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the fact that he has not been more Wales and Welshmen; but from the thoroughly dipped in the melting-pot days of Sir Walter Scott onward these of the House of Commons and of Lon- sentiments were obliterated by a don "society," but in his undue sus- wholesome respect for Scottish achieveceptibility to it and in his loss of touch ment. Between England and Ireland with his own nationality. Nothing there has been a long and unhappy could ever have made him a great political relationship. Irishmen were Englishman, but he might, under a until recently considered by Englishhappier star, have been a great Welsh- men as incapable of governing themman; and, as a great Welshman, he selves, and recent events have served might have added luster to the annals in some quarters to reinforce this comof the British Commonwealth of na- placent verdict. But oppression and tions. Therein lies the disintegration condescension in the political field have of a personality, the eclipse of a not prevented the knitting of many political career, and a moral not for links between the two peoples in other Wales or Great Britain only, but for spheres of achievement. In the field students of the contacts of nationality of letters, in particular, Ireland has and politics the world over.

made a substantial contribution, if not

to English literature, at least to the § 2

literature of the English language. Wales is the territory in the west of For the Welsh, on the other hand, the Island of Great Britain lying be- English is emphatically a non-contween the mouth of the Dee and the ductor. No one who knows the Welsh Bristol Channel. It is inhabited by a

It is inhabited by a people will affirm that it is inferior to distinct race, the descendants of the any of its neighbors in the British Isles ancient Britons who took refuge in the in thought and passion or in the immountains and dales of western Great pulse to express thought and passion Britain at the time of the Anglo-Saxon in the written word. Yet how slender invasion. These "Welshmen" (for- and unsubstantial is the volume of eigners), as the English call them, or Welsh production in the English; Cymru, as they call themselves, are not tongue! Virtually the only real exonly different from the English in ample of the Welsh genius in English language, customs, religious life, cul- garb is afforded by the religious poetry ture, in fact in all that goes to make up of Henry Vaughan and George Herbert national personality, but are actually in the seventeenth century. Those more widely sundered from their Eng- who are familiar with the Welsh hymnlish neighbors than are either the Scots writers can recognize in the quaint to the north of them or the Irish to the blending of philosophic thought and farther west. Between England and natural imagery in which Vaughan in Scotland relations of mutual respect particular exhibits the quality of mind and a fair measure of mutual under- which Pantacelyn and the religious standing have been established for a poets of the Welsh Revival brought to century or more. Dr. Johnson and his triumphant expression in their own contemporaries may have felt toward tongue. But Vaughan is only a happy Scotland and her inhabitants much as exception who proves the rule; and many Englishmen still feel toward even in this case the great mass of his

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work has been blunted rather than re- tradition modern Welsh history begins fined and enriched by the influence of much at the same period as the history his Oxford training.

of the newly liberated peoples of southFor indeed it is not the Welsh gentry, eastern Europe at the end of the who have for centuries been in touch eighteenth century. But the power with Oxford and the Church of Eng- that stirred the Welsh soul to self-conland, who are the true repositories of sciousness was not political, but rethe Welsh national tradition. The ligious; not the call of the French Welsh, like some of the smaller peoples Revolution, but the preaching of the of central and eastern Europe, are a English dissenters. It was the influtruncated nation. Their aristocracy ence of Wesley and Whitefield and has been Anglicized and denational- their Welsh followers that precipitated ized, so that great gentlemen and land- the "Great Revival" that is reckoned owners, like the earls of Powys or the the dawn of modern Wales. It is this Pryses of Gogerddan, are no more rep- extraordinary outburst of religious resentative of Wales than the German- fervor, releasing, as it did, elements of ized aristocracy of Bohemia is of national personality that had been reCzechoslovakia. The real Wales is the pressed for centuries under the AngliWales of the common people, of the can and aristocratic régime, which has bourgeoisie, the small farmers, and the given to Welsh life, social and political, artisans, laborers, and shepherds. It cultural and religious, the peculiar is among these, and especially among imprint that still distinguishes it tothe humbler members of the com- day. From that revival sprang the munity and in the remoter country missionary labors of the four great districts, that the genuine national sects,-non-territorial tribes, as a witty tradition lives on and the national Welsh student of Athenian constitugenius is still aflame. It was a humble tional history has called them,—the farm-house in the Vale of Festiniog Baptists, the Wesleyans, the Congrethat was the home of Morgan Llwyd, gationalists, and the Calvinistic Meththat solitary Welsh ally of the seven- odists, whose unpretentious chapels teenth-century English Puritans, whose may be observed in fierce or friendly strange and powerful prophesyings en- competition in every Welsh township title him to a place, with Tauler, Eck- or village. It was the Great Revival hart, and the rest, in the roll of Euro- which, in its hymn-writers, restored pean mystics. And two and a half the dignity of the ancient language and centuries later it was from the wet and gave Welshmen the beginnings of a windy village of Trawsfynnedd, aloft modern popular literature. And it on its rain-swept perch across the ridge was through the chapels and their mul(Trawsfynneddtrans montes) from the tifarious ramifying influences that a Festiniog valley, that there went forth freemasonry grew up among classes to the Great War a shepherd boy hitherto disdained and kept under named Hedd Wynn for whom the which paved the way, first, for political prize-winner's chair was draped in organization and, later, for an ascendblack at the national Eisteddfod ancy, in local government, in parliain 1917.

mentary representation, and in patronFor Welshmen who are true to this age to appointments in the principal

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