Puslapio vaizdai

the student for, if he fully understand what he reads, and have ready facility in using the various appliances, as already taught, he will very naturally, and perhaps unconsciously, increase or diminish the force of his emphasis, as the language justly demands; so that emphasis will inevitably follow just as he appreciates the sense, and will naturally take the form which will express that sense the best.

In books, where there is any change from a uniform type, the words printed in italics, except in the Bible, are ordinarily intended for emphasis: the words in capitals, for a higher, and those in larger capitals, for a still higher emphasis. In manuscript, these degrees of force are marked by lines drawn under the words intended for emphasis-one for italics, two for capitals, and three lines for greater capitals and the same lines may be used to indicate these degrees of emphasis, under words on the printed page.

Cadence. The close of the last example in emphasis illustrates also the cadence. Cadence is a falling of the voice on one or more words in succession; or on one or more syllables of the same word, in some respects like passing down irregular steps, and is generally made at the close of a period or paragraph. The word is of Latin origin, and comes from cadere, to fall; and is apt to be taken in contrast with emphasis, because there can, in fact, be no elevation or turn of the voice amounting to what is called emphasis, without a correspondent depression.

The general fault in making the cadence, is a dull uniformity at the close of successive periods and para

graphs. The following examples will show what a pleasing variety can be thrown into cadence, in a way to gratify the ear, and give life to utterance; and how constant must be the exercise of good taste and judgment in order to make it properly.

I have been young and now I am old; yet have I never seen the righteous forsaken, nor his




It was meet that we should make merry and be glad for this thy brother was dead, and is alìve again ; and was lost and


I could not have slept this night upon my bèd, nor even reposed my head upon my pillow, without giving vent to my steadfast abhorrence of such enormous and prepòs prin



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plès. Blessed, are they that moùrn: for they shall be



Blessed are the pure in heart: for they shall sée




TEACHER. What inflections are called the rising, and what the falling slides; and what marks would you use to show them ?

A. The rising slide carries the voice upward in a straight line, as if up an inclined plane; and the falling slide downward, as if down an inclined plane. The rising is heard in asking a definite question; the falling, in answering it; as, Do you love pláy ? Yès; I dò :or the rising is heard in the first, and the falling, in the last member of a sentence disjunctively connected by or; as, Will you gó, or stày? The rising slide is designated by the acute accent; the falling, by the grave accent.

T. What are circumflexes, and how are they designated ?


B. The rising circumflex is a union of the falling and rising slides on the same syllable, and is shown by the grave and acute accents, joined at the bottom; as on Mike in this ironical passage: If Mike | has affirmed it, who can doubt it ?—the falling circumflex is a union of the rising and falling slides on the same syllable, and is shown by the acute and grave accents, joined at the top; as, on the word all, in this ironical passage: If Mike says so, then âll | must believe it of course.

C. I think, sir, both of the circumflexes are brought out clearly on is and be, in the second line of this couplet from Pope:

Hope springs eternal in the human breast:
Man never is, but always to bê | blest.


T. What inflections are those which are named curves; and how may they be designated ?

D. The rising curve begins with some of the falling, and ends with the rising slide, approaching somewhat to the rising circumflex; as is generally heard in the last of several particulars in the beginning of a sentence; as, Exercíse and témperance | strengthen the constitution. It may be designated by the acute accent turned at the bottom. The falling curve begins with some of the rising and ends with the falling slide; as on the last of three or more particulars, disjunctively connected, approaching to the falling circumflex; as, Neither Jóhn nor James nor Joseph was in fault ;-and it may be designated by the grave accent turned at the top.

T. The next, give an example of the falling slide. E. There is a divinity | that shapes our ends. This is a declarative sentence, forming complete sense, and ends with the falling slide.

F. Through the thick gloom of the présent | I see I the brightness of the future. This is also a declarative sentence, and ends with the falling slide; but, as the sense is suspended on the last word of the first division, I have given it the rising slide.

T. Do sentences always end with the falling slide, falling curve, or circumflex, when the sense is complete ?

G. No, sir, not of necessity: negatives generally have the rising; because they are naturally emphatic; and emphasis in most cases requires a different inflection

from the simple form; or rather, it is, for the most part, a change of the inflection that makes the emphasis; e. g., The quality of mercy is not strained.

H. It is your place to obey | not to command. I. It is nót grief | that bids me moan; it is that I am all alone.



J. You were paid to fight against Alexander, not to rail at hím.

K. He showed a countenance more in sorrow than in ánger.

L. The man who is in daily use of ardent spirits, if he does not become a drunkard, is in danger of losing his health and character. That is, he is in danger of losing his health and character, is he nót?

is many times worse

A. The apprehension of evil than the evil itself: and the ills súffer, he suffers in the very fear

a man fears he shall

B. We should take a prudent care for the future, but so as to enjoy the prèsent. It is no part of wisdom to be miserable to-day, because we may happen to be so I to-morrow.


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of them.

C. A wise man, says Seneca, is provided for occurrences of any kind: the good | he mánages, the bad he vanquishes in prospérity | he betrays no presúmption, in advérsity | he feels no despondency.


D. It is not the height to which men are advánced that makes them giddy; it is the looking down with contempt upon those below them.

E. Which is the greater man, he who simply strikes when the iron is hót, or he who makes the iron hót ' by striking ?

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