Puslapio vaizdai

sunrise by Bishop Hall, its brilliancy of colour will be inquired that rhyming lady, am I to find a place to bait perceived.

if I try the journey to that planet ?' 'Madam,' replied " Taylor, like Claude, seems to have felt that, by taking the discoverer, of all the people in the world I least Nature as he found it, he seldom produced beauty. Rey- expected that question from you, who have built so many nolds describes the pictures of that painter as composi- castles in the air, that you may lie every night in one of tions of the various draughts which he had previously your own.' Wilkins appeals to our sympathy upon stronger made from scattered scenes and prospects of unusual grounds than his science or wit would furnish. Related loveliness. The preacher resembled the artist, and as to Cromwell by a marriage with his sister, he employed the most magnificent landscapes have been given to us by his influence on behalf of persecuted piety and learning, historical painters—Titian, Caracci, N. Poussin-So we and the preservation of the Universities has been attriare indebted for some of the brightest landscapes in words buted to his energetic remonstrance." to the grave instructors in theology and virtue."

In 1658, Taylor was invited by Lord Conway, the anSeveral of Jeremy Taylor's most popular works were

cestor of the present Marquis of Hertford, to accept a composed in this retirement, where his memory is still lectureship in Lisburn. The situation was precarious, maintained amongst the peasantry, and his name associ- and the remuneration very small. An effort had been ated with a walk which he is supposed to have fre made by Archbishop Usher to unite the Presbyterian with quented.

the Episcopalian Church, With this view that Primate "His Great Exemplar,' belonging to the same period of admitted the ministers of both churches indiscriminately his intellectual life, bears similar marks of the fruitful

to benefices without the renunciation of their peculiar soil from which it sprung. Weary to adopt his own image Fith rowing up and down the seas of questions, he tenets. This project of union was most useful to the steered his course into the serener waters and stiller air Presbyterians in the north, where their numbers were of holier and more delightful studies. He turns aside greatest ; but it was particularly distasteful to Jeremy from controversy to that part of theology which is wholly Taylor, who, notwithstanding the deceptive policy adopted practical ; that which makes us wiser, because it makes u better. In the Great Exemplar," as in all his in the production of his work on the liberty of propheworks, he seeks to attract and please his readers. Ear- sying, was an adherent of the Laudian school, and almost Dest to advance, by all means, the necessity, and to ex- as a necessary consequence a persecutor. Respecting plain the duties of a holy life, he endeavours to allure the origin of his Irish connexion we learn from Mr Willsome by mingling what is profitable with what is agreeable

, and others, by such parts as will better entertain mott's volume :their spirits than a romance. In the hope and desire of • The proposed provision, arising chiefly from an albeing useful, he abstained from embossing the argument ternate lectureship in Lisburn, a small town seventy-three with

his usual profusion of figures and tracery. Perhaps miles from Dublin, in the county of Antrim, offered no his pencil never manifested so sweet and retiring a chas. remarkable temptation. Nor was Taylor gratified by the tity of colour as in this delineation of Christian life. prospect. Lisburn, now one of the handsomest towns in Rubens, for a season, is lost in Raffaelle.”

the province of Ulster, was, in the time of James I., a very We stated that there are, interspersed in the volume, under the care of Lord Conway.

inconsiderable village, and had only begun to improve many references to the contemporaries of Taylor, « • I like not,' was Taylor's characteristic reply, the was very seldom in London after the commencement of condition of being a lecturer under the disposal of another, the Parliamentary war. He complains, indeed, that

nor to serve in any semicircle where a Presbyterian and

myself shall be, like Castor and Pollux, one up and the "tes angusto domi" prevented him from visiting his other down. Sir,'the stipend is so inconsiderable, it will not friend Evelyn so often as he would have desired. In pay the charge and trouble of removing myself and family. other words, the travelling expenses were above his It is wholly arbitrary: for the triers may overthrow it ; means ; and until his elevation to the see of Dromore, die, or grow weary or poor, or be absent. This was

or the vicar may overthrow it ; or the subscribers may Evelyn allowed him a pension from his private purse. written on the 12th May (1658); and in the following His biographer, however, mentions that he was occasion-month he is believed to have quitted London for Ireland. ally in London ; and the following note of a distinguished His reason for accepting an appointment which he had so dinner party occurs in the volume :

recently and decisively declined, may, perhaps, be found

in some expected purchase of forfeited lands which Dr “Upon the 12th April, 1656, he dined with Evelyn in Petty promised to obtain for him. Other inducements company with Berkeley, Boyle, and Wilkins. Of Boyle were not wanting. He was assured by Lord Conway of the faintest praise is conveyed in Evelyn's designation. many intimate kindnesses.' He took with him the * A great virtuso,' indeed, he was, but he was learned warmest recommendations from persons of the most disonly to be good. His piety was not in theory, but in tinguished rank in England ; and that his introduction practice; and his life expanded itself into a commentary might fall in no particular of dignity, he was protected by upon his lessons. In the hands of such a man, the arts a pass, under the sign manual and privy signet of Cromof human ingenuity became ennobled : and as Burke well. The tradition of his decendants assigns to him a said of Reynolds, that in painting portraits he appeared residence near Lord Conway's mansion at Portmore, Dot to be raised upon that platform, but to descend to it which Rust informs us that he dearly loved. Heber from a higher sphere : so we may affirm of Boyle, that thinks it probable that he only visited Lisburn-about he came upon the stage of literature with a bloom over nine miles distant--to fulfil his weekly engagement, and his garments that breathed of a remoter and purer that he often preached to a small congregation of loyalclimate.

ists in the half ruined church of Kilulta.'" “Wilkins was a person of singular ingenuity, and deserves to be remembered as one of the earliest English

Thus Lord Conway prevailed. The Hertford family scholars who endeavoured to make science popular and appear to have an hereditary attachment to clerical practical. His fancy, however, outran his judgment. friendships, without always deriving any corresponding His theory of a passage to the moon provoked the smile purity of character and life from the association. The of his contemporaries, and subsequently caught the eye of Pope.

“ mansion at Portmore”—a locality described by Taylor • The head that turns at super-lunar things,

as being “ exceedingly beautiful,” and to which he formed Poised on a tail, may steer on Wilkins' wings.' an attachment, not lessened by his remembrance of Gol“His retort tothe Duchess of Newcastle would alone have den Grove,-now is not; and for very many years the authorised a claim to conversational eminence. Where,' Hertfords have been absentoes, drawing ciglty thousand


pounds annually from a district that the late owner, we neither forget nor forgive the grave and stern master-spirit believe, never visited ; through an agent, who is also the of the age, whose life was a grander poem than England had incumbent of Lisburn. . While in this situation Taylor read before ; who rose from the people to rule the desagain fell into trouble with the Government, though it tinies of his country for years ; who increased her fame, appears that Cromwell had no objections to the appoint- and influence, and possessions in the earth, without enment, since the lecturer travelled to Ireland with a pass, riching or ennobling his family. "The Church of Iresigned by the Protector. Mr Willmott thus refers to the land," writes this author, "was immediately restored.” circumstance :

“The church of Ireland, thus restored to her former Acting upon the accusation of the Presbyterianglendour and harmony of episcopal government, had need

of all the patience and light, that piety and learning could impelled, it is believed, by jealousy—the Irish Privy impart. Her enemies were chiefly divided into two classCouncil issued a warrant to the Governor of Carrickfer

es-Romanists and Dissenters. The first, in their lives gus, commanding him immediately to 'cause the body of Înr. Jeremy Taylor to be sent up to Dublin under safe irregular, in their religion superstitious; the second, turcustody,' in order that he might answer all charges on

bulent and presumptuous, Calvinistic in doctrine, and behalf of the commonwealth. The warrant is dated Au

more than latudinarian in discipline. The dissenters were

Congust 11, 1659, and Carrickfergus is only a few miles from formity to the Book of Common Prayer, became the con

peculiarly obnoxious to ecclesiastical interference. Lisburn; it seems, therefore, difficult to explain the long dition of retaining a benefice. This law the bishops were interval that elapsed before it was enforced. Taylor

bound to enforce. But the Primate set an example of writes to Evelyn, Feb. 10, 1659–60: I had been in the moderation, and the presbyterian incumbents were perworst of our winter weather sent for to Dublin, by our late Anabaptist commissioners, and found the evil of it mitted, and even exhorted to receive episcopal orders." 80 great, that in my going I began to be ill; but in my There is nothing more annoying in examining these return had my ill redoubled.' His health was soon re- topics than the cool complacency with which we find hisestablished, and the absence of any farther entry in the Journals of the Council seems to intimate that he ob- torical facts written down and distorted. The diocese of tained an easy acquittal.

Dromore had then been united to that of Down and ConOn the 3d of the previous November he acknow-nor, for the first time, we believe, in the person of Jeremy ledged the pecuniary assistance which Evelyn had left for Taylor, who had evidently no strong objection to pluralihim in the hands of Mr. Martin, the bookseller in St. Paul's Churchyard-not, as it appears, without some

ties. He was, indeed, at every stage and period of his personal inconvenience, by reason of the evil circum- Ecclesiastical life a pluralist-when that was possible. stances of the times.'

And Mr. Willmott writes of restoring the former splenThere is not any ground given for the statement that dour of the Irish church, as if such incumbencies were Taylor was accused by the Presbyterians, who had their consistent with its ancient usages. Without entering full share of suffering: arising out of their unwise at- upon the very interesting inquiry respecting the position tachment to that exiled family, in which the future of the old, or primitive Irish church, we may at once Bishop was so closely related ; and it even does not ap- assert, that it neither was nor could have been Episcopear that any greater inconvenience than a journey to palian in the sense in which we now understand the term, Dublin was incurred from the accusation. In June of or in which we see that form of Government practised ; 1860, Charles II was on the throne ; and Jeremy Taylor for there is evidence, of undisputed authenticity, that five dedicated to his royal brother-in-law the “Duotor Dubi- centuries previous to Jeremy Taylor's installation into tantium”-awork which that monarch's grandfather, with the Sees of Down and Connor, and Dromore, there were, all his pedantry and foibles, would have more readily es- in Ireland, three to four hundred (Bishops,-a number teemed. Charles, however, in return, issued his pre- equal, at least, to as many thousands, at the present day, sentation to the See of Down and Connor. Mr. Willmott in proportion to the population ; and implying, of necesendeavours to trace some points of resemblance between sity, that the dioceses could not have been halves, and Milton and Taylor. There is certainly one, viz.—that they thirds, or quarters of two or three counties eaeh, but conlived and wrote in the same age. Mr. Willmott says

tracted parishes.

" The latitudinarianisin of discipline” The comparison may be aptly extended te their lives: ascribed to Dissenters, is also a false term; for in the their paths were equally chequered. If Milton escaped essential points of church discipline, they were proversome of the harsher afflictions of Taylor-if penury and bially strict ; while they could not be styled “ latitudidanger did not haunt his pleasant garden-house in Aldersgate Street, a sadder visitation was sent to chasten and try narian” towards a mode of government which they openly him. And while the philosopher could walk in his neigh- disavowed and resisted, as, in their opinion, unscriptural. bour's pleasant fields

The greatest practical blot in Jeremy Taylor's character

is slightly passed over, in the following short extract, by Purples the East

Mr. Willmott:or gaze on the sun setting behind the trees of Grongar Hill-the poet was encompassed by darkness and solitude, disorder. It was in this part of Ireland more than in

“The diocese of Taylor embraced all these clements of and lifted his eyes in vain to the returning

any other, that the clearance of the episcopalian clergy Day, or the sweet approach of even or morn: Or light of vernal bloom or summer's rose.-

had been most effectual, and that their places had been

supplied by the sturdiest champions of the covenant, taken The work of Taylor appeared in the triumph ; that for the most part from the west of Scotland—disciples of of Milton, in the overthrow of his party. The temper Cameron, Renwick, and Peden--and professing in the of the age was alike unfavourable to both-Sprat was wildest and most gloomy senso, the austere principles of to become the model of our prose, and Waller, the critic their party.' of our poetry: Where could Taylor or Milton look for immediate sympathy and applause? It was Bacon read casily found. The appointment of Taylor was received

“In an atmosphere, so charged with fire, a conductor is ing his essays on the Boulevards, or Raffælle exhibiting with a storm of indignation and invective from almost the Transfiguration in Alsatia."

every pulpit. His efforts to mitigate and allay it were How strange it is that this school of writers can so easily unwearied and constant. Carte mentions them in the Life overlook the republicanism of Milton, while they will of Oromond. In public, and in private, by preaching

When morn

and conversation, he endeavoured to convince his oppo- | Taylor's writings, yet there are advantages to be obtained nents. Nor was he entirely unsuccessful. Many minis- from the examination of his character and life, blurred ters gradually yielded to his arguments and exhortations, though it is by deceptive practices, a slight love of the while among the laity his labours brought forth more adundant fruit. In cases where gentleness and entreaty world, and a persecuting spirit; for he was the ornament failed, the arm of authority was the only remedy. Of those in every way of that party, who, headed by Laud, lost a presbyterians who defied his jurisdiction, and refused to crown, and caused a bloody revolution, but whose policy attend his visitation, ejection from

their livings was the and principles so many in the Church of England are just and unavoidable punishment; while the admission of more peaceful successors promoted the tranquillity and or- again labouring to restore. der of the diocese. When the church of Ireland was It detracts nothing from this Bishop's crime, that he called to bewail the death of Bramhall, Taylor drew a subsequently preached a sermon before the Irish Parliaa lively picture of the difficulties and toil of weeding her ment in favour of toleration, for his actions appear never fields, overgrown and out of cultivation."

We say nothing of the propriety of these parties hav- to have squared with his opinions. He died before the ing accepted the appointment to those livings in the un

revolution was completed. conditional manner previously mentioned ; but "ejection

Recurring to our first extract from this volume, we from their livings" was surely not “ the just and una

cannot avoid the remark that the opinions which Usher voidable punishment” of refusing obedience to a jurisdic- , may have wished to smother by kindness, and Taylor to tion that they never acknowledged ; of refusing to obey a extinguish by persecution, flourished more under the condition that they never accepted, and that it was known enmity of the Bishop than the favour of the Archbishopwhen they received these appointments, to those who

"The lights were extinguished in the windows, but conferred them, that they never would accept. Jeremy the work was busily carried on within the house.' Taylor was himself ejected from the benefice of Uppingham, in Rutlandshire, for resistance to the civil authority And so now the English Church does not contain within then existing at least de facto in England-a disobedience her pale nearly one-half even of the Protestants of for which many lost their lands, and many more their Ireland, notwithstanding the notoriously and designedly lives. It does not, indeed, appear that his antipathy to deceptive returns made to Parliament so late as 1834. the Republican Government was of such a character as The policy pursued towards that Church in Ireland preprevented him from taking a good bargain from it when vented it from ever taking root there. The majority of offered; for he went to Ireland, as we have heard from its dignitaries have been transmitted from England, and his biographer, in the hope and purpose of buying for its emoluments regarded as the reward of political infeited land at a cheap rate. But these men whom trigue and subserviency. Percy, the collector of ancient Jeremy Taylor ejected from their parishes were obe- English poetry, occupied subsequently the Soe of Drodient to the civil authority, and bad been even too zeal more ; and both Sees, now permanently united, are held ous in seeking and working its re-establishment ; and by an English bishop : a somewhat dry author, who, it must be remembered that mere ejection was not without inheriting a spark of Taylor's imaginative powers always the only “punishment which they experienced. and eloquence, is heir to all those principles which tarHowever much it may reduce the practical value of nished an otherwise noile name.

THE BALTIC PROVINCES. Is these days of Evangelical Alliance, and Christian as I To the rest of Europe, Livonia had remained almost a well as bumane professions of brotherhood, it seems but terra incognita, until 1150, when some adventurous natural to turn an eye of watchful sympathy upon those Bremen merchants, attempting to establish some new who are trebly our brethren—as men, as Saxons, and as mercantile connexion with the North, were shipwrecked Protestants—the German-descended inhabitants of the on its coasts. Livonia was, thenceforward, visited more Baltic Provinces now subject to Russia; and who, in open frequently by Bremen ships; and, at length, some merdespite of all laws, human and Divine, solemn treaties cantile adventurers established themselves in the country. and chartered rights, are, at this moment, subjected to as In 1186, an Augustine monk, named Meinhard, accommuch persecution as dare be inflicted in the centre of panied by a handful of Germans, settled in Livonia. He Europe and of the nineteenth century. It may assist in converted some of the inhabitants to Christianity, and forming a due estimate of their position, to cast a retro- became the first bishop. But for his third successor, spective glance on their wayward and eventful history.- Bishop Albrecht, who entered the Dwina with a frosh Those countries now commonly called the Baltic Provinces host of crusaders, was reserved the honour of laying -siz., Livonia, Esthonia, Courland, and Semigallia - a sure foundation of spiritual rule. He built the city were, at a very early date, under the Russian sway; but, of Riga, in 1200, and removed thither the seat of still, only as tributary states, each possessing its own con- his bishopric. Towards the end of the same century, stitution and government. Nor did the Russians even so Knud, or Kanute, sixth King of Denmark, made himfar regard them as their own, as to feel bound to ward self master of these provinces; which were, however, off the attacks of foreign invaders. Thus it came to pass made over by his successor, Woldemar, for a sum of that, during the long period of Russia's internal dissen- money, to the Teutonic Order; which uniting with the sions, those seaward tributaries found opportunity entirely Brethren of the Sword (an order of spiritual knighthood to throw off the yoke; nor were they again brought fully instituted by Bishop Albrecht, in 1201), the Teutonic under subjection, until Peter the Great succeeded in re- Knights found themselves at once in possession of Livo. asserting and enforcing his claims upon them in 1721.- | nia, Courland, Senigallia, and Esthonia, and maintained

the same until 1561, when the diminished power of the command, prohibition, or addition, be oppressed or disOrder disabling it from coping successfully with Czar quieted in the exercise of the same" and, secondly, article John Waselewitch II., whose ambition prompted him to 7th of the Act of Confirmation, dated 16th December, recover provinces once owning Muscovite rule, the un- 1566, which declares—"The province of Livonia, with cqual conflict ended in a complete disruption of the State. all its inhabitants without exception, shall be left in the Esthonia threw itself into the arms of Sweden; Livonia free and unhindered exercise of the true and recognised became united with Poland; while Courland and Semi- religion and doctrine of the Word of God, and in the use gallia fermed an Independent Duchy, under the Suzerainty of the sacraments, in conformity to the rules of the Conof Poland, and by it was bestowed, as a fief, on Gatthard fession of Augsburg; nor shall any preacher be warranted, Kettler, the last Grand-Master of the Teutonic Order.- or permitted, to introduce, or prescribe, any change or From that period, Livonia became the unhappy apple of innovation thereof, within the bounds of the said prodiscord for whose possession Sweden, Russia, and Poland vince.” Yet what is the manner in which this solemn contended for almost a century-viz., from 1561 to 1660, compact has been held by the Emperor Nicholas ? So far --in which year, at the peace of Oliva, Poland surrender- from no preacher being permitted to introduce religious ing it up to Sweden, it became united with Esthonia; innovations, the whole of the Baltic provinces have been, until, at length, by the peace of Nystädt, in 1721, Peter of late years, overrun by swarms of emissaries of the the Great, as already mentioned, obtained the restitution Greek Church, both priestly and laical, and, for a time, of both countries,—guaranteeing, however, the main-threats, as well as bribes, were unsparingly employed to tenance of all existing privileges and rights belonging to the aid the work of conversion. Since, however, the affair German landed proprietors, who being, without exception, of the nuns of Minsk (whether true or false), has brought noble, were free from suffering, though unhappily not the Emperor's proselytising spirit prominently before the from inflicting, those tyrannies on their serfs, to which eyes of Europe, a change of policy has been adopted in more than one author in modern times (see, particularly, respect of his Baltic possessions, and the current of proMerkel, in his book entitled, “die Letten," and Petri, selytism runs more darkly, though, it is believed, not less in his work, “die Esthen”) has called the world's atten- strongly, than before. In May last, for example, a detion. The kind-hearted Emperor Alexander did much to creo of the Riga Government announced, as from Imameliorate these, and, had he been spared, would probably porial authority, “ It is specially commanded that all perhave wholly removed them; but the Emperor Nicholas is sons, desirous of going over from the Lutheran to the fonder of tightening than relaxing the reins, and more set Greek communion, shall be expressly informed by the upon proselytising than improving his Lutheran subjects. local authorities, and that in the presence of their former The German inhabitants of these provinces, though the clergy, that they have no temporal advantage whatever to smaller, form the only influential portion, as including the expect by a change of religion, and that they shall remain estated gentry, the clergy, and most of the inhabitants of in their previous nexus to their territorial superiors, as the towns. The first, who all belong to the class of no- aforetime, which, being sanctioned by the laws of the embility, are the descendants of those bold and warlike ad- pire, can never be abrogated.” But, notwithstanding venturers who, in early times, obtained, and retained, by these fair-sounding words, the country is subjected as much the strong hand of power, large tracts of land, subjecting as ever to the machinations of a set of fanatical emissaries, the natives to their iron vassalage indeed, but, at the same who, if unauthorised, are at least winked at, by the Rustime, bestowing upon them the inestimable blessings of sian authorities, and thus foster, unhindered, their decivilization and Christianity. In Livonia and Esthonia, structive influence with the short-sighted and credulous the nobles exercised a kind of oligarchical government, peasantry, to whom they whisper, in palpable contradicwhich, though much curtailed in modern times, retains tion of the above ordnance. “Do you keep yourself quiet, still too much of chartered privilege and immunity to be and trust to our assurances ! It is true no immediate willingly relinquished by themselves, or justly abrogated benefit dare be conferred on you, because yonr lords would by an Imperial Ukase. This is especially the case say, you were bribed; but, if you go over to the orthodox with their religious privileges. The right of appoint- church of your Emperor, you may depend upon it, you ing their clergy was, and is, vested in the lords of shall, in due time, have your reward, which will consist, the soil; and, though serfship is now abolished in not only in your being set free from all your present dutyLivonia (and much ameliorated in Esthonia), still the work, and other tributes to your masters, but in the peasant and his lord have many intimately reciprocating making over to you of the proprietorship of those portions relationships, which render the latter the natural, as he of land which you now occupy at their will and pleasure ; has hitherto been the undisputed, adviser and guide of his and even should it be difficult to bring all this about under illiterate dependents, in both religious and political matters. Nicholas, you may depend upon obtaining it at the accesThe claim to immunity from ecclesiastical interference, by sion of the next Emperor.” “But how," say the people, the Livonian nobles, is founded on two documents, viz.- "are we to know that our change will ever be made the first clause of the Act of Subjection, to Sigismund known to the Emperor ?" "Oh!" reply the deceivers, Augustus, King of Poland, drawn up by the representa- “ inscribe your names in the Greek Church books, and tives of the nation, on the 28th November, 1561, which all is secure ; sooner or later you will be as independent runs thus:-"First; and chief of all, we implore your as your lords. Besides, there are vast tracts of country, Majesty, to leave to us, unmolested and inviolable, the much richer and more productive than Livonia, which the religion which we, in accordance with the evangelic and Emperor has determined to colonize only with Greek apostolic writings of the pure church, the decrees of the Christians; whoever, therefore, desires to become rich, Nicene Council and the Augsburg Confession, have hitherto has now the opportunity. See here," continue these maintained; and that we may in no time coming, by any Wily spiritual recruiting sergeants, see, here, the product of those lands, that you may judge for yourselves.” | writer was consequently called to strict account, and And, hereupon, they open a show-box, furnished with a found deserving of being punished by deposition from his strong magnifying glass, and a picture, representing a present post, and transference to Siberia, there to pursue single potatoe (smoking on a dish), large enough to satisfy his official calling in a country the farthest of all removed the hunger of a whole family seated around it; or two from European culture, and amongst a people who have stout fellows thrashing at one head of such Brobdignag scarcely passed the lowest step of human intelligence ! wheat, that it seems to furnish a bushel of grain! Igno- The small and unimportant Greek school for priests rance and credulity swallow the bait the more greedily, in which existed in Riga has been elevated into a seminary, consequence of the total failure of the potato, and the in which, in future, the young Greek priests destined for extreme paucity of return from the grain harvest of the Livonia are to be educated. The expense of building past year, so that the experience of present famine natu- Greek churches, as well as the necessary school and rally enhances the delights of prospective abundance ; and priest houses, is imposed upon the landed proprietors, who the peasantry are forsaking, in crowds, the faith of their are thus reduced to the mortifying necessity of promoting forefathers, and going over to the Greek Church! In with their own money that religion which they contemn former times, it was but permitted to the Greek as false, and detest as a badge of their servitude! Conpriests to wander from place to place, with ambu- scious of inability to resist by force, yet unable calmly to latory chapels, for the purpose of administering the bear the galling yoke, from which they cannot even temrites of their religion to the few members of their porarily withdraw themselves by residing in foreign councommunion scattered here and there throughout these tries (permission to travel being obtained always with provinces. Now Greek churches are springing up by much expense and trouble, and never for a long period), Government order in every district. Orders have the Livonian nobles determined some time ago to offer been given to build sixty in Esthonia alone, and even the their estates in a body to the Emperor for purchase, for Lutheran clergy have been recently subjected to espio- which purpose a deputation proceeded to St. Petersburg, nage and encroachment on their liberty of preaching, to a with sanguine hopes that the Emperor would gladly grasp degree before unknown. The sudden removal, last sum- at the opportunity of obtaining, as lord of the soil, free mer, by an imperial order, of pastor J** (one of the most and unhindered power to proselytise en masse. But they worthy and most highly esteemed of the Riga Lutheran were mistaken; Nicholas declined the offer, probably unclergy) from his pastorate in that city to one in Siberia, willing to furnish all Europe with so convincing a proof excited universal surprise and sympathy. He had been of the felt desagrèmens of Russian sway, and the Livonian twenty-five years preacher in Riga, and was editor for many nobles, by their certainly unpatriotic and ungenerous inpast years of a well-known journal called “The Letten tended abandonment of their poorer brethren in the faith, Friend,” which truly made good its claim to the title by have but drawn on themselves the suspicion of disaffecits invariable tendency to promote the religious and men- tion and a more strict surveillance from the authorities. tal culture of the lower classes of the people, and was How all may terminate is known only to Him who so engerly read and circulated to the extent of many hundred often brings good out of evil, but private letters depict copies. In addition to essays and intelligence calculated the country as in a state of much ferment, the nobles to inform and instruct, it also occasionally contained arti- generally unwilling to forego agrarian privileges and claims cles of a lighter and amusing character, and had recently, on the peasantry, the relinquishment of which might posbefore the astounding catastrophe of its editor's real, sibly even yet check the torrent of proselytism, by counthough not ostensible banishment, contained an attrac- tervailing the supposititious advantages it holds forth, and tively written novel, founded for the most part on actual the few liberal-minded nobles are unable to effect any historical oocurrences of the sixteenth century, during radical improvement: Lutherans by principle mourn for that period of religious disturbance which the Roman the defection, and tremble for its consequences, and the hierarchy stirred up amongst the Greek population of the best friends of those valuable and once happy provinces then kingdom of Poland, and in which the neighbouring are looking forward with grief and dismay to those "comLetti were considerably involved. In this novel the ing events," which, as it seems to them, already " cast Greek clergy fancied they could diseover marked allusions their shadows before." to the present religious movements in Livonia. The


The opposition offered to the election of Mr. , services. One of the members for Dorsetshire, in Bright for Manchester is discreditable to one por- some of the tirades of the next session against the tion of his rival's supporters. The Conservative manufacturing interests, might adduce the pollélectors are justified in employing those means books in evidence of the cool cruelty with which most likely to advance their ends. They would the spinners of the North could dismiss an old gain a great victory in the return of the Earl of and faithful servant. The return of the Earl of Lincoln for the metropolis of Free Trademthe Lincoln for Manchester would help his party in cradle of the League. They would enhance their many respects; but we cannot so very clearly see triumph by giving politicians a stern proof that, the precise objects to be gained by the Whig secamongst the manufacturing and mercantile classes, tion of his Lordship's friends in South Lancashire. there was no such feeling as political gratitude, They, at least, will not plead the simplicity of and no regard evinced for the most disinterested | being dazzled by the lustre of a coronet, and be

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