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to impress his mind with the responsibility of giving correct testimony than being in the witness box in our English Courts; and on the whole I thought Justice was as admirably administered as I had ever seen it.

From Mr Shaw's evident friendship towards me I found it was supposed that my Politics were in accordance with those of the Orangemen. In Dublin and elsewhere I listened quietly to political remarks, deeming that controversy would be useless, and wishing not to argue but to observe accurately the feelings and sentiments of the people I was amongst.

We next proceeded to Drogheda, a neat Seaport Town, where we stayed all night and part of the next day. I found there a curious instance of manufacturing process in the fabrication of that article (pins), which Adam Smith instances as an illustration of the division of Labour at the beginning of his work on the Wealth of Nations. Some of the intermediate stages of the manufacture require very little manual strength, it was therefore found profitable to send unfinished pins from a manufactory in Lancashire to Drogheda, where rent and labour were cheaper, and to have these intermediate processes performed there by young girls. The pins, still unfinished, were sent back to be completed in Lancashire.

Thence we proceeded to Dundalk, of which place my Brother-in-law was Vicar1. We visited the School where Children of all religious beliefs were being educated together. Portions of scripture, agreed upon by both Protestant and Roman Catholic Clergy (of whom Archbp. Whately was one), were printed on separate slips, and read aloud by the several classes. Instruction in the respective tenets of Roman

187, Mr Thackeray has life, and in another work

In the Irish Sketch Book, Vol. II. p. drawn his kind and venerable cousin to the he alludes to him as "the gentle Elias." The Primate of Ireland (Lord John Beresford) had such regard for him that he held his Pall.

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Catholicism, the Church of England, and Presbyterianism was left to their several Pastors.

We went to see the burying-ground of the Parish, where I observed a crowd of persons. I enquired of the Vicar what it was, and he said he believed it was a Roman Catholic funeral. I asked if such took place in the same ground as the Protestants? he seemed rather surprised at the question, and answered that of course they did. It appeared in another conversation with him that his man-servant was a Roman Catholic. I asked how it was that he attended the family prayers? He answered that when the man first came into his service it was mentioned to him that he need not join in their devotions, but he said, "I'll come and see," and afterwards, finding nothing to offend him, continued to attend.

Having shown me the habitations and modes of life of some of his own Protestant parishioners, the Vicar then introduced me to the Priest, Mr Marmion, a courteous intelligent man, and left me with him. He said to me, "Now what do you wish to see?" I requested him to take me to some of the best and some of the worst dwellings of his own poor. In the former we found a very neatly-furnished cottage of a brother and sister, who by their industry maintained their bed-ridden Father, and who expressed their satisfaction at being able to do so without any charitable assistance. We then visited one abode where dirt and discomfort were obvious, and the furniture was scanty and broken. I enquired of Mr Marmion if he thought that intemperance was the cause of the disorder of this home and of others like it, and he said that he believed that it was.

I found the state of Agriculture in Ireland for the most part very indifferent, so far at least as regarded the abundance of weeds, especially that large succulent plant called the Ragwort, which the small occupiers seemed too indolent

to eradicate. There were some exceptions.

A Farm about

a mile from Dundalk was in excellent condition, but then the Farmer (named Campbell) was a Scotchman. I was invited to pass a day with Mr Booth, the owner and occupier of a Farm about three miles from Dundalk on the road to Louth, in order that I might inspect it, and I thought it superior both in cultivation, and in plain useful buildings, to anything I had seen in the (at that time) few well-cultivated districts of England. The day after I left Dundalk (to my regret) a circumstance occurred which showed the liberal Irish hospitality. My Brother-in-law received a letter from the Archbishop of Armagh, saying that he had heard that an English Member of Parliament was his guest, and inviting him to bring him on a visit of some days to the Palace.

On my return to Chester I visited Liverpool and travelled from thence, for curiosity, a few miles towards Manchester on that then novel mode of conveyance, a Railroad. It seems to me extraordinary that it had not been discovered long before. While I was at School tramways were used at Hull between the Docks and Warehouses, whereby one horse drawing a cart did the work of three or four. Within a mile of them were steam Engines for grinding wheat, or crushing seed for oil, and yet no one till nearly 40 years afterwards thought of combining the two. Dr Darwin predicted a charge, both in prose and verse. "There is reason to believe it (the Steam Engine) may in time be applied to the rowing of barges, and the moving of carriages along the Road1."

"Soon shall thine arm, unconquered Steam, afar
Drag the slow barge, or drive the rapid car."

1 Darwin's Economy of Vegetation, Vol. 1. p. 31, 4th Ed. 1799.

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First Journey on a Railway-Mr Huskisson. 245

Stuart Mill says, "hitherto it is a question if all the inventions yet made have lightened the day's toil of any human being." Perhaps so; but then men for their toil get greater comforts which are the result of such inventions.

This was the first and then the only railway in existence. It had been formally opened by Ministers Sept. 15th, 1830, at Liverpool. One of the party, Mr Huskisson, lost his life by getting out of the train too hastily. My friend Daniel Sykes was with him, and told me the particulars.

Mr Huskisson made early efforts in the cause of Freetrade, and had a triumphant success about the Silk-trade. No manufactured silk was admitted into this Country, not even from India, and as the heat of that climate renders the silk more pliable it was much sought after, and people were thankful to obtain in some indirect way a few India handkerchiefs. At the time Mr Huskisson mooted the subject there was an absolute prohibition against importing French silks. He obtained an alteration of the Law, and they came in, as well as the raw silk, at a duty of 30 per cent. Even with this the English manufacturer contrived to improve upon them, so that ours were in time made superior to the Foreign. Fox, who understood nothing of Political Economy, opposed the commercial treaty which Pitt had made with France previous to the Revolution, and which as far as it went was favourable to Free-trade1.

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I have a high opinion of Cobden. He had clear ideas of Political Economy when he effected the treaty of Commerce between France and England; and he proved his disinterestedness by declining office, as if he wished to show that he had only his Country's good at heart, not his own aggrandisement.

1 "Of that generation of Statesmen (Erskine, Sheridan, Grey and Fox) Pitt alone had studied Adam Smith."

I found at Chester an old friend in one of the Canons, Archdeacon Wrangham. He was a native of East Yorkshire, and one of the many excellent scholars educated by Joseph Milner. He came up to Magdalene College in 1786, and in October of the following year, on the suggestion of Dr Jowett, then, I believe, Fellow and Tutor of Trinity Hall, removed thither, as holding out far better academical prospects. He obtained one of the Browne's Medals for the Greek and Latin Epigrams, was 3rd Wrangler, 2nd Mathematical Prizeman, and 1st Classical Medallist, though the distinguished Tweddell was his competitor. After this

extraordinary career of eminence in University honours, his election to a clerical fellowship, to which a share in the tuition was usually attached, seemed a matter of course in itself, and of great importance to the prosperity of the College. A vacancy soon occurred, he was rejected, and a Mr Vickers, who had been 4th Wrangler, but was in every way inferior in talents and attainments to Wrangham, was brought from another College to supplant him. The astonishment of the University was great. A sufficient, or any real reason, was in vain sought for. No moral objection was alleged or existed; nothing was suggested except displeasure at a severe epigram (which he did not write about a garden made by Dr Jowett) and his political opinions. Young Wrangham was a Whig, and therefore, according to the usage of those troubled times, was accused of being a favourer of the bloody excesses of the French Revolution. He had put up in his rooms the table of the French Revolutionary Calendar. This was quoted as a proof of his approbation of their whole proceedings, while the motto which he had written upon it was not mentioned thought of:


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