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that the water was found in certain parts of the bodies, and the blood was in certain positions, but it also indicates that they probably drowned while unconscious from the effect of the CO2. In other words, there were no men found on top of the engines or in the high parts of the room, where they would naturally have crawled to escape drowning had they been in full possession of their faculties. It is thought that they probably lay down, where they were found, on the floor, and lost consciousness, and that shortly afterwards the water rose, and they took some of it into their lungs, and drowned. The medical testimony is that these men died from drowning; although there was still considerable air space in the engine room a good many days later, when these compartments were opened in the process of salvage.

Senator GERRY. In what part was the submarine hit?

Commander HOOVER. She was hit just forward of the gun, which is, in turn, about 12 feet forward of the conning tower, and on the starboard side. She was hit at an angle about 30° from ahead. Senator GERRY. It was nearly a head-on collision?

Commander HOOVER. Yes; nearly. The cutwater of the Paulding crashed through the superstructure or decking of the submarine, and a part of the keel stuck into the hull and was left there. The hole in the inner hull of the submarine was about 22 feet long and about a foot wide.

Senator GERRY. Would it have been better if the Paulding had not backed out?

Commander HOOVER. No; I do not believe it would have made any difference. The Paulding had no knowledge that there was anything left in the submarine. She cleared at once, and kept on going slowly ahead. She did not entirely lose headway.

Senator STEIWER. In this record of the naval court, is there included the testimony of officers of the Paulding?

Commander HOOVER. Yes.

Senator STEIWER. So that the Coast Guard version of the matter is exhibited in this record?

Commander HOOVER. Yes.

Senator GERRY. You say the Paulding cleared the submarine after she hit her?

Commander HOOVER. Yes.

Senator GERRY. And went right ahead?

Commander HOOVER. The headway had not been checked by the backing of the screw until after the collision and the submarine had drifted clear.

Senator GERRY. In other words, the Paulding hit the S-4 with sufficient force so that she went right on and the racing of her engines had not taken any effect?

Commander HOOVER. It had taken effect, but not to stop her entirely. She went on slowly ahead.

Senator STEIWER. She must have passed over the S-4, ther? Commander HOOVER. The S-4 was last seen under the smokestacks, abreast the smokestacks, of the Paulding on the port side. Senator ODDIE. I will ask you to tell us who Mr. Edward Ellsberg is and something about him and his connection with the raising of the S-4.

Commander HOOVER. He has defined himself here (consulting record of the naval court) very fully.

Mr. Edward Ellsberg is chief engineer of the Tidewater Oil Co. of New York. His residence is Westfield, N. J. He was enrolled in the Naval Reserve on the day following the accident and sent as quickly as possible to Provincetown, in order that he might be in the proper status to work there and give his advice. He had previously been a lieutenant commander in the construction corps of the Navy, and as such had direct charge of the salvage work on the submarine S-51, which was rammed by the City of Rome off Block Island in September, 1925. This salvage job was nearly a duplicate of the problem on the S-4, in that the two submaries were of about the same design and size and each had been struck in the same compartment.

Senator ODDIE. Was Mr. Ellsburg considered well qualified and fitted for this work?

Commander HOOVER. The testimony before the court of inquiry would indicate that he is considered to be a leading authority, as good or better than any person in the country on submarine salvage work. Senator ODDIE. So that the Navy Department impressed him into the service immediately, as quickly as they could?

Commander HOOVER. He volunteered his services.

Senator ODDIE. He volunteered his services and the Navy enlisted him in the Naval Reserve so that he could help in this work? Commander HOOVER. Yes.

Senator ODDIE. Will you make a digest of his statement for our record?

Commander HOOVER. About the work?

Senator ODDIE. Yes.

Commander HOOVER. Very well.

(The statement referred to is here printed in the record, as follows:)


DECEMBER 17, 1927

The first word that the S-4 had been sunk off Provincetown by the Coast Guard destroyer Paulding was received in the Office of Naval Operations about 4.15 p. m. Saturday December 17, 1927, in a telephone message from the commandant of the first naval district which read in substance as follows:

"At about 3.36 p. m. the Coast Guard destroyer Paulding proceeding at 18 knots sighted-periscope under her port bow. Submarine was entirely submerged. Submarine was rammed by Paulding and sunk. Boats searching for survivors. No survivors picked up. Marker buoys have been placed to mark position of submarine. Oil observed on the water. Tug Wandank at the scene of accident reports accident occurred close inshore in about 90-100 feet of water on following bearings: Wood End Light, 319°; Long Point, 23°."

The commandant, first naval district, at the time of the above message did not know the name of the submarine. The submarine was shortly identified as the S-4.

The above telephone message from commandant, first naval district, was shortly confirmed by official despatches from New London, commandant, first naval district and Coast Guard.

Immediately upon receipt of above telephone message from the commandant, first naval district, Operations, by telephone, telegraph, and radio, started the rescue and salvage forces to scene of accident.

In the desire for quick action many of the telephone orders were not recorded. Minesweeper Lark departed Boston at 6.45 p. m. December 17 for scene with diving apparatus. Divers and underwater cutting equipment.

U. S. S. Bushnell (submarine tender) left Portsmouth, N. H. (navy yard) 7 p. m. December 17 for scene with diving gear, naval constructor, Commander Saunders, engineers, and other officers with submarine experience.

Destroyer Sturtevant with Commander Strother, commander submarine division 12, left Boston for scene of accident at 7.45 p. m. December 17.

U. S. S. Mallard (minesweeper) left Boston at 11 p. m. December 17 for Provincetown.

At 7.10 p. m. the rescue and salvage ship Falcon, with commander control force (Rear Admiral F. H. Brumby) in charge of rescue and salvage operations left New London for scene of accident.

The six salvage pontoons at the New York yard, used in salvage of S-51, together with salvage gear, were immediately ordered towed to Provincetown. The six salvage pontoons at Norfolk Navy Yard, also used in salvage of S-51, were ordered loaded on the U. S. S. Wright for shipment to Provincetown immediately on notification of the accident.

Capt. E. J. King, United States Navy, who had much experience in the salvage of the S-51, was directed by long-distance phone to proceed immediately from his ship (U. S. S. Wright) at Norfolk to Provincetown, to assist the officer in charge of rescue and salvage operations (Rear Admiral Brumby). Captain King proceeded by rail to New York and by airplane from New York to Provincetown, arriving about 11 a. m. on December 18.

The submarine S-8 proceeded to Provincetown to render any assistance possible, particularly in connection with underwater sound signalling with the S-4 and as a source of air supply.

Destroyers were provided for quick transportation from Provincetown to points desired. (Mahan, Maury, Sturtevant alternated on this duty.)

Eleven divers left Newport by automobile for scene of accident afternoon of December 17, these in addition to the divers already on the Falcon and other vessels of the control force at or en route to scene of wreck.

Seaplane sent from Squantum to Provincetown to assist in locating submarine, if necessary.

The Chief of Naval Operations was in constant touch by telephone and radio with Boston, New York, and Norfolk Navy Yards, and with commandants of first, third, and fifth naval districts throughout this and following days.

The entire facilities of the Naval Establishment was put at the disposal of the officer in charge of rescue and salvage operations on the spot.

The commander in chief, United States Fleet, and commander Scouting Fleet directed their respective forces to supply any facilities required in salvage and rescue operations.

At 7.30 p. m., December 17, a dispatch was intercepted from commander control force (Brumby) stating in substance that he was proceeding to Provincetown in the Falcon and that navy yards and stations were sending available assistance.

The office of naval communications (Operations) made necessary arrangements to keep leased Navy wires open beyond the routine times.

Commandant first naval district directed, on December 17, to get in touch with commercial wrecking and salvage companies for any assistance required. Commandant, first naval district, was told by long distance phone on night of December 17 that it was the Secretary's desire that the press be given full details of the accident. On December 18 the commander control force, Admiral Brumby, the officer in charge of the rescue and salvage operations was directed to permit cameramen to take pictures of the rescue and salvage operations and to accord facilities to the press which would in no way interfere with rescue work.

Still later, because of the heavy demands on the time of those engaged in the rescue work made by the demands of the press, a laison officer between the officer in charge of rescue operations and the press was appointed in order that those engaged in the effort to save lives might be able to devote all of their time to useful work unhampered by outside demands and worries.

Next of kin of personnel in S-4 were notified evening 17th by Bureau of Navigation.

December 18, 1927: Mallard, Lark and S-8 arrived midnight.

Bushnell arrived Provincetown 1.15 a. m.

Six salvage pontoons left navy yard, New York, at 6.30 a. m. in tow of Iuka and Sagamore, and due arrive Provincetown about 4 a. m. 19th.

Commander control force arrived Provincetown 7.05 a. m.

Edward Ellsberg, formerly a lieutenant commander in the Construction Corps of the Navy, who had vast experience in the salvage of S-51 was enrolled in the

Naval Reserve and ordered to report to the officer in charge of rescue and salvage operations.

The Bureau of Navigation began ordering all available and qualified divers for duty with officer in charge of rescue and salvage. Offers of civilian_deepsea divers in many instances were accepted and they were enrolled in the Naval Reserve when possible.

Commandant, first naval district, authorized to employ outside assistance and make necessary expenditure.

U. S. S. Wright directed to proceed with dispatch to Provincetown after loading salvage pontoons at Norfolk.

Suggestion sent to officer in charge rescue and salvage operations regarding use of torpedo tube for getting air to torpedo room in case salvage air line was found to be damaged.

Merritt Chapman Scott Corporation offers use of two floating cranes at New York with combined lifting weight of 220 tons. Offer accepted and cranes towed to Provincetown.

U. S. S. Wright departed Hampton Roads with six salvage pontoons at 4.48 p. m. December 18. Expect arrive Provincetown early morning December 20. Lieut. Commander Ellsberg arrived_Boston evening December 18 and was sent to Provincetown via destroyer. Five additional divers sent from Lexington by same destroyer. Divers Wickwire and Kelly, two experts on underwater cutting, in Naval Reserve, offered services and were accepted.

S-3 departed Portsmouth for Provincetown 11.35, December 18.

Commander control force (Brumby) in Falcon arrived Provincetown at 7.05, December 18.

S-8 arrived Provincetown 0.18, December 18.

First report received in department from officer in charge rescue and salvage operations regarding diving was dated 16.15 (4.15 p. m.), December 18. The dispatch stated in substance that divers had already been down, had examined hull, and found large hole in starboard side 8 feet forward of gun, extending to about center line. This dispatch further stated that knocks in torpedo room had been answered, but that no answer had been received to knocks on control room, and that no signals were possible to engine and torpedo rooms because of tangled wires on submarine's deck. This dispatch also stated that divers were now connecting up salvage air lines to submarine tanks.

Bushnell (submarine tender) arrived at scene 1.15 a. m., December 18.
Mallard arrived on scene at 1.14 a. m., December 18.

Submarine S-8 arrived Provincetown at 0.18, December 18 (midnight, December 17-18).

Lark arrived Provincetown 0.12, December 18 (midnight December 17-18). At 0.24 a. m., December 19, a second dispatch from the officer in charge rescue and salvage operations, time group 23.35 (11.35 p. m.) December 18, was received which stated that Diver Michaels, who was hooking up compartment blow line, had gotten badly fouled and that it had been necessary to send Diver Eadie down, who had just come up, to clear him. Michaels had been down over three hours. Eadie and Michaels were brought to the surface. The above dispatch also stated that wind was from the northwest, force 6 (34 miles per hour), and sea rough and rising, but that air was still being pumped from Falcon to S-4 salvage air lines.

Quick shipment of new-style divers' lamps and divers' telephone cable was requested from navy yard, New York.

DECEMBER 19, 1927

A dispatch timed 5.10, December 19, from the officer in charge of rescue and salvage operations was received in the department at 9 a. m., December 19, stating that

"(a) Blowing compartment salvage air line of no use, as test opening of gag valve in torpedo room let water enter compartment and shows line open elsewhere in submarine

"(b) Continuous blowing to tanks through salvage air line has brought large quantities of air bubbles to surface showing at least one main ballast tank unwatered and that further blowing of no value.

"(c) Sea entirely too rough for diving and getting worse.

"(d) On account very serious condition of Diver Michaels, who was entangled and trapped on submarine for over three hours until finally released by Eadie, the Falcon took him to naval hospital, Boston, as it was impractiacble to transfer him to another vessel.

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(e) Falcon will return to Provincetown immediately.

(f) Commander Strother, commander Submarine Division 12, in Bushnell with Lark and Mallard remaining on scene.

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At 5 a. m., December 19, two Merritt & Chapman tugs and two floating cranes left New York for scene of accident via Long Island Sound and Cape Cod Canal. At 8 a. m. December 19 the tug Penobscot left New York to join the expedition and assist.

At 9.55 December 19 the Navy tugs Mahave and Iwana left navy yard, New York, to assist the two Merritt & Chapman floating cranes en route to Privincetown.

All new men and material for S-4 rescue and salvage ordered sent to Boston Navy Yard, which place had three-hour communication with Provincetown instead of direct by train to Provincetown, to which place train service is slow and infrequent.

At 14 (2 p. m.) December 19 the officer in charge rescue and salvage operations reported by dispatch that communications were still being received from and sent to the S-4.

At 12.10 December 19 Falcon arrived at Boston (with Diver Michaels) and left at 13.40 same date.

Wright being delayed by heavy seas encountered.

At 19.20 (7.20 p. m.) December 19 the officer in charge rescue and salvage operations reports that sea remains too rough for diving.

A dispatch from the officer in charge of rescue and salvage operations timed 21 (9 p. m.), December 19, stated:

"(a) Referring to message from S-4 asking about access through torpedo tubes for supplies, that everything was in readiness, as soon as weather permits resumption of diving, to get oxygen flasks, soda-lime, food, and flash light into submarine through torpedo tube provided tubes can be reached by diver, which may not be possible until divers can wash down mud to expose torpedo tubes. (b) That all available information from chart, soundings, and divers shows S-4 lying in deep mud, One diver went into mud up to his hips abreast conning tower and was pulled out with difficulty.


"(c) That another diver reports mud piled up on bow, probably due to scooping action when submarine struck soft mud bottom.

"(d) That S-4 lies on an even keel heading southwest slightly down by the head about 1,700 yards 140° from Wood End Light in about 105 feet of water. "(e) That weather and sea conditions have not improved since last report." Orders are issued to Chief Gunner C. L. Tibbals, Chief Gunner William Loughman, Chief Torpedoman Joseph Eiben, Chief Torpedoman R. E. Wilson, and Chief Boatswains Mate R. H. Syphax, all well versed in compression and decompression, to report to officer in charge of rescue and salvage operations in connection with rescue and salvage of S-4. Necessary helium-oxygen tanks, decompression chamber, and other gear are being shipped. This in addition to the decompression tank and other gear already at scene.

Storm wraning received from Weather Bureau predicting disturbance of great intensity reaching gale force on 18th and 20th December.

Suggestion made by Office of Operations to officer in charge of rescue and salvage operations to use S. C. tube to get air to torpedo room. This was done as soon as weather permitted resumption of diving and by this means the foul air in torpedo room was finally cleared. (See OPNAV. 1019-1610 of December, 1927.)

DECEMBER 20, 1927

Bureau of Navigation continued collection and transfer of qualified deep-sea divers to duty in connection with rescue and salvage of S-4. Reserves ordered to active duty, volunteer civilian divers enrolled in Naval Reserve, and ordered to duty and those in regular Navy ordered to S-4 operations from other stations. Suggestion made to facilitate making air connection through shell of S-4, etc. Many suggestions appearing to have merit were similarly made to the officer in charge of the rescue and salvage operations from time to time and to commandant navy yard, Boston, for test and trial. While suggestions were made, the desire not to hinder, hamper, impede, or embarrass in any way the responsible

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