabulary of "profanation." But, after all, what was there worse in rolling up the consecrated lead, and converting it into consecrated shot, on the part of Cromwell, than in the exhibition of a consecrated banner on the battlements of Corfe Castle by Lady Banks? The tameness of the composition of these tales annoys us, but the marks of haste and carelessness they betray are insufferable. For instance, what an agglomeration of relative pronouns have we here:-" He bestowed a paternal embrace on his child. Before this final separation, he caused it to be Then baptised under the name of Henrietta Anne. having relieved Exeter, and made some provision for the support of the young princess, he left it under the care of her governess, Lady Morton,"

Longman & Company.

The Doctor. Volume VI. THIS volume of Southey's detached thoughts and tabletalk, for so may the "Doctor" be described, comes before the public with many claims to affectionate and grateful attention. It contains the last utterances, almost the dying words of one who, for nearly a half century, had largely contributed to the common stock of literature, much of what tends to make mankind wiser, happier, and better; and must be prized as a relic, had it no other claim to consideration. The MS., with several more, was bequeathed, or in the distribution of Southey's property, fell to the share of his eldest daughter, whom he used to call his " right hand." This MS. is sufficient to furnish a seventh volume, which is shortly to appear; and both volumes, as nearly as possible, in the way and order which the author designed.

The Doctor's personal and domestic history makes small advancement in Vol. VI., though he tells his children his opinions on balls and music, and sundry disputed questions of social morals. But the contents in general consist of the same kind of miscellaneous matter as what were called the "Interchapters" of the previous five volumes; the results of Southey's antiquarian and recondite reading; the after-fruits gleaned from the many tons of ancient and black letter tomes which on his death, and the sale of the more saleable part of his library were, we have been inThe volume thus formed, sent to the London market. offers desirable extracts in all modes and styles, the humourous, the quaint, the quibbling and crotchety, the grave and serious, the light and trivial. Wandering from theme to theme,

At its own sweet will

it forms, as a whole, very charming and edifying snatchreading. To prove that Southey was wholly not oneided in his latter politics, we give one brief extract, which forms the close of a discourse on the word breeches, and the Anti-Jacobin Review:—

"Mr. Stephens having in his Memoirs of Horne Tooke used the word Small-clothes, is thus reprehended for it by the indignant Censor :

we have seen this bastard term, the offspring of gross ideas and disgusting affectation in print in anything like a book. It is scandalous to see men of education thus employing the most vulgar language, and corrupting their native tongue by the introduction of illegitimate words. But this is the age of affectation.-Even our fish-women and milk-maids affect to blush at the only word which can express this part of a man's dress, and lisp small-clothes with as many airs as a would-be woman of fashion is accustomed to display. That this folly is indebted for its birth to grossness of imagination in those who evince it, will not adinit of a doubt. From the same source arises the ridiculous and too frequent use of a French word for a part of female dress; as if the mere change of language could operate a change either in the thing expressed, or in the idea annexed to the expression! Surely, surely English women, who are justly celebrated for good sense and decorous manners, should rise superior to such pitiful; such paltry, such low-minded affectation.

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"I ought to be grateful to the Anti-Jacobin Review. For I might It assists in teaching me my duty to my neighbour, and enabling me to live in charity with all men. perhaps think that nothing could be so wrong-headed as Leigh Hunt, so wrong-hearted as Cobbett, so foolish as tho one, so blackguard as the other, so impudently conceited as both-if it were not for the Anti-Jacobin.' I might believe that nothing could be so bad as the coarse, bloody, and brutal spirit of the vulgar Jacobin'-if it were not for the 'Anti-Jacobin.'

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Blessings on the man for his love of pure English. It is to be expected that he will make great progress in it, through his familiarity with fish-women and milkmaids; for it implies no common degree of familiarity with those interesting classes to talk to them about breeches, and discover that they prefer to call them smallclothes.

"But wherefore did he not instruct us by which monosyllable he would express the female garment, which which he hath left unnamed, for there are two by which is, indeed, the sister to a shirt,' as an old poet says; and it is denominated. Such a discussion would be worthy both of his good sense, and his decorous style."'.

China: Political, Commercial, and Social. By R.
Part I. London: Madden.
Montgomery Martin.



We have here from the pen of, perhaps, our ablest colonial statist, the promise of a very able work, in an admirably digested form, on the subject of China. Martin went out, several years ago, to the colony of Hong Kong, in the capacity of Colonial Treasurer; and, latterly convinced of the error this country had committed in planting her footsteps upon that barren rock, when the fruitful island of Chusan might have been found at her disposal, he patriotically sacrificed his official position and prospects in order to proceed home and urge his views upon the Government. It would have been singular if a writer, who had added so voluminously to our information on colonial subjects, could have returned from a field of such importance to our commerce, under circumstances so peculiarly calculated to quicken his powers and habits of observation, without being prepared to add Gutzlaff and the largely to our knowledge of China. missionaries, in supplying the fruits of personal adventure, have certainly contributed new views of manners, customs, and general affairs, in China; but, really, there are few other works we possess which contain much beyond the relations in books of embassy and travel, one or two centuries old; and they are chiefly valuable in confirming many points we had long set down amongst the tales and tricks of travellers.

“His breeches, he calls small-clothes-the first time John T. Davies, the British Resident

The volumes of Sir

at Hong Kong, do

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