Puslapio vaizdai

dors, or seemed destined to honors such as This was a rupture of the Concordat, and appeared to await this one. The passionate pious Catholics were very uneasy lest such devotion of the father was constant from the a declaration of war should heighten the beginning. It lasted even after he had been Emperor's bellicose humor. A church coundeserted and betrayed by the mother, after cil was summoned, and proving as subserthe child had been estranged and turned into vient to the secular authority as the Jewan Austrian prince.

ish Sanhedrim had been, its representations brought Pius VII. to terms. It is impossible

to determine whether the threat against THE ARRAY OF NATIONS.

Russia was really made as represented, or MANY addresses were sent congratulating whether the address to the chamber of comthe Emperor on the birth of his child. The merce has not been confused with the speech most important was that from the Paris from the throne made to the legislature when chamber of commerce, and to this he made it opened in June. But, in either case, all a reply which attracted general attention. Europe was convinced at the close of March Its substance was the assurance that the Con- that Napoleon was contemplating war against tinental system had told heavily against Eng- Russia. land, whose storehouses were glutted with Yet his position was far from fixed. Moved colonial wares and her own products, for by paternal tenderness, he appears to have which no market could be found. Declaring considered the possibility of merely holding himself the successor of Charles the Great, what he had gained in order to consolidate Napoleon promised to have a navy in four his splendid empire for his heir. The mass years, and in ten years to ruin England. of his army was withdrawn from central EuHe boasted of his success in producing sugar rope, his demands on Prussia were diminished, from beets, of his own great wealth, and and the indemnity fixed; Spain he hoped to of Austrian bankruptcy. There are three pacify, feeling sure that Great Britain was versions of this famous talk, and in one of weary of the bloody warfare in the peninsula, them are the words: «I showed mercy to the since she had finally consented to exchange Emperor of Russia at Tilsit in return for his prisoners on his terms; and he never doubted promises of help; but if those promises are that his arrangements on the North Sea coast not kept, I will go, if need be, to Riga, to would finally be acceptable to the inhabitants. Moscow, to St. Petersburg.» The utterances The indications that he realized his true situaare both imperial and imperious, typical of tion are, however,stronger. He could notpause; dictatorial self-sufficiency.

too long his motto had been, «More beyond.» Three points in the address demand atten- Sometimes the expression « Emperor of the tion: the absence of all reference to French Continent » escaped his lips; and in March finance, the ignoring of the ecclesiastical situ- orders were issued to fit out two naval exation, and the threat against Russia. Metter- peditions, one against Sicily and Egypt, one nich reported that, although France was the against Ireland. He is reported to have said: richest country in the world, her treasury was « They want to know where we are going, empty. There were receipts of 900,000,000 where I shall plant the new Pillars of Herfrancs in 1811, but a deficit of 54,000,000 was cules. We will make an end of Europe, and threatened, the appropriations for army and then, as robbers fling themselves on others navy having been raised from 510,000,000 to less bold, we will fling ourselves on India.) 650,000,000. Determined to make each gen- About the same time the Bavarian minister, eration pay its own expenses, the Emperor pleading for peace, received the retort: increased the indirect taxes, and instituted a « Three years more, and I am lord of the state monopoly in tobacco. But the summer universe. Mollien thought war inadvisable had been one long drought, and Russia did on account of the fiscal disorders. «On the not import French silks and wines to the contrary,” said Napoleon, «the finances are usual amount, so that the year closed with an falling into disorder, and for that very reason actual deficit of 48,000,000. The wealth re- need war.» ferred to by the Emperor was his own. Since England, though hard pressed, was still unhis incarceration at Savona, the Pope, having daunted. The doubtful personage was the Czar steadily refused to institute the bishops nomi- of Muscovy. He was now thirty-two. Fourteen nated by Napoleon, not only still persisted in years earlier he had associated much with this, but now took higher ground, forbidding Czartoryski, when undergoing the training the chapters of both Italy and France to elect for his destined rôle of enlightened despot. the imperial nominees as vicars capitular. This Polish youth had conversed at length


about restoring Poland as a member of the In 1809 Alexander had negotiated, through Russian empire, and in 1805 Alexander had Caulaincourt, a treaty the terms of which seriously contemplated action in that di- were that Poland should never be restored, rection. But he soon paused, and Czarto- and the name never used officially. Probably ryski retired to his estates. The results of the idea had no connection with the Russian Tilsit were disappointing to Alexander, and marriage scheme, but nevertheless it is posthe idea of a reconstructed Poland was dis- sible that it had; for, had Napoleon assented, missed for fear of adding another to the Alexander could then have refused the hand of European nationalities whose fixed terri- his sister, and have laughed in his sleeve at his

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torial boundaries were a menace to Russia's outwitted dupe. As it turned out, Napoleon schemes of aggrandizement. His adhesion to suggested a counter-proposition, promising Napoleon's commercial system had proved too «never to give help or assistance to any power, high a price to pay for Finland; neither Mol- or to any internal rising whatsoever, looking to davia nor Wallachia was yet secured, and a restoration of the kingdom of Poland. A few Oldenburg was incorporated in France. The days after the arrival of his despatch at St. PeFranco-Austrian alliance was a menace to all tersburg came the news of the Austrian marthe Czar's schemes for the Balkan Peninsula. riage. The Czarat once took into consideration Czartoryski was recalled, and found his friend his future course. To Prince Galitzin he wrote with drawn features and haggard eyes, an evi- concerning the expediency of restoring Podent prey to fright. Beaten at his own game land, with himself as king; but after dallying and humiliated, the ambitious philosopher- with the idea for a time, he told Czartoryski monarch found himself compelled either to that he could not consider restoring the Pobreak with France or to keep his promises. lish provinces already incorporated in Russia,

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but that he might accept the crown of the his new son-in-law to join him in a protest grand duchy of Warsaw, including Galicia. against the aggressions of the Czar. NapoA secret emissary was then despatched to leon honorably refused thus to rupture the Vienna to sound Francis: Austria was to be in- Tilsit alliance, but said significantly to Metdemnified amply for Galicia in the partition ternich, « If Russia quarrels with us she will of Turkey. But Francis remained mute, and lose Finland, Moldavia, and Wallachia»; addthe fencing between Paris and St. Petersburg ing that if the Czar, contrary to his engagewas renewed.

A rejoinder to Napoleon's ment of 1808, should seize anything south of counter-project was laid on his desk, which the Danube, then he himself would intercontained the identical words used before, vene on Austria's behalf. But all Europe « that the kingdom of Poland shall never seemed convinced that war was inevitable. be restored.) This persistence infuriated in all the watering-places the talk was of the recipient; he dictated a smooth reply, nothing else. The Russian party in Vienna began to rouse public opinion in favor of grew bolder; Pozzo di Borgo, Napoleon's lifewar, strengthened certain of his fortresses, long foe, who had been temporarily under a and sought a closer rapprochement with cloud in Russia, appeared in Vienna in his Austria. The negotiations with Russia con- Russian uniform, courted and oracular. A tinued, Russia insisting on the obnoxious French interpreter on his way to Persia was phrase, France repelling the insinuation it stopped by him, and bribed to enter the Ruscontained.

sian service. Kourakine, partly recovered, Meanwhile Metternich, confident that in was leaving Paris for home. Through him the partition of Turkey better terms could be Napoleon called the Czar's attention to all obtained for Austria from Napoleon than from the facts, and at the same time orders were Alexander, was doing his utmost to embitter sent commanding Caulaincourt to end all netheir relations. There was a strong Russian gotiation, and the Poles were peremptorily party in Vienna which was in close touch with enjoined to silence. the numerous Poles in Warsaw who looked to Something of Alexander's secret diplomacy Alexander for the restoration of their coun- must have leaked out, but he appeared untry's integrity. In both places there was much moved. He was steadily preparing for war, talk of the restoration of Poland, in Warsaw strengthening his fortresses, and locating especially, and the phrase was constantly in fortified camps in the district between the the newspapers. Alexander's ambassador in Dwina and the Dnieper. But his chief concern Paris made urgent representations concern- was with Poland. Relying on the Jesuit ining «a persistent rumor that the Emperor in- fluence for support against the jailer of the tends to restore Poland. Napoleon retorted Pope, he again took up his old scheme and in fury, and threatened war, but immediately wrote to Czartoryski. But that nobleman, wrote a soothing assurance that he was still after a long residence in his native land, had true to the engagements of Tilsit. On July 1, learned how strong was the conviction of his while the lines were in the copyist's hands, countrymen that Napoleon would give them there occurred the incident which many a more complete autonomy than the Czar, and thought at the time changed the course of accordingly he gave a discouraging reply. history. During a magnificent festival given Alexander was determined that the coming by the Austrian ambassador, the decorations war should be defensive on his part, and imin an open court caught fire, and the con- mediately opened communications with Engflagration spread, enveloping the entire em- land and Sweden concerning the Continental bassy. All the important guests escaped system. Finally, in the closing days of the unhurt except Kourakine, the Russian am- year, he issued a ukase excluding wines, bassador, who was so injured that he could silks, and similar luxuries from France, but no longer perform his official duties. Almost facilitating the entry of the colonial wares immediately Napoleon's humor seemed to in which England dealt. This was an act of change; he curtly dismissed the Russian open hostility to his old ally, a declaration of chargé d'affaires, and ended the negotiation. commercial war. Prussia immediately made It was when this news reached St. Petersburg semi-official advances to the Czar, but they that Alexander a second time offered Norway were repelled. to Sweden.

It is not easy to estimate Napoleon's reThe cause of Napoleon's abrupt manner was sponsibility for what had happened and was the news communicated by Metternich that about to happen. He was persistently domithe Russian army had advanced successfully neering, contemptuous of national feeling to the Danube. On July 17 Francis requested and dynastic politics, over-confident in the

VOL. LII.-37-38.

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unswerving devotion of France, inflexible in for nationality, for religious, civil, and politihis policy of territorial aggrandizement, ruth- cal liberty, and for mercantile ascendancy. less in applying his infantile conceptions of Her inborn longings for the highest civilizafinance and political economy, and pitiless in tion were not inconsistent with her grim dehis own self-seeking. On the other hand, termination to resist a system that stood on Alexander, having received Prussia's auton- the Continent for progress, but which she had omy as his price, had proved an untrustworthy come to believe meant national ruin for her. ally from the outset. Having seized Finland, In January, 1812, Wellington stormed Ciuhe evaded the Continental system, and in the dad Rodrigo; on April 6 Badajoz fell. On April latest war between France and Austria had 18 Napoleon offered terms of peace, Spain to actually wooed the latter's favor. Procras- be kept intact under Joseph, Portugal to be tinating in the marriage affair, he displayed restored to the house of Braganza, Sicily to an insulting mistrust concerning Poland, remain under Ferdinand, and Naples under and finally declared diplomatic war by his Murat. Considering all the circumstances, overtures to England and his secret tamper- the offer was worthy of consideration; but ing with Austria. This latter power had done the English cabinet refused it. The possibilits utmost to bring on a conflict, hoping to ity of peace with Great Britain being thus exfind her account in the dissensions of the two tinguished, Napoleon considered what course empires; and Sweden, under Bernadotte, was he should pursue toward the other Protestant ready to do anything to strengthen the hands land, which felt itself to be still struggling of Alexander and escape from French pro- for life. Some well-informed persons asserted tection. On April 2, 1811, Napoleon admitted that at first the Emperor contemplated dethat war was inevitable. «It is all a scene stroying the Hohenzollern power utterly. If in an opera,» he wrote, « and the English con- so, he quickly dismissed the idea as involving trol the machinery. A week later he notified unnecessary risk. With the reforms of Stein Alexander that he was aware of the move and Hardenberg successfully accomplished, ment of Russian troops toward Poland, and with her educational system completed and declared that he, too, was preparing. Lau- her army reorganized, with her people electririston was sent to replace the too pacific fied at last into true patriotism, Prussia was Caulaincourt at St. Petersburg, and Cham- again a redoubtable power. Her influence perpagny was replaced in the foreign office by meated all Germany, and the secret associathe fiery Maret.

tions which ramified everywhere labored for There was much to be done before the ac- German unity, their members already dreamtual outbreak of hostilities. Prussia, with a ing of the Jura, Vosges, and Ardennes as the new vigor born of self-denial, education, and western frontier of their fatherland. At first passionate patriotism; Sweden, restless and Frederick William made overtures to the Czar, uneasy under the yoke of Napoleonic suprem- offering an army of 100,000 men. Alexander, acy; Denmark, friendly, but independent in desiring a purely defensive war, was cold; but her quasi-autonomy; the United States, chaf- late in 1811 he agreed, in case of an attack ing under the restriction of her commerce; on Prussia, to advance as far as the Vistula, Turkey, sick to death, but then as now pivotal «if possible. Meantime Austria at first in all European politics—the relation of all contemplated neutrality, but abandoned the these powers to the coming conflict must be policy when convinced that, whichever side prearranged. The impending struggle was should be victorious, Prussia would be disto be between two insatiate despotisms, one membered. Francis saw Alexander's conWestern and modern, the other Oriental and tinued successes on the Danube with growing theocratic. Napoleon dimly grasped the ten- anxiety, and, learning that Napoleon would dency of his own career; as Goethe said, «He put 400,000 men into the field, determined lives entirely in the ideal, but can never con- that France must win. Accordingly, in March, sciously grasp it.» Unconsciously, too, Alex- 1812, a treaty was executed, which put 30,ander the Great had fought for the extension of 000 Austrian troops under Napoleon's perGreek culture; Cæsar, to destroy the stifling sonal command, and stipulated for Austria's institutions of a worn-out system; Charles enlargement by Galicia, Illyria, and even the Great, to realize the « city of God » on Silesia, under certain contingencies. During earth. Napoleon was fighting for nationality, these negotiations Frederick William had individual liberty, popular sovereignty; had learned how stupendous Napoleon's preparahe been told so, he would have wondered what tions were, and, with some hesitancy, he fithe words could mean.

nally sent Scharnhorst to sound Austria. The English history is the story of her struggles result was determinative, and on February

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