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the English generals maintained themselves French, which led them into the extreme only by the exercise of qualities akin to genius. courses which devastated the land, and also Soult returned from Badajoz to Cadiz, and in displays the quality of the discipline which March Masséna began a retreat into Spain. was exercised whenever possible. Nor should Thereupon the English besieged Badajoz, and it be forgotten that the two most splendid on May 5 defeated Masséna at Fuentes de writers of France's succeeding age were proOnoro in one of the bitterest conflicts of the foundly impressed by the terrible scenes of war. The old marshal was recalled in disgrace, the French invasion. George Sand was in and replaced by Marmont. On May 16, Soult, Madrid as an infant for a considerable portion advancing to relieve Badajoz, was defeated of 1808; Victor Hugo passed the year 1811 in a pitched battle at Albuera; but the victory in a Madrid school, fighting childish battles proved an empty one for the English, since for «the great Emperor, whom his Spanish Wellington, hearing that French reinforce- schoolmates called Napoladron (Napo the robments were coming up from Salamanca, felt ber). The former was irresistibly drawn to constrained to withdraw before superior revisit the country; the latter recalled his force, and decamped on June 18. The rest impressions in some of his noblest verse. of 1811 was a season of inactivity, except It would be idle to believe that Napoleon did for the exploits of Suchet, who annihilated not fully realize the situation in Spain; it is Blake's army, capturing Valencia and occupy- gratuitous to assume that by massing all his ing Aragon. In the following season Wel- resources he could not have made a desert in lington captured both Ciudad Rodrigo and Spain to call it a peace. But before devasBadajoz; advancing then, he overwhelmed tating what he intended to make part of his Marmont in the brilliant victory of Sala- empire, he thought to cut away the British manca on July 22, 1812, and marched on support from beneath the rebellion. The Madrid to dethrone Joseph. Soult at once credit of Great Britain could not long be abandoned Cadiz and hurried north, while maintained with her contraband trade parMarmont took possession of Burgos. The alyzed, and her costly expeditions to Holland, British soldiers, finding themselves between Sicily, and Spain either failures or but partial two foes, became demoralized. Wellington successes. Her collapse would be assured if was forced by the chaos of English politics the Czar would only remain true to the ento retreat into Portugal, and at the close of gagements of Tilsit, since the only channel the year the French held all Spain except for British trade to enter the Continent was the south coast. But in spite of their inglori- now through Russia. It is true that the ous successes the soldiers were dispirited; finances of France herself were at a low ebb, regiments melted away under desertion and but the Emperor had money in abundance. sickness, and the military power of France in When the legislative assembly met in DecemSpain was annihilated. The peninsula was ber, 1809, it was clear that the farce of connever to be French.

stitutional imperialism was nearly played out. Yet in some respects the French charac- The members of the senate kept their seats ter appeared in a stronger light throughout by their own decree; an imperial edict apthe disasters of the Peninsular war than at pointed the deputies for the new departments any other time. Marbot's tale of the beau- without the form of an election. By an artitiful young cantinière, or woman sutler, of cle of the new penal code the confiscation of the 26th regiment, who after Busaco rushed estates was made the penalty for certain unhurt through the English outposts to crimes. This was enforced, the public canals alleviate the sufferings of Simon, the gen- were sold to private corporations, and the eral of her brigade, who had been cap- sanction of legislative ratification was given tured, and who returned on her donkey to such acts. The moneys thus obtained, tothrough the lines without having suffered gether with the vast contributions and inan insult, reflects equal credit on the un- demnities received from foreign states, were selfish daring of the French, which she typi- really a corruption fund. The enormous arfied, and on the pure-minded gallantry of the mies, which covered Europe like swarms of loEnglish. His narrative of the French deser- custs, were admirably maintained; but it was ters who, under a leader nicknamed Marshal hard to find money for the purpose, because

a Stockpot, established themselves as freeboot- the marshals and generals were insatiate in ers in a convent not far from Masséna's head- their demands. The greed of the civil adminquarters at Santarem, and of the general's istrators was scarcely less; and thus, in both swift, condign punishment of such conduct, branches of the public service, every official graphically delineates the straits of the stood with outstretched palm and hungry eyes.






Napoleon had the lavish hand of a parvenu, but from Paris as an intriguer by the Committee his beneficiaries were not grateful, and with of Public Safety, kept under surveillance in ever-increasing insolence were always craving Switzerland by the Directory, her offers more. The system of private confiscations spurned by Bonaparte, she spent the ten or forced contributions from individuals had years of her banishment in wandering from already attained vast dimensions. During the court to court through England, Russia, winter of 1809-10 it was extended and regu- Prussia, and Sweden, undermining Napoleon's lated; the sums wrung from German princes character, and fomenting the coalitions which and Spanish grandees, from English mer- eventually ruined him. Her study of regenchants and the Italian clergy, were not en- erated Germany was in the main a valuable tirely exhausted; the remainder, together book; influential as it was, it held up to France with what was « accepted » from timorous as a model the course of her bitterest foe, and politicians, crafty ecclesiastics, sly contrac- the censors heightened its renown by their tors, and unprincipled financiers, was now efforts to suppress it. The decennial prizes, erected into the dignity of the Emperor's instituted to promote letters and learning, « extraordinary domain.) The term «army were distributed in 1810. Most of the names chest» had been devised for times of higher of those who were crowned are now known public morality; it was now discarded. Con- to none except the curious. fiscated palaces, forests, lands, fisheries, During the season of 1810-11 the Empemoneys from the sale of American ships - ror's private life was virtually devoted to beneall were now the Emperor's private property. ficence. In addition to the favors granted to We should not be astonished at the revenues Carnot, he lavished money on other objects, of his great officials. Berthier had 1,350,800 some not so worthy. Canova, who had been francs a year; Davout, 910,000; Ney, 728,000; called from Rome to make a portrait-statue and Masséna, 500,000; naturally Soult wished of the Empress, obtained a substantial grant to augment his 305,000, and for that end for the learned societies of that city. Chénier, sought the crown of Portugal. What with like Carnot, had been a pronounced adversary the public charities, the public works, and of the Empire. He now sought employment such lavish bribery, the expenditure had risen under it, and was made inspector-general of to 430,000,000; but the receipts by the means the university, an office which he did not live enumerated above had been swollen to 760,- long to enjoy. All the old favorites were 000,000, so that Napoleon had 330,000,000 in remembered in a general distribution of good

things. Talleyrand having just lost an imLegislative independence extinguished, a mense sum by the failure of a trusted bank, privy purse of immense capacity established, the Emperor came to his relief by purchasing the greed of useful supporters temporarily one of his most splendid palaces for more satisfied, the censorship of the press made than 2,000,000 francs. The court resided rigid, there was but one other measure essen- sometimes at St. Cloud, sometimes at Ramtial to complete tyranny, and that was taken. bouillet, sometimes at the Trianon, but for There were many disaffected persons in the the most part at Fontainebleau, where the Empire too powerful to be left at liberty, but ceremonious life, to which all concerned were too dangerous to be tried in open court. Six now well accustomed, was marked by none of state prisons were established for this numer- the old awkwardness, but ran as brilliantly as ous class, and gradually a colony of helpless lavish expenditure could make it. The pregmalcontents, outraged in every human right, nancy of the Empress was celebrated with was confined in each. Where was the en- great festivities, during which Napoleon perlightened public opinion of France? Where, formed one of his most applauded acts-the indeed? The publishers bought the slender endowment of a vast maternity hospital. The immunities they enjoyed with considerable Empress was brought into great prominence sums, and this gold was used to pension as the president of a society consisting of a needy men of letters; other writers were thousand noble ladies, under whose patronage given decorations that carried subsidies with the charity was placed. them; some were elevated into the new bar- The unconcealed and ecstatic delight of the onage. The great majority of those who should prospective father found vent in delicate and have formed and molded public opinion were tender attention to the mother of his child, subservient to the government. Even Carnot and until her deliverance he was a gentle, accepted a pension of 10,000 francs. The devoted, and considerate husband. His whole standing exception was Mme. de Staël, who, nature seemed transformed. When in the having been scorned, never forgave. Ordered early morning of March 20, 1811, word was

his purse.


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brought that the Empress was in labor, and vain, after all, and the man-child, coming that a false presentation made it of instant without a cry into the world, and lying breathnecessity to choose between the life of the less for seven minutes, as if hesitating to acmother and that of the child, the feelings of cept or decline his destiny, finally gave a wail the Emperor can better be imagined than as he caught the breath of life. Napoleon described. If the expected heir should die, turned, caught up his treasure, and pressed it his dynasty would be jeopardized, his enemies to his bosom. A hundred guns announced the would once more be making appointments birth, and the city burst into jubilations, which over his grave, the hopes of a lifetime might were reëchoed throughout Europe from Dantbe shattered. But there was not a moment's zic to Cadiz. Festival succeeded festival, and wavering. « Think only of the mother,” he for an interval men believed that the temple cried.

of Janus would be again closed. No boy ever The fears of the attending physician were came on the earthly stage amid such splen

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