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sion hearings progressed, I found that have been disloyal of me not to underthe hearings of labor's grievances took stand the problems of capital as well more and more time, and the academic as the problems of labor. And it studies of legal and scientific problems seemed to me that Walsh's report was involved in the administration of labor a high-handed labor report and nothlaws were, it seemed to me, neglected. ing more. It did not appreciate the There was just so much money left of technical problems of production. our congressional appropriation. I Professor Commons and I wrote a thought this money should be spent report of our own, which was in reality for finishing and publishing expert the majority report of the commission, investigations that Charles McCarthy, for Commissioners Ballard, Weinwho had acted as director of research, stock, and Aishton also signed it, and Professor Commons both felt making five. were the most important part of the It is audacious of me in a few paracommission's work.

graphs to try to characterize and comImagine the surprise of the em- pare the two reports, for both ran to ployers on the commission and of many hundreds of type-written pages, Professor Commons and me when we and were in fact a digest of eleven learned that Mr. Walsh had summa- volumes of testimony. Professor Comrily dismissed McCarthy, and Basil mons's big proposal was for permanent Manly was put at the helm in his national and state industrial commisplace. Those of us who had stood by sions, to be created for the adminisMcCarthy felt as though we were on a tration of all labor laws. We believed train that in some wayward fashion that probably the greatest cause of was tearing east just after the station industrial unrest was that our Amermaster had sold us tickets for a point ican statute-books were encumbered west. The life of the commission was by labor laws that were conflicting, almost over. How were we to go on ambiguous, and either unenforceable record? Mr. Walsh let Manly draw up or only partly enforced. People were a report summarizing the testimony losing confidence in the making of of the thousands of witnesses we had laws by the legislature, the interpretabeen hearing in the last two years, tion of laws by the courts, and their and make many recommendations. administration by officials, and came Walsh signed it himself, the three naturally to taking of the law into labor men signed it, and every effort their own hands. I quote from our was made to get my signature.

report: Mother Jones suddenly appeared “The struggle between capital and on the scene again and pleaded with labor must be looked upon, so far as me by the hour. I afterward heard

we now see, as a permanent struggle, that Walsh personally had paid for no matter what legislation is adopted.” her pilgrimage. She said I would be a But we believed that there were traitor to the workers if I failed to sign certain points where the interests of Walsh's report. What she could never capital and labor were harmonious understand was that the employers and could be made more so, and we were my own people, that all human believed that the field where no real beings were my own people. It would conflict existed was much wider than at first might be imagined. We be tive strength and oftentimes deaf to lieved that by recognizing these two the cries of their fellows, have suffered facts of permanent opposition and exploitation and the invasion of their progressive coöperation, we had a most sacred rights without resistance. starting-point from which to reduce

Until the workers themselves antagonism.

realize their responsibility and utilize The minority report, which some- to the full their collective power, no how as the staff report, took preced- action, whether governmental or alence of ours in the publication, seemed truistic, can work any genuine and to me far less concerned with setting lasting improvement." up permanent peaceful machinery Statements like that seemed to me than with reciting anew the grievances incendiary and revolutionary. It was of labor. I was quite as shocked as like using the Government to orthey to discover the number of Amer- ganize one class for swallowing up ican families with no privacy;—in another. many working districts thirty per However differently all of us saw cent. of the workers keep boarders, - the next steps, not one of the commisand to discover that in New York sioners failed to recognize the historic City one corpse out of twelve is laid in value of the hearings. Capital and a pauper's grave; but it seemed to me labor had been brought face to face, that their recommendations were ide- and in the very airing of their misalistic and socialistic, not practical. understandings, in the articulation of

Walsh himself, in a supplemental their bitter hatreds, they had come to statement, italicized the following: understand each other better. "We find the basic cause of industrial I still believe with Professor Comdissatisfaction to be low wages; or, mons that a permanent industrial stated in another way, the fact that commission is to be the next great the workers of the Nation, through step toward intelligent minimizing of compulsory and oppressive methods, the friction between employers and legal and illegal, are denied the full employed, but it must wait until labor product of their toil.”

asks for it. Now there is not faith Later he says: “The responsibility enough among the workers to trust for the conditions rests primarily upon Government to erect such an instruthe workers who, blind to their collec- ment.

(The end of "Hither and Yon.")

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Day In and Day Out
Adams, Morley, Marquis, and Broun: Manhattan Wits




HE editorials in American news- long way toward setting the standard

papers were once personal affairs. as regards themes and methods. He They were made by hand and their poked fun at current folly, he told jokes readers knew whose hand it was that on himself, he turned out yards of had fashioned this or that comment brisk, bright verses in his column upon the news of the morning or called “Flats and Sharps." Field evening. Now, however, personality lived, however, to divide his honors has given way to something less with George Ade, also a columnist in diversified. A newspaper is known Chicago, who in his "Stories of the by the policy it keeps. As a rule the Streets and Town” at once specialized special editorial hand is not to be and broadened the functions of their recognized except by experts, whose sort of humor. Since Field died and guesses, moreover, are occasionally Mr. Ade gave up his column, few wrong. But personality is too obsti- decided novelties have been introduced nate a thing to be easily expelled. among the

paragraphers. Bert Thrown out through the door, it comes Leston Taylor with his "A Line o' back through the window and is Type or Two” long carried on the shortly as much at home as ever. The tradition in Chicago. Other cities generation in America which saw the have their local wits, several of them distinctive color dying out of editorials of amazing fecundity and pungency. saw at the same time the rise of the But in New York, to which so many distinctive paragraph which kept the things are drawn by its sheer magnieditorial section from settling down tude, the column has at present its to any monotony of sense. Deft greatest prestige and influence. paragraphers multiplied and made There the successful members of the their papers famous. Publisher strove guild enjoy reputations which are with publisher to catch and develop unequaled by those of any other conwriters who could be themselves and temporary authors.

temporary authors. They have, of be amusing every day. Out of so course, advantages. Not perhaps much imitation, so much competition, monthly, like story-writers, nor pera standard form emerged. Eugene haps annually, like novelists or dramaField set the standard, as regards tists, but daily they appear before dimensions, at a column, and went a their publics; and their publics daily

number hundreds of thousands of the confusion of the daily news they
readers in New York, with possible pick their ways and yet preserve their
millions elsewhere for those of the identities. Readers who have found
columnists who are taken up by news- events more or less impartially re-
paper syndicates. Appearing thus ported and more or less judicially dis-
punctually, these wits can pounce first cussed, like still to find them touched
upon the news and make, or publish, with the hand of comedy by a definite
the earliest mots on topics that invite person. The columnists are a per-
them. Appearing thus regularly, petual relief from what may be called
these same wits, having beat up their the newspaper grand style. Nothing
game, can chase it with comic per- is too great for them to bring it before
sistence as long as need or interest the bar of laughter; nothing is too
lasts. Being so topical, they are small for them to flash a beam of light
naturally for the most part also local. upon it. It is true that they are
They retail the gossip, promulgate the sometimes accused of forming a smug
jests, discuss the personalities, repre corporation, exchanging compliments
sent the manners of New York. To from column to column, overpraising
read them in any distant city is to miss one another's books and plays, ca-
half the points they make, or at least priciously shutting out the dull bar-
half the freshness of their points. barians who do not habitually cross
They are licensed jesters of the town, their paths; but these accusations have
free to catch the most respectable so far not become very ominous. If
citizen momentarily off his guard, the columnists were not felt to be
without fear of being taken too seri- untrammeled personalities, they would
ously. They can turn a mayor to not be felt at all.
ridicule, send hundreds to a theater There are, indeed, more than four of
or keep dozens away from it, stimulate such Manhattan wits who have each a
the sales of a book, give a clever phrase loyal following. The four, however,
household currency, fix public attention who are most widely known and
upon some neglected figure or episode, followed happen among them to cover
past or present, laugh some general virtually all the ground that the
hysteria to sleep.

columnists ever cover. They are, as
The great audiences which they have no one questions, Franklin P. Adams
by virtue of their positions they hold of “The Conning Tower,” Christopher
by their particular qualities. They Morley of "The Bowling Green,” Don
are immensely personal. They take Marquis of "The Lantern," and Hey-
the public into their confidences with wood Broun of "It Seems to Me.
whimsical candor. One of them de-
votes a day each week to publishing

§ 2 his diary. Another calls out joyfully Mr. Adams is in a strict sense the when he has found a new book or a new wit of the group. He is the neatest of drink. Another humorously records them all with his gay verses, the his progress in getting rid of super- crispest of all with his puns. He has fluous pounds of flesh. Another makes a satirical taste for exact language. charming capital out of the sayings He catches up instances of bad gramand doings of his son. Thus through mar, of loose diction, of mixed met


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