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altarpieces are almost exclusively fine mosaic her son, not comforted by foreknowledge of copies of famous pictures which are preserved resurrection, nor lightened by prescience of elsewhere. Of these reproductions the best is near glory. He discovered in the marble, by generally considered to be that of Guercino's one effort, the divinity of death's rest after «St.Petronilla » at the end of the right aisle of torture, and taught the eye to see that the the tribune. Debrosses praises these mosaic dissolution of this dying body is the birth of altarpieces extravagantly, and even expresses the soul that cannot die. In the dead Christ the opinion that they are probably superior there are two men manifest to sight. «The in point of color to the originals from which first man was of the earth, earthy: the secthey are copied. In execution they are cer- ond man is the Lord from heaven.) tainly wonderful, and many a stranger looks In the same small chapel stands a strangely at them and passes on believing them to be wrought marble column inclosed in an iron oil-paintings. They possess the quality of be- cage. The Romans now call it the Colonna ing imperishable, and beyond all influence of Santa (the holy pillar), and it is said to be climate or dampness, and they are master- the one against which Christ leaned when pieces of mechanical workmanship. But many teaching in the temple at Jerusalem. A great will think them hard and unsympathetic in modern authority believes it to be of Roman outline, and decidedly crude in color. Much workmanship, and of the third century; but wit has been manufactured by the critics at those who have lived in the East will see the expense of Guido Reni's « Michael,» for much that is Oriental in the fantastic, ornainstance, and as many sharp things could be mented carving. It matters little. In actual said about a good many other works of the fact, whatever be its origin, this is the column same kind in the church. Yet, on the whole, known in the middle ages as the « Colonna they do not destroy the general harmony. degli Spiritati,» or column of those possessed Big as they are, when they are seen from a by evil spirits, and it was customary to bind little distance they sink into mere insignifi- to it such unlucky individuals as fell under cant patches of color, all but lost in the deep suspicion of « possession,» in order to exorrichness of the whole.

cise the spirit with prayers and holy water. As for the statues and monuments, be- Aretino has made a witty scene about this in tween the «Pietà » of Michelangelo and Brac- the «Cortigiana,» where one of the Vatican ci's horrible tomb of Benedict XIV there is the servants cheats a poor fisherman, and then step which, according to Tom Paine, sepa- hands him over to the sacristan of St. Peter's rates the sublime from the ridiculous. That to be cured of an imaginary possession by very witty saying has in it only just the in- a ceremonious exorcism. Such proceedings gredient of truth without which wit remains must have been common enough in those mere humor. Between the ridiculous and the days when witchcraft and demonology were sublime there may sometimes be, indeed, but elements with which rulers and lawgivers one step in the execution; but there is al- had to count at every turn. ways the enormous moral distance which Leave the column and its legends in the separates real feeling from affectation-the lonely chapel, with the exquisite «Pietà»; gulf which divides, for instance, Bracci's wander hither and thither, and note the enorgroup from Michelangelo's.

mous contrasts between good and bad work The « Pietà» is one of the great sculptor's which meet you at every turn. Up in the early works. It is badly placed. It is dwarfed right aisle of the tribune you will come upon by the heavy architecture above and around what is known as Canova's masterpiece, the it. It is insulted by a pair of hideous bronze tomb of Clement XIII, of jesuitical memory, cherubs. There is a manifest improbability as strange a mixture of styles and ideas as in the proportion between the figure of Christ any in the world, and yet a genuine expresand that of the Blessed Virgin. Yet, in spite sion of the artistic feeling of that day. The of all, it is one of the most beautiful and grave pope prays solemnly above; on the touching groups in the whole world, and by right a lovely heathen genius of Death leans many degrees the best work of art in the on a torch; on the left rises a female figure great church. Michelangelo was a man of of Religion, one of the most abominably bad the strongest dramatic instinct, even in early statues in the world; below, a brace of imyouth, and when he laid his hand to the mar- probable lions, extravagantly praised by peoble and cut out his « Pietà,» he was in deep ple who do not understand leonine anatomy, sympathy with the supreme drama of man's recall Canova's humble origin and his first history. He found in the stone, once and for attempt at modeling. For the sculptor began all time, the grief of the human mother for life as a little waiter in a canova di vino, or

Vol. LII.-43.

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wine shop, whence his name, and it was when But when Sixtus V, who also surprised the a high dignitary stopped to breakfast at the cardinals greatly, was in a fit of haste to finish little wayside inn that he modeled a lion in but- the dome, the masons, wanting a receptacle ter to grace the primitive table. The thing at- for water, laid hands on Urban's stone coffin, tracted the rich traveler's attention, and the pitched his bones into a corner, and used the boy's fortune was made. The pope is impres- sarcophagus as they pleased, leaving it to serve sive, the Death is gentle and tender, the Re- as a water-tank for many years afterward. ligion, with her crown of gilded spikes for rays, In extending the foundations of the church, and her clumsy cross, is a vision of bad taste, Paul III came upon the bodies of Maria and and the sleepy lions, when separated from what Hermantia, the two wives of Honorius, the has been written about them, excite no inter- emperor who «disestablished » paganism in est. Yet somehow, from a distance, the monu- favor of Christianity. They were sisters, ment gets harmony out of its surroundings. daughters of Stilicho, and had been buried in

One of the best tombs in the basilica is their imperial robes, with many rich objects that of Sixtus IV, the first pope of the Ro- and feminine trinkets; and they were found vere family, in the Chapel of the Sacrament. intact, as they had been buried, in the month The bronze figure, lying low on a sarcophagus of February, 1543. Forty pounds of fine gold placed out upon the floor, has a quiet, manly were taken from their robes alone, says Badignity about it which one cannot forget. racconi, without counting all the jewels and But in the same tomb lies a greater man of trinkets, among which was a very beautiful the same race, Julius II, for whom Michel- lamp, besides a great number of precious angelo made his great « Moses » in the Church stones. The Pope melted down the gold for of San Pietro in Vincoli-a man who did more the expenses of the building, and set the than any other, perhaps, to make the great gems in a tiara, where, if they could be idenbasilica what it is, and who, by a chain of tified, they certainly exist to-day-the very mistakes, got no tomb of his own. He who stones worn by empresses of ancient Rome. solemnly laid the foundations of the present Then, as if in retribution, the Pope's own church, and lived to see the four main piers tomb was moved from its place. Despoiled of completed, with their arches, has only a little two of the four statues which adorned it, the slab in the pavement to recall his memory. monument is now in the tribune, and is still The protector and friend of Bramante, of one of the best in the church. A strange and Michelangelo, and of Raphael,- of the great tragic tale is told of it. A Spanish student, architect, the great sculptor, and the great it is said, fell madly in love with the splendid painter, - has not so much as the least work statue of Paul's sister-in-law, Julia Farnese, of any of the three to mark his place of rest. He succeeded in hiding himself in the basilica Perhaps he needed nothing but his name, when it was closed at night, threw himself which must always stand among the greatest. in a frenzy upon the marble, and was found

After all, his bones have been allowed to stone dead beside it in the morning. The ugly rest in peace, which is more than can be said draperies of painted metal, which now hide of all that have been buried within the area much of the statue, owe their origin to this of the church. Urban VI had no such good circumstance. Classical scholars will rememfortune. He so much surprised the cardinals, ber that a somewhat similar tale is told by as soon as they had elected him, by his vigor- Pliny of the « Venus » of Praxiteles in Cnidus. ous moral reforms, that they hastily retired In spite of many assertions to the effect to Anagni, and elected an antipope of milder that the bronze statue of St. Peter which is manners and less sensitive conscience. He venerated in the church was originally an lived to triumph over his enemies. In Pia- image of Jupiter Capitolinus, the weight of cenza he was besieged by King Charles of modern authority and artistic judgment is Naples. He excommunicated him, tortured to the contrary. The work cannot really be

. seven cardinals whom he caught in a con- earlier than the fifth century, and is therespiracy, and put five of them to death, over- fore of a time after Honorius and the discame and slew Charles, refused him burial, establishment. Any one who will take the and had his body exposed to the derision of trouble to examine the lives of the early the crowd. The chronicler says that « Italy, popes may read the detailed accounts of what Germany, England, Hungary, Bohemia, Po- each one did for the churches. It is not by land, Sicily, and Portugal were obedient to any means impossible that the statue may the Lord Pope Urban VI.» He died peace- have been made under St. Innocent I, a confully, and was buried in St. Peter's in a mar- temporary of Honorius, in whose time a ble sarcophagus.

Roman lady called Vestina made gift to the

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Church of vast possessions, the proceeds of the very end of the world's life. Its mere which were used in building and richly adorn- mass will insure to it the permanence of the ing numerous places of worship. In any case, great pyramid of Cheops. Its mere name since it is practically certain that the statue associates it forever with the existence of was originally intended for a portrait of St. Christianity from the earliest time. It has Peter, and has been regarded as such for stamped itself upon the minds of millions of nearly fifteen hundred years, it commands men as the most vast monument of the ages. our respect, if not our veneration.

Its very defects are destined to be as lasting The practice of dressing it in magnificent as its beauties, and its mighty faults are robes on the feast of St. Peter is connected more imposing than the small perfections of with the ancient Roman custom, which re- the Greeks. Between it and the Parthenon, quired the censors, when entering upon office, as between the Roman empire and the Athento paint the earthen statue of Jupiter Capi- ian commonwealth, one may choose, but one tolinus a bright red. But the connection lies dares make no comparison. The genius of the in the Italian mind and character, which cling Greeks absorbed the world's beauty into itdesperately to external practices for their self, distilled it to perfection, and gave huhold upon inward principles. It is certainly manity its most subtle quintessence; but the not an inheritance of uninterrupted tradition, Latin arm ruled the world itself wholesale, as Roman church music, on the contrary, most and the imperial Latin intelligence could certainly is; for there is every reason to be- never find any expression fitted to its enorlieve that the recitations now noted in the mous measure. That is the secret of the Roman missal were very like those used by monstrous element in all the Romans built. the ancient Romans on solemn occasions. And that supernormal giantism showed itself

The mere facts of real interest connected for the last time in the building of St. Peter's, with the basilica, its foundation, its construc- when the Latin race had reached its last tion, and its subsequent history, would fill a great development, and the power of the volume, and overfill one man's brain. The Latin popes overshadowed the whole world, church is not only a real landmark. Astrono- and was itself about to be humbled. Before mers say that if there were a building of the Michelangelo was dead Charles V had been same dimensions on the moon we could easily emperor for forty years, Dr. Martin Luther see it with modern telescopes. It is also, in had denied the doctrine of salvation by works, a manner, one of time's great mile-stones, the nations had broken loose from the popes, of which some trace will probably remain till and the world was at war.

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S Mr. Pate advanced in age it it were the best he could do fer thes sich a

seemed to console him much set. For my expe'unce of the good Lord that, though interested listen- have been and is that he know his own busiers to his chattings gradually ness better than anybody can tell him; that I diminished in numbers on ac- have said so to warous people many and many count of his deafness and grow- a time, some of 'em heedin' my word, and

ing garrulousness, I remained some not, as the case might be, a'cordin' to steadfastly loyal. One Saturday afternoon, the gumption that deffer'nt people has, more sure that, as usual, he would be at the store, or less. And - but this here boy want a I went there. After all except myself, with story, he do.» one and another excuse, had gone away from For a moment or so he seemed dropped him, knowing that he expected me to ask him into reminiscent mood; then, looking down for another story, I did so.

upon me, he said: « Another story, eh? Ain't you afeard «I ruther think I 'll make a few remarks you 'll git sp’ilt, havin' a man o' expe’unce to-day on the old lady Lazenberry.» and obserwation talkin' to thes you by your He smiled with benevolent compassion, lone self? No; no danger. Pity but what moving his head slowly up and down, and some grown people would follow the egzample proceeded: of not a-interruptin' ner runnin' away from « My expe'unce of old people, that is, what convisation which is meant for their good, and you might call oldish people, it is that when their good only, if they had the jedgment to courtin' once take a start with 'em, it is see it. Well, what sort o' story you want, rapider and it is p’inteder than young people, Injun story, fightin' story, or what?» and it 's because, a-knowin' what little sun

I answered that, if all the same to him, I shine they got left, they see the importance preferred one with a good deal of love and o' getherin' in what hay they see a-layin' courting strung along, and some marrying round. Now the old lady Lazenberry she toward the end.

never liked the name herself, but they called « Thes listen to that! This here boy! And her that to sip'rate her from her daughterhim nine year old last Chuesday! Fer I were in-law. at the house and I heerd his ma say it were « The family lived on t' other side the his birthday. And I had to run my hand in Ogeechee, not fur from Long Creek meetin'my pocket and jerk out a thrip for him. And house, where she were a member in good his ma hizitated about him takin' of it; but standin' from the time she j'ined, a girl, till she give in when she see my feelin's would now, when she have outlived two husbands, be hurted, and I conwinced her that a thrip and active and spry as the youngest widder give by a neighbor at sech a time were n't a-goin'. Her first husband were 'Lihu Lazenbig enough money to make a fool o' nobody berry, and after he died, leavin' her with noways. Yes, he were nine year old a Chues- three children, his brother Isaac, a-feelin' day, this here boy, and he want to hear about hisself adequate to the above, stepped in and courtin'and marryin'. Yit a body is obleeged extenduated the family two better. Then he to acknowledge that it 's in the blood o' died, thes like everybody do when their time people, old or young. Courtin' and marryin' come. And when, some time atterwards, she has been goin' on ever sence Adam and Eve begun to streak her black with red ribbins in the gyarden, and down till yit it 's the in- and things, people that thought she were terestinest occepation people can foller and goin' to give up to numerous affliction achear tell about. I have putt my mind a right knowledged they were mistakened in their smart on the subject, and it have arriv' to the mind. She were always one o' that kind o' settlin' of it that the good Lord made 'em so wimming that, when they know they 've got in the offstart, fer to make 'em have and a better head on 'em than them around 'em, keep up their respect of a inst'ootion he see would go 'long and do what they wanted. Both

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