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officer in charge on the spot was constantly borne in mind. He was given full authority and responsibility together with complete cooperation and help (material and personnel) from the entire Naval Establishment.

New York Navy Yard ordered to ship by express 10 rescue breathing apparatii for possible use as temporary diving helmets by men coming out of S-4 if communication through torpedo tubes is established. Chief Gunner Tibbals at scene is familiar with use.

Electricians skilled in use of diving telephones being collected and sent to S-4. Department receives many suggestions from all parts of country-all are investigated and given careful consideration. Action is taken on those appearing to have merit. Care is taken not to hinder officer in charge of rescue and salvage operations busily engaged in attempt to save life by flooding him with ill-considered suggestions and criticisms.

Dispatch from officer in charge rescue and salvage operations timed at 8.45 a. m., December 20, states that message from Mrs. Fitch to Lieutenant Fitch in torpedo room of S-4 was sent to and acknowledged by S-4 at 6.20, December 20, and that wind remains strong and sea still too rough to get into position to dive. Dispatch from officer in charge of rescue and salvage operations timed at 8.50, December 20, states:

"(a) That latest communication with S-4 was at 6.20, December 20, when message from Mrs. Fitch was sent and received after attempting for seven hours. "(b) That wind and sea still too high to get Falcon in position or to dive.

"(c) That are prepared to get air to torpedo room through S. C. tube when weather permits resumption of diving."

Merritt & Chapman derrick arrives Provincetown at 10.30, December 20, but unable to start work on account of northwest gale, which is still blowing. Additional divers continue to report for duty in connection with S-4 rescue and salvage operations.

A dispatch from officer in charge of rescue and salvage operations timed 1855. (6.55 p. m.), December 20, states:

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(a) Weather bad all day and continues bad. Nothing accomplished all day. Heard seven taps, probably from S-4, at 18 (6 p. m.) December 20, but can not get them to repeat or acknowledge our calling."

DECEMBER 21, 1927

Additional deep-sea divers continue to be ordered for duty in connection rescue and salvage of S-4 by Bureau of Navigation.

Destroyer Mahan relieves the destroyer Sturtevant at Provincetown.

U. S. S. Wright left navy yard, Boston, at 1.20 p. m. December 21, her arrival at Boston from Norfolk having been delayed by gales.

Weather at Provincetown reported as improving.

Liaison officer appointed between officer in charge of rescue and salvage operations and press to facilitate dissemination of news to press and to relieve Admiral Brumby of this unnecessary bother, he being busily engaged in matters far more important.

A dispatch from the officer in charge of rescue and salvage operations times 8.15 a. m., December 21, states:

"(a) Weather and sea have moderated; Falcon underway to lay heavy moorings and will then get into position over S-4 and resume diving. No further signals heard from S-4."

A dispatch from commander Coast Guard destroyer force to Coast Guard headquarters timed 11.20, December 21, states: "Weather improving but sea has not yet run down sufficiently to warrant starting with Paulding (damaged in collision with S-4). Expect start early to-morrow morning."

A dispatch from officer in charge of rescue and salvage operations timed 13.30 (1.30 p.m.) December 21 states that "Falcon is in position; weather is moderating; diver went down at 13.05 (1.05 p. m.); nothing further heard from S-4."

At 17.40 (5.40 p. m.) December 21, U. S. S. Wright arrived Provincetown. A dispatch from the officer in charge of rescue and salvage operations timed at 22.30 (10.30 p. m.) December 21 states:

"(a) Relocated S-4 at about 16 (4 p. m.), marker buoy lines having chafed through, due to sea action. Divers rigged new descending lines to rail abaft gun and abreast torpedo hatch on S-4. Divers Wilson and Eiben made air hose connection to S. C. tube and there is no reasonable doubt that air began going into torpedo room about 22 (10 p. m.) December 21. This shows that men in torpedo room either shipped portable listening gear or took off cap and propped slipper vale open. Pressure in torpedo room was built up to 4 pounds and then

vented down, which process of alternate blowing and venting will be kept going continuously. Diver Eadie now going down will connect air hose to other arms of S. C. tubes, thus doubling air inlet and outlet to torpedo room. Weather good."

DECEMBER 22, 1927

Officer in charge of rescue and salvage operations of S-4 asked by department if he desired additional facilities.

Dispatch from officer in charge of rescue and salvage operations timed 10.50 (10.50 a. m.) December 22 states that alternate blowing and venting of air lines to torpedo room via S. C. tube has been continuous and vented air is now markedly less foul. Second air line mentioned in my previous dispatch (21-22.30) was connected and in use shortly after midnight. Divers have examined bows on both sides and find upper torpedo tube shutters closed, lower torpedo tube shutters apparently closed but mud is over them. Weather continue good and Falcon has some lee as wind has shifted to northward. Examination of bow and other parts of S-4 and of bottom now in progress. Listening has been continuous but no signals heard nor any response to divers' hammer taps. Coast Guard destroyer Paulding arrived Boston Navy Yard 16.30 (4.30 p. m.) December 22 and will dry dock on December 24.

Emergency relief (funds) provided by Navy Relief Society for immediate dependents of those lost in S-4 as needed.

Dispatch from officer in charge of rescue and salvage operations timed 18.50 (6.50 p. m.) December 22 states test of vented air from torpedo at 18.30 (6.30 p. m.) shows 7 per cent of carbondioxide. Divers have been begun washing tunnel under bow at frame 19 to pass receiving line and this work will proceed with all available personnel divided into two watches so that work may not cease while weather holds good. Divers are working in pairs.

Another dispatch received from officer in charge of rescue and salvage operations timed 13.20 (1.20 p. m.) December 22 states: "Test of vented air from torpedo room at about 11.30 a. m. to-day (December 22) shows about 2 per cent of carbon dioxide. This is fair. S-4 appears listed about 3° to starboard, mud line at bow about 1 foot under turn of forefoot, abreast cooning tower about 5 feet above keel line, stern skag appears about 2 feet deep in mud. Vertical rudder is 15° left stern horizontal rudder is about 15° up on rise. Lieutenant Commander Ellsberg now going down to inspect and verify position and conditions."

A dispatch from the officer in charge of rescue and salvage operations timed 12.05 December 22 is quoted in full as follows:

"Mr. McGinley, father of Lieutenant McGingley was on board (Falcon?) for about one hour. The situation was explained to him and he was shown divers in various stages. He expressed complete satisfaction when he left to board the destroyer Sturtevant to Boston."

DECEMBER 23, 1927

New York Navy Yard at 8 (8 a. m.) December 23, sent 100-ton derrick to Hortons Point to salvage pontoon that had gone aground.

Press reports (untrue) state that salvage operations would stop until weather conditions permitted in the spring. The Navy Department has never contemplated stopping either the rescue or salvage operations and the press was informed that the operations would continue with the strictest expedition.

The Secretary of the Navy and the Chief of Naval Operations left Washington for Provincetown on evening of December 23.

A dispatch from officer in charge of rescue and salvage operations timed 18.45 (6.45 p. m.) December 23 states that divers have completed one tunnel under S-4 after many delays and complications. A 4-inch manila line has been passed through the tunnel and secured on top of S-4. Work now proceeding on another tunnel further aft. Divers replaced with a new hose a collapsed section of air hose leading to torpedo room via S. C. tube. Weather remains passable but some light snow flurries. Wind and sea have not risen appreciably. Merrit & Chapman derrick lighters and tug Resolute have been released and are returning to New York.

At 6.30 December 23 the tug Mohave arrived Provincetown with lighter. A dispatch from officer in charge of rescue and salvage operations timed 0.30 December 23 (midnight December 22-23) gives report of Lieutenant Commander Ellsberg on damage to S-4 as noted by him during his dive as follows: "Superstructure deck and frame wholly carried away from about frame 52 to frame 62, except about 6 inches along port side, which is intact. Under hull

plating forming top of upper tanks in way of above is wholly uninjured on port side and is injured on starboard side at least from center line to about 5 feet outboard. Outboard ventilation main wholly missing between above frames. Starboard side of ballast tank No. 1 much torn from tank top down about 6 feet in way of frames 58 to 62. Print of stern of destroyer at about frame 55 sharp but not deep. Major damage apparently done as submarine rolled to port and destroyer rode over. No damage to hull abaft frame No. 60 except conning tower on port side shows marks possibly made by Paulding's propellers. Structural damage to submarine is slight. Examination of top of submarine carefully made but report on starboard damage is subject to correction as examination was hastily made while sliding down side. Later examination will be made."

Penobscot, towing floating crane, left navy yard, New York, for Provincetown at 8.05 a. m. December 23.

The officer in charge of rescue and salvage operations reports by dispatch timed at 8.50 (8.50 a. m.) December 23 that test of vented air from torpedo room via S. C. tube at midnight (22d) shows about 1 per cent and at 8 a. m. (23d) about one-half of 1 per cent of carbon dioxide. Divers continue washing trenches and tunnels. These trenches are as deep as top of diver's helmet when standing and about 6 feet wide to protect diver from caving sides. Wind has shifted to west northwest and is increasing and sea rising.

S-7 arrived Provincetown at 2.20 December 23.

Mahan, Maury, or Sturtevant make daily trips to Boston-Provincetown and return.


The Secretary of the Navy and Chief of Naval Operations arrived at Boston from Provincetown on the Mahan at 18.35 (6.35 p. m.) December 24.

Arrangements made with Lighthouse Service to place large gas and whistling buoys in vicinity of S-4 as warning to shipping to keep clear of moorings, etc. No absence of salvage vessels during bad weather.

The officer in charge of rescue and salvage operations reports by dispatch timed 9.30 December 24, that wind has shifted to southwest and began to blow very fresh, causing trouble with moorings of Falcon. Prevented hawsers being rigged. No divers were down at time and diving was discontinued under the circumstances. Falcon had to let go her moorings and ride to her own anchors due to wind and sea. Air lines to torpedo room were buoyed and capped. Descending lines were buoyed. Wind now from west and blowing very fresh with rough sea and air temperature 18°.


Additional medical officer familiar with diving ordered to report to officer in charge of rescue and salvage operations.

Commander control force (Rear Admiral Brumby), the officer in charge of rescue and salvage operations, shifted from Falcon to Bushnell.

Iuka and Penobscot, with derrick in tow, arrived Hortons Point at 12.25, December 25.

The officer in charge of rescue and salvage operations reports by dispatch timed 8.45 December 25 that weather has moderated somewhat. Falcon and Sagamore will proceed with preparations of permanent moorings around S-4, of which there will be six, and will put them in place if weather further moderates. Salvage officers and divers will examine S-6 for familiarization as to structure, piping, and other essential details.

The officer in charge of rescue and salvage operations reports by dispatch timed 17.25 (5.35 p. m.) December 25, that six permanent moorings had been prepared and placed around S-4 to hold Falcon in position while diving is in progress. Salvage officers and divers began thorough inspection of S-6 to familiarize themselves with general and specific details of structure and installations to be expected in S-4 when divers enter it.


The officer in charge of rescue and salvage operations reports by dispatch timed 18.45 (6.45 p. m.), December 26, that names of divers working this date are Eiben, Eadie, Wilson, Campbell, Crilley, and Scott.

Dispatch from officer in charge of rescue and salvage operations timed 17.20 (5.20 p. m.), December 26, states weather bright and clear, moderate northwesterly winds; sea smooth due to lee of land; air temperature, 35°. Divers engaged in clearing tangled masses and top hamper located chiefly abaft conning tower.

Destroyer Mahan sent to search for lost Grayson plane. Expect to release U. S. S. Wright to-morrow (Tuesday). Lighthouse Service placed buoys previously requested.

The officer in charge of rescue and salvage operations at Provincetown requested self-propelled oil barge from commandant first naval district in order to obviate necessity of sending salvage ships off station to refuel.

DECEMBER 27, 1927

U. S. S. James K. Paulding arrived Provincetown 16.10 (4.10 p. m.) December 27.

Several naval vessels doing dispatch duty in connection with S-4 operations detached to engage in search for lost Grayson plane.

Officer in charge of rescue and salvage operations reports by dispatch timed 16.45 (4.45 p. m.), December 27, that weather fair and clear with gentle northwestern moderate west then freshening southwest wind. Sea smooth but rising. Diving continued until 15.40 (3.40 p. m.) when Falcon had to leave mooring on account heavy sea and wind. Air temperature, average 34°. Divers Carr, Kelly, Wickwire, Eadie, Mattox, Davis, Sugram, Campbell, and Baker engaged in shifting descending lines. Rigged new descending lines at stern. Passed to pontoon reeving lines. Began work on another tunnel. U. S. S. Wright released and departed for Hampton Roads at 15 (3 p. m.).

New type diving telephones ordered from Pittsburgh Deep Sea Diving Telephone Co., are to be shipped as completed. Iuka and Penobscot with derrick United States in tow left New London for Provincetown.

DECEMBER 28, 1927

Dispatch from officer in charge of rescue and salvage operations timed 10.15 (10.15 a. m.) December 28, states: "Falcon moored over S-4 at 7 (7 a. m.) and diving was resumed at 8 (8 a. m.) to continue work on tunnels. Weather fair, partly overcast; wind and sea fairly smooth.

Iuka and Penobscot towing derrick United States arrived Provincetown 1310 (1.10 p. m.) December 28.

The officer in charge of rescue and salvage operations by dispatch timed 16.50 (4.50 p. m.) December 28 to Bureau of Navigation states number of divers available and qualified for submarine salvage inadequate for full days work when employed in pairs which will be the general rule from now on. This dispatch gives names of certain men considered to have qualifications as deep sea divers or excellent prospects to qualify as such and requested Navigation to order two to Falcon as soon as possible. This was done.

Dispatch from officer in charge of rescue and salavage operations timed 16.45 (4.45 p. m.) December 28 reports arrival of Iuka, Penobscot, and derrick United States. Iuka returned to New York, but Penobscot was retained at Provincetown for salvage work. Divers Crilley, Burd, Eiben, Wilson, Scott, Grude, Eadie, and Mattox completed tunnel at frame No. 46 in to keel on starboard side and divers Campbell, Baker, Carr, and Kelly began working in from port to complete tunnel. This being all divers available. Am asking for additional divers in separate dispatch.

Suggestion made by OpNav regarding getting reeving lines under S-4. The officer in charge replies that idea was tried on S-51, but means additional rigging and consequent complications. Modification of the suggested idea will be tried. On December 28, officers and men of S-4 were declared dead as of December 17, except those known to be in torpedo room who were declared dead as of December 21, and next of kin officially notified. Prior to this next of kin had been constantly kept informed of progress of rescue and salvage operations.

DECEMBER 29, 1927

The officer in charge of rescue and salvage operations reports by dispatch timed 10.10 (10.10 a. m.) December 29, weather overcast with wind of force 4 to 5 miles per hour from south and moderate sea. Falcon turned head to sea with heavy mooring, so far riding well, but will have to unmoor if wind and sea increase. Divers went down at 8.30 to continue washing tunnels.

Additional divers being enrolled and ordered to S-4 operations.

Report from officer in charge of rescue and salvage operations times 16.30 (4.30 p. m.) December 29, states rain began at 11.30 and continues, rising wind

and sea obliged Falcon suspend diving at 12 (noon) and unmoor. Falcon then proceeded Provincetown Harbor to practice pontoon drill. Daily examination and inspection of S-6 as model vessel continues. Divers practically finished washing tunnel at frame No. 46. Mohave arrived with fuel oil barge. Southwest storm warning displayed at Provincetown. Wandank on watch at S-4 wreck. Destroyers Sturtevant and Mahan completed search for lost Grayson plane and returned to Boston. Plane not found.

DECEMBER 30, 1927

The Bureau of Navigation directed the commander Scouting Fleet to transfer all divers whose record show qualification and experience for duty connection salvage of S-4. This was in compliance with dispatch from officer in charge of rescue and salvage operations stating that on account of sickness and other temporary disability among proved divers more divers were needed.

Vestal, fleet repair ship, directed to proceed to Provincetown upon completion of navy yard overhaul and to report to commander control force for duty connection salvage of S-4.

Commander control force requests small freight vessel self-propelled, for transporting heavy materials beyond capacity of ships' boats.

Arrangements made to ship high-powered underwater lights from research laboratory at Bellevue, D. C.

Dispatch from officer in charge of rescue and salvage operations timed 17.05 (5.05 p. m.), December 30 states that pontoon drill and fueling completed about 11 a. m., then Bushnell, Falcon, and Sagamore proceeded in dense fog to S-4 which Falcon located at 12.30 and moored with difficulty. Weather and sea conditions excellent for diving. Divers Carr, Kelly, Eadie, Mattox, Campbell and Eiben continued work on tunnel at frame No. 46. Will continue work tonight until completed. Divers had difficulty in tunnel due to caving sides but were extricated by fellow divers.

Recalled to service additional fleet reservists who were qualified and experienced in deep-sea diving.

In order to facilitate communication to and from the officer in charge of rescue and salvage operations of S-4, a separate call was assigned. Heretofore the call of the commander control force had been used, which call of necessity was used for all other communications to and from the commander control force in connection with handling of control force, much of which had nothing to do with salvage of S-4.

A dispatch from officer in charge of salvage operations timed 2240 December 30, stated that tunnel at frame No. 46 has been completed and a three-quarter-inch line has been passed under S-4 and secured on top. Falcon will leave mooring as soon as divers can be brought up.

Department granted authority for S-8 to take Congressman LaGuardia, of New York, on trip.

Shipping notified of special warning signal by Falcon when moored over S-4 in foggy weather.

Commander S-4 salvage force by dispatch timed 9.50 December 31, states light southwest wind with smooth sea and dense fog. Falcon entered moorings and divers began work on engine room hatch having first to tear up wood grating and take off large nut on hatch center bolt and then back out bolt and let strong back drop down inside then remove ladder leading to engine room. Detailed arrangements made for dealing with expected bodies and their prompt transfer to Boston for identification and shipment.

Bureau Navigation representative, identification section, sent to Boston. Unable to use high-power underwater lamps because of absence of proper voltage on Falcon.

A dispatch from commander S-4 salvage force timed 15.20 (3.20 p. m.) states that fog continues wind and sea are rising and barometer falling rapidly. Northwest storm warning received. Divers proceeded with work mentioned in my previous dispatch (01.31-09.50) to point where backed-out center bolt in engine room hatch cover when water began to enter boat. Hole was plugged but consideration showed necessity to enter boat to raise it so plug was removed and diver began removal of wooden decking around motor room hatch. While no signals were heard at any time except from torpedo room regard present condition of engine room as confirmation of original decision in coupling air hose to salvage line to main ballast tanks before that to compartments on principle that entire boat might come up.

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