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-which he thought 'sounded ill for her respectability' and so he would have no more to do with her! The last of the three pretty ones was a very sad spectacle indeed; she was a gentle innocentlooking girl-not more than sixteenbrought in like a sheep to the slaughter by a wicked-faced devil-as to whose business in life there could not be two opinions. Gambardella hardly looked at the girl-but told the woman in a grave imperative manner that he was already suited-and the pair went off to seek a less scrupulous customerleaving me very much shocked upon my honour! I was at his house again yesterday-went with Carlyle to see the picture in its finished state-and stayed awhile behind him, helping the Unfortunate to concoct a new advertisement! more precise, and not so liable to misinterpretation as the first. In addition to the female help he is minded now to have a-tiger! Lady Morgan having laughed at him for having the door opened by a maid with a baby in her arms!! It is impossible to make him conduct himself like a reasonable being and so he must flounder along like a very unreasonable one. The only comfort is that sort of headlong, unbalanced character has a wonderful knack of lighting always like a cat on its feet. There I must stop abruptly-Mazzini has been here and as it pours down rain I had best send the letters with him."

To Jeannie Welsh. Mazzini was suffering from an abscess in his face. The story of it illustrates his calm fortitude as well as the affection he aroused in others.

"Wednesday [July, 1843].

"Now I hope to be better than I was before the going to bed

and do not you fancy that I would be either so forgetful of my promise or of my own interest as to be either 'dying or near dying' or at all seriously ill without telling you, and calling on you to come and help me though you were at the furthest end of the kingdombut I have always an inner feeling when I am seriously ill-quite different from that which attends a passing illness, however painful for the time being and I had none of that presentiment on this occasion. I knew that it was only 'a summing up of many things' (chiefly moral) as Mazzini declares his face to be and that the rest and quiet of bed would bring me speedily round. Oh dear me, Babbie, I am very anxious and sorrowful about Mazzini. After many entreaties he has at last begun to take care-some care of himself, but God knows whether it be not too late. He went with Toynbee yesterday to a consultation with Hawkins, the chief surgeon of St. George's Hospital-who probed the wound and declared it to be already at the bone-and John Carlyle told me again last Sunday night 'that if it reached the bone nothing could hinder its becoming a cancer.' 'Well,' says Mazzini, 'but my dear-even if it does-there can still you know be an operation'! Such comfort! and this he said to me to-day as calmly as if he had been speaking of a hole in his coat! He went yesterday and had a tooth drawn by order of his new surgeon to see if Nature would turn the matter perhaps into that course and came here to-day all the way from Queen Square where he now lives! And when I scolded him for coming, he said 'Well, but since the tooth was pulled, upon my honour the wound has not discharged anything.' I could

not help crying half the time he stayed

(Jan. 31, 1845.) - he looks so emaciated and so calm!

"I am tired to death to-day if his Mother were near or any human and as stupid as two or three donkies being to nurse him I should not mind for I did not get to sleep till after four so much but he has nobody but poor this morning—the consequence I suphelpless mehelpless because the ac- pose of having excited myself too much cursed conventionalities of this world in doing the honours of a tea party. would make it disgraceful to go and I do not remember when there was a nurse one's dearest friend if he hap- party here by appointment before pened to be a young man. A strange and I was forced into this one by an thing took place at the Association the offer from the beautiful and deaf Mrs. other night-so pathetic and at the Mackenzie to come and I dreaded same time almost ridiculous. After having her all to myself, so asked Miss Mazzini had made a short speech— Wilson and her brother—and that bepleading his inability to speak more devilled husband No. 2 whom I told at one time—a working-man took the you of. I did not ask his wife but he chair and moved a resolution that took it for granted that he might bring 'Mr. Mazzini should be laid under

-laid under her. My programme when I last told obligation to take care of himself! his life you of them was to cut the lady and being not his own but Italy's property, wean the gentleman away from the that constraint should be exercised if house but neither would she be cut necessary for his preservation'—the nor he be weaned. After I had treated sensible working-man! And then he him with the most marked coldness proceeded to move the details of his and even impertinence for many resolution-firstly for instance that if weeks, he came one day and finding I the doctor considered quiet necessary was alone sent away his carriage saythat an Italian guard should be in con- ing he would walk back—'Humph!' stant attendance at his door to prevent thought I, 'heaven send we are not any one passing in to him—etc. etc., going to have an explanation! So it and this movement was followed by a was presently he began to complain deputation of Italian men waiting on of my repulsive manner to him-he Dr. Toynbee to ask what particulars was persuaded I had the greatest disof treatment he wished to have en- like of him he thought it very unjust forced. The only comfort is that he does -hethey had always liked me so well! now begin to feel himself the insanity He had wearied his patient (oh!) wife of neglecting his health to the same ex- with wonderings what I could mean tent as formerly. God grant the sense &c. &c. &c. but the cruellest of all had may not have come too late."

been for him to see the other day my To Helen Welsh. As has been noted reception of Darwin!! "When he conpreviously, Mrs. Carlyle was some- trasted my sunshiny cordial looks of times bored by the attentions of her welcome, and hearty shake of the hand devoted admirers, and snubbed them. for him—a person whom I really liked Here is one who all too amiably turned with the apathetic air and the fingers the tables on her.

presented to himself he felt finally conThe call from Tennyson, who hated vinced that I not only had a dislike to calls as such, was a great triumph. him but wished to mark it.' I was

quite touched with the weakness of this confessed jealousy of Darwin-and told him good humouredly that everybody could not expect to be received like Darwin-that I had known Darwin these ten years-and besides that Darwin was quite an exceptional man! -but that if he would not take on so about it, I would do my best in future to look pleased when he came in, and to shake his hand with a certain emphasis! He was quite comforted with this and since then I have not found it in my heart to treat him ill-for himself is really a good man-of considerable talents and acquirements-besides the wife seems to have got ashamed of herself and is ready to make me all sorts of advances and submissions now last night she was quite endearing and be hanged to her! was going to have a dinner-party a fortnight hence and 'absolutely could not do without me' and then she laid hold of my arm and said 'Oh do do come we quite depend on you for helping us thro' it.' I daresay! for tho' very beautiful to look at she can no more entertain a dinner-party than my cat can-and it is the feeling of all that I suppose that she is not up to her husband or her position that makes her take into jealousies -so I must be sorry for her I suppose. I shall not however go to her partyfor her parties bore me to death.

"Carlyle went to dine at Mr. Chadwick's the other day and I not being yet equal to a dinner altho' I was asked to 'come in a blanket and stay all night'! had made up my mind for a nice long quiet evening of looking into the fire, when I heard a carriage drive up, and men's voices asking questions, and then the carriage was sent away!

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and the men proved to be Alfred Tennyson of all people and his friend Mr. Moxon. Alfred lives in the country and only comes to London rarely and for a few days so that I was overwhelmed with the sense of Carlyle's misfortune in having missed the man he likes best, for stupid Chadwicks especially as he had gone against his will at my earnest persuasion. Alfred is dreadfully embarrassed with women alone for he entertains at one and the same moment a feeling of almost adoration for them and an ineffable contempt! adoration I suppose for what they might be—contempt for what they are! The only chance of my getting any right good of him was to make him forget my womanness-so I did just as Carlyle would have done, had he been there; got out pipes and tobacco-and brandy and water—with a deluge of tea over and above.-The effect of these accessories was miraculous-he professed to be ashamed of polluting my room, 'felt' he said 'as if he were stealing cups and sacred vessels in the Temple'-but he smoked on all the same for three mortal hours!-talking like an angel-only exactly as if he were talking with a clever man— which-being a thing I am not used to -men always adapting their conversation to what they take to be a woman's taste strained me to a terrible pitch of intellectuality.

"When Carlyle came home at twelve and found me all alone in an atmosphere of tobacco so thick that you might have cut it with a knife his astonishment was considerable!Twenty kisses for your long amusing letter-the books came perfectly safe -love to all."

(The end of the first part of "Family Letters of Jane Welsh Carlyle.")

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ADDER than a forgotten god is a Gordon Craig writes about the mask forgotten demon, and sadder than on the stage, and an impression of

a demon without a job are the dis- something rarefied and esoteric, someused fools of his trade.. Fetishes and thing almost impossibly precious, charms, images and prayer-sticks, floats into your mind. What a curious burnt offerings and sacrificial stones, irony to think thus about the mask all that are not destroyed lie buried in when your thoughts might be with some old cave or among the trash of Æschylus and earth-renewing Dionya hut corner. At last they sink so low sus! The pythoness of Delphi, the that only an ethnologist is mindful of master of the Eleusinian mysteries, a them. They are im

negro medicine-man mured from public sight

chanting voodoo, a Papin those chilly tombs of

uan cannibal blacklearning, our museums.

mailing the unrighteous, And the mask, the

an Aztec priest dancing most exalted and human

in the skin and skull and demoniacal of all

of a sacrificial victimthe fetishes, escapes

all these are the sort of from the mausoleum

esthetes that made the only to become a pretty

mask. It is a robust, toy in some revue, or a

potent, and honored theme for airy argument

magic that it offers to on the eccentricities of

the theater. the theater of 1993. A hero of the Javanese theater The mask is older


witch-doctor may catch his spirit and sell it to an enemy. The quick and the dead are demons together, and they do all manner of evil to one another. The happy man is the man who can learn how to balk the spirit of his enemy or to control the demon of some great dead chief. Out of such needs rises magic, the first science, and fetishism is born. Little images may receive the power to destroy rivals. The spirits of powerful de mons may be propitiated by offerings to the carved sticks in which they

find shelter. If a spirit will come into A medicine mask of heathen antiquity used

a tree or a post, giving the thing in the shadow of Oberammergau power, think how quickly it will take

up its abode in a mask carved in its than the idol and almost as new as image. When a savage wears this radio. For its beginnings you must mask, the demon enters into his body, search five hundred centuries. To find and he is possessed. a race so primitive that it does not In Africa the favorite form of know false face or fetish, you must masking is a kind of spiritualism. travel for tens of thousands of years Young men give to the raising of back up the stream of culture till you the dead all the enthusiasm that goes reach Australia and its bushmen. At to professional base-ball in America. one time or another the cult of the Each Conan Doyle makes himself a mask has spread over all the rest of mask emblematical of a dead relative. the world. To-day men worship by When the craze for séances sweeps the its means in Asia, Africa, the two village, the bucks put on their headAmericas, and even Europe.

dresses and their costumes of leaves, The mask holds a certain mystery, and wander from house to house, a certain terror, even for civilized man. talking with a strange accent through Every masker is a potential Ku-Klux. a reed mouthpiece and accepting The unknown and the irresponsible gifts. To the casual white man these lie behind that false face. Imagine, very material ectoplasms may seem a then, the power of the mask with ridiculous piece of tomfoolery, but, primitive man. He lived, he still if the traveler understands how ready lives, in a world of spirits. In every the spirit world is to take shape in any bush, in every brook, there is a spirit. passing fetish, he will see a complete In strange-shaped stones and lowering and inevitable logic in the ghost-masks clouds lurk demons. These spirits, of Africa. seen and unseen, come to harm him. It takes something more than an His own soul wanders out of his body idle fancy to get a negro into a mask when he sleeps; the soul of another in which he can fight the demons that may steal in and possess him, or some lurk in forests. Here he is dealing

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