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It is not surprising that birds like my general effect of which is metallic blue. garden products, for there are few native The ogalungo has a tail like that of the vegetables, and of these the yam is not pea-hen and carries it in the way that a accessible, and the mbuma, a kind of pea-hen does. It never grows as long as egg-plant, is bitter. Natives make a the tail of a peacock, and is never spread palatable dish of it by cooking it in grease out after the fashion practised by the or stewing it with meat.
bird that symbolizes vanity. But the birds that invaded my garden Among English people the ogalungo did not include the turraco, or “plan- is nicknamed "bully-cock," but the natain-eater," of which we brought to tives, with their usual picturesqueness America a hundred specimens of three of perception, have seemed to choose or four varieties. It has never been clear the most appropriate name for this gorto me why this bird is called “plantain- geous creature. eater," because it never eats plantains. One peculiarity about the bird is that
Of the turracos that haunted Ntyonga when it alights upon a tree it always the largest and most beautiful is the does so running on a limb, and it seems ogalungo, which is on the order of a pea- to fly from limb to limb when it is, in cock, and which is called the pao (pea- reality, running. Its movements are so cock) by some white men. The native swift that, while on its feet, it has all words oga, king, and lungo, copper-rod, the appearance of flying. have been combined to form a name that That so lovely a creature should be signifies “King copper-rod," or "Copper slain for its flesh seems a shame, and I King." The bird has legs that glow admit that I hated to kill the pretty like burnished copper rods, which may things. But we did shoot a lot of them, have suggested the native nomenclature, for the flesh is excellent after the bird and many rich tints of bronze gleam in has been hung up for eighteen or twenty its very beautiful, brilliant plumage, the hours.
(To be concluded)
By IRENE RUTHERFORD MCLEOD
I went into the green wood,
As I have gone before
That I shall find no more.
That I had come to see,
And buds on every tree.
Sang as in other days,
In these familiar ways.
Dappled the same track, But I, oh, I had traveled on,
And could not there come back.
Suns and worlds unseen
A million trees shall rise here,
And rot, and rise again;
And be renewed in pain.
Changeless in changing are;
Burns in the morning star.
And dust again shall rise,
For all that lives and dies.
I found a dream had fled:
I found my soul instead!
Life and Letters of Sir Wilfrid Laurier
By OSCAR DOUGLAS SKELTON "It was Laurier's fortune, and Canada's, that he was in control of the country's affairs at the most creative and formative period in its history. For all time his name will be linked with Canada's attainment of industrial maturity and national status.”
IX. LAURIER IN OFFICE.
party had four different leaders, and the
dominion four prime ministers. None AFTER eighteen years' wandering in
of them was of Macdonald's stature. the wilderness of opposition, for half
Sir John Abbott was a shrewd lawyer, the time under Laurier's leadership, the but more at home in court or councilLiberal party came into power in 1896. room than on the floor of the House or For fifteen years, the longest unbroken on the hustings. Sir John Thompson stretch of power in the country's annals, was an able and honest administrator Wilfrid Laurier was prime minister of who was growing in strength and Canada. These fifteen years were years breadth of view and living down the crowded with opportunity, a testing- prejudice felt against him because of his time sufficient to search out every conversion from Methodism to Roman strength and every weakness of the Catholicism, when death cut short his leader or of his administration.
career. Sir Mackenzie Bowell, a faithLaurier's fortune, and Canada's, that he ful party man and one-time grand was in control of the country's affairs at master of the Orange order, could not the most creative and formative period hold his ministers in control, and was in its history. For all time his name forced by the “nest of traitors” to make will be linked with Canada's attainment way for a stronger leader.. Sir Charles of industrial maturity and national Tupper, summoned in 1896 from Lonstatus.
don, where he was acting as high comThe victory of the Liberals in the missioner, took up the task, but not general election of 1896 was not sur- even his bulldog tenacity could restore prising. The swing of the pendulum unity to a party shattered by intrigue. was not notably operative in Canadian The revelations of long-continued and politics in the first half-century of con- wholesale corruption in the public works federation, and yet it had its effect. department had "made Tammany smell Time brought to the ship of state bar- sweet” in comparison. For the moment nacles and dry rot, as it brought to the the revelations of similar misdoings on passengers the desire for a change. the part of the Liberal government of This would not have overcome the Honoré Mercier in Quebec enabled the tremendous advantage which in Cana- Conservative party to answer tu quoque, dian elections fell to the party in power, but in the long run it suffered most in with its henchmen in office, its news, public esteem. papers subsidized by government adver- The national policy was losing its grip. tising, its opportunities to milk sub- Protection had been given a fair trial; sidies and contracts for campaign funds, it had not brought and kept the proshad it not been for more specific factors perity that was guaranteed. The people
. working in the same direction.
hesitated to try the drastic remedy of The Conservative party had lost its unrestricted reciprocity with the United great chieftain on the morrow of the States, and feared the specter of political election of 1891. Sir John A. Macdonald annexation in the background; but when had been prime minister of the dominion in 1893 the Liberals in national convenfor twenty of its twenty-four years. In tion modified their policy to that of a the next five years the Conservative tariff for revenue and limited reciprocity with the United States, they won wider creased dependence on the public chest and support.
on legislative aids, and possessed withal by The tariff had been given full credit a boastful jingo spirit far enough removed for the burst of prosperity that followed from true manliness, loudly proclaiming 1878; now it had to shoulder full re- unreal conditions and exaggerated sentisponsibility for the depression that ments, while actual facts and genuine opinmarked the early nineties. The younger ions are suppressed. It has left us with our generation of Canadians to-day can hands tied, our future compromised, and in scarcely realize the depth of despon- such a plight that, whether we stand or move, dency into which the country was sinking. we must run some risks which else we might Farm prices were low, and mortgages have either declined or encountered with high; railway-building was at a stand- greater promise of success. still; the West remained unopened; free homesteads found few takers; more men The Manitoba school question told abandoned the country every year than against the Government in Ontario. sought it; "the trails from Manitoba The racial and religious quarrels of the to the States,” according to a Western East had found an echo in Manitoba, Conservative newspaper, “were worn where the Liberal Greenway-Martin
bare and brown by the waggon wheels government had in 1890 deprived the of departing settlers." Edward Blake, Roman Catholic separate schools of in the cryptic message he gave to the
official status and public aid. A bitter people of Canada the day after the
controversy followed in court and Parlia
ment. The Dominion election of 1891, summed up the failure
Government of the national policy in a powerful pelling the legislature to restore the
undertook to pass a remedial act compassage:
rights of which the highest courts held Its real tendency has been, as foretold the minority had been deprived. Lautwelve years ago, towards disintegration and rier, agreeing that the minority had been annexation, instead of consolidation and the wronged, did not believe in federal maintenance of the British connection of coercion a remedy. Withholding which they claim to be the special guardians. his hand until the moment came for It has left us with a scanty population, a action, he came out boldly in straight scanty immigration, and a North-West
opposition to the Government's bill. empty still; with enormous additions to our
Dealing with threats of ecclesiastical public debt and yearly charge, an extravagant system of expenditure, and an unjust hostility, he declared in the House: and oppressive tariff; with restricted markets Not many weeks ago I was told from high for our needs, whether to buy or to sell, and quarters in the Church to which I belong, all the host of evils (greatly intensified by that unless I supported the School Bill which our special conditions) thence arising; with was then being prepared by the government, trade diverted from its natural into forced and which we have now before us, I would and therefore less profitable channels, and incur the hostility of a great and powerful with unfriendly relations and frowning body. Sir, this is too grave a phase of this tariff walls ever more and more estranging us question for me to pass it by in silence. I from the mighty English-speaking nation to have only this to say, that even though I the south, our neighbors and relations, with have threats held over me, coming, as I am whom we ought to be, as it was promised told, from high dignitaries in the Church to that we should be, living in generous amity which I belong, no word of bitterness shall and liberal intercourse. Worse, far worse! ever pass my lips as against that Church. I It has left us with lowered standards of respect it and I love it. Sir, I am not of that public virtue and a death-like apathy in school which has been long dominant in public opinion; with racial, religious and France and other countries of Continental provincial animosities inflamed rather than Europe, which refuses ecclesiastics the privsoothed; with a subservient Parliament, an ilege of having a voice in public affairs. No, autocratic Executive, debauched constit- I am a liberal of the English school, which uencies, and corrupted and corrupting has all along claimed that it is the privilege classes; with lessened self-reliance and in- of all subjects, whether high or low, whether
rich or poor, whether ecclesiastic or layman, tribute twenty-five thousand dollars to to participate in the administration of public their Quebec fund as soon as their other affairs, to discuss, to influence, to persuade, contributions reached that sum, he was to convince, but which has always denied, informed that their whole dominion even to the highest, the right to dictate even funds were under that amount; with his to the lowest. I am here representing not pocket-book intact, he went away sorRoman Catholics alone but Protestants as rowing over such impracticable politiwell, and I must give an account of my stew- cians. Unfortunately, never until twenty ardship to all classes. Here am I, a Roman years had passed was the Liberal party Catholic of French extraction, entrusted again so poor in purse. with the confidence of the men who sit around The election of 1896 gave the Liberals me, with great and important duties under a majority of five in Ontario and of our constitutional system of government. thirty-three in Quebec, where they outAm I to be told-I, occupying such a posi- numbered their opponents, hierarchical tion—that I am to be dictated to as to the influence and all, three to one. The course I am to take in this House by reasons rest of the country was very evenly that can appeal to the consciences of my divided, with a slight Conservative lead. fellow-Catholic members, but which do not The old régime had ended, and at last appeal as well to the consciences of my Pro- Laurier and his followers were given testant colleagues? No! So long as I have their chance to show their constructive a seat in this House, so long as I occupy the capacity. In the general election of position I do now, whenever it shall become 1900 the majority was still further inmy duty to take a stand upon any question creased, and again in 1904, receding only whatever, that stand I will take, not from slightly in 1908. the point of view of Roman Catholicism, not The cabinet which Wilfrid Laurier from the point of view of Protestantism, but gathered about him in 1896 was the from a point of view which can appeal to the strongest in Canada's annals. He took consciences of all men, irrespective of their no department himself, reserving his particular faith, upon grounds which can be strength for general policy. The strongoccupied by all men who love justice, est men in four of the provincial adminfreedom, and toleration.
istrations were summoned to aid him. While giving strength in Ontario, it Sir Oliver Mowat, premier of Ontario, was felt that this defiance would mean became minister of justice for a brief annihilation in Quebec, since the hie- space, long enough to reassure the Scotch rarchy was backing the Government heart Presbyterians of Ontario as to the comand soul. Bishop and priest denounced plete soundness and respectability of Laurier, but, as the event proved, they the new ministry. William S. Fielding, denounced him in vain. The habitant premier of Nova Scotia, became minister respected his priest; he had come to of finance, and for fifteen years proved a reverence the brilliant statesman of his strong and skilful administrator. Anown kith and kin who stood so near drew G. Blair, premier of New Brunssupreme power, and preferred to make wick, proved in a few years to have more his compatriot prime minister than to force than faith. From Manitoba came give his clergy the law they demanded. Clifford Sifton, a power in the Laurier
Laurier's own efforts had contributed cabinet for ter years and behind other greatly to victory. Tours through the cabinets thereafter. The other minisWest and through the Maritime Prov- ters were drawn from the dominion inces had widened his outlook and his ranks. From Quebec, Sydney Fisher prestige. Even in Tory Toronto he had began a long service as a progressive aroused a glowing welcome. The preju- leader of agricultural development, dices of his foes and the fears of his while Israel Tarte's portfolio of public friends had vanished with the proof of works was the recognition of the organhis moderation and of his courage. izing ability and dynamic force of the
One campaign asset was lacking. The man who had fought Laurier in his Liberals had no large campaign fund. early days and was to fight him again in When a newspaper politician, veering his last years. Henry Joly de Lotbintoward their support, offered to con- ière and C. A. Geoffrion were of the
older Rouge generation; in Charles whole did not possess in 1911 the vigor of Fitzpatrick the ministry included a 1896. Fifteen years in office brought member more profoundly devout than experience and facility, it is true, but any Bleu had dreamed of claiming to be they brought also a tendency to comand as subtle as the serpents of the field. promise, a belief that all was well with The Ontario contingent was a strong
the world, an ease in Zion. Social Besides Mowat, Sir Richard Cart- gaiety or corporation contact weakened wright again held a portfolio, though not the fiber of some who began well, and the post of minister of finance which he power attracted the unscrupulous. So had wished and manufacturers had far as the rank and file were concerned, feared; William Mulock's vigor and particularly in Ontario, there was a directness shook up the dry bones of falling off in numbers and quality. The
. Ottawa departments; William Paterson prosperity which came to Canada with contributed his kindly shrewdness to the Laurier régime opened many doors counsel and his stentorian voice to to ambition and lessened the attractivedebate; Richard W. Scott became secre- ness of public life, while power, and the tary of state. Louis Davies, from Prince compromises that followed power, dulled
, Edward Island, in the Marine Depart. the keen edge which Liberalism had ment, and Frederick Borden of Nova possessed in the stern days of opposition. Scotia, as minister of militia, completed Yet with all qualifications, the Laurier a strong muster-roll.
administrations could safely challenge Fifteen years brought many changes comparison with any that had gone be in the personnel of the cabinet, though fore or any that came after, for that Fielding, Fisher, Cartwright, F. W. matter-in ability, in integrity, in conBorden, as well as Laurier himself, structive vision, in steady purpose, and served through the whole period and internal unity. gave steadiness and continuity to policy. Even after nine years of party leaderThe Ontario contingent underwent ship, there were men who doubted many changes: the more notable acces- whether Wilfrid Laurier would be more sions were Sir Allen Aylesworth, an than the titular head of his administraeminent jurist, who was at the same tion. They did not think it possible time a strong party man; George P. that a man so courteous could show himGraham, a former leader of the Liberal self hard when hardness was called for. opposition in Ontario, who became min- Could a leader who had made his fame ister of railways and the director of by his oratory develop the qualities party organization; Charles Murphy, a needed to control a ministry and guide a shrewd and witty counselor; and Mac- divided country through difficult days? kenzie King, who entered the ministry The doubts soon vanished. Long before from the civil service and represented Laurier's years of office were ended, the the new interest in social questions. criticism of his opponents was no longer In Quebec there was an almost equally that he was a weakling, but that he was complete transformation: Rodolphe too masterful and self-willed. Lemieux, Laurier's most eloquent lieu- The Laurier ministries contained tenant, entered the ministry in 1904; many men of strong wills, but there and the same year added Louis P. never was any question from the first Brodeur, whose sound and balanced day to the last that he was “the master judgment later found scope in the work of the administration.” When, after of the Supreme Court; Jacques Bureau's half a dozen years of office, Israel Tarte vigor and Henri Béland's suavity developed the illusion that he could strengthened the ministry in its later play that part himself, the question was years. In the West the chief develop- not long left in doubt. Not that ment was the substitution of Frank Laurier was arbitrary, or that he inOliver, a hard-hitting old-timer, for sisted upon intervening in the details of Clifford Sifton. From the East came the administration of other ministers. Henry Emmerson and William Pugsley. He believed in giving every colleague
The later administrations included wide latitude and large responsibility. many able men, but the ministry as a A Whig by conviction, he was not eager