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inadvertently kept him going in funds. A martyr, he was strangled and burned at Augsburg, owing to the machinations of Henry VIII and his creatures. The history of the early editions of the Bible in English is intricate, and the comparison of one edition with another, and the opinion as to whether some were translated from the Vulgate of the Latin Church and not from the original tongues, has produced much acrimonious discussion. The knowledge of various translations is a very special study, and the collection of old Bibles leads one into the bye-paths of collecting, nor must it be forgotten that we owe some of the translations to English Protestant exiles. No manuscript of the Old Testament in the original Hebrew exists until nine hundred years after the death of Christ, and the New Testament manuscript is not earlier than four centuries after Christ. The first complete translation into English was made by Wycliffe in 1382. Tyndale issued his New Testament from Worms, and part of the Old Testament in 1525. Miles Coverdale produced the first Bible in English in 1535. Subsequent important English versions are:-Matthews' Bible 1537, Great Bible 1539, Cranmer's Bible 1540, Geneva Bible 1560, which is the one mostly used and was in various edition, for nearly a century the household treasure of the English yeomanry and peasants. It is vulgarly known as the "Breeches Bible." The Authorized Version, or King James's Bible, 1604

II, is the one in use nowadays. And there was the Douay Bible, the Romanist's Version, 1609-10.

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Many of these earlier Bibles, apart from translators' deviations, had serious and ludicrous printers' errors. Bibles were again burned-this time by the Puritans. The Dutch-English versions contained serious misprints. These errata were held to be egregious blasphemy and damnable errata' of some sectarian or some Bellamy editor of that day." Field published as late as 1653 his Pearl Bible, which contained, among other errors, Know ye not that the unrighteous shall inherit the kingdom of God" (1 Corinthians vi. 9). Field was a great forger. He is said to have accepted fifteen hundred pounds from the Independent Baptists to corrupt a text in Acts vi. 3, to sanction the right of the people to appoint their own pastors. These were the days of "mighty men at chapter and verse," as South termed them. A proverbial expression, by the way, belonging to our own puritan times, and found in no other language. Half-educated fanatics conceived the idea of founding new religions on misprints. As Samuel Butler in his Hudibras says:

Religion spawn'd a various rout
Of petulant capricious sects,
The maggots of corrupted texts.

At this time printers do not seem to have been so careful of sacred writings as they are now of


secular. Robert Barker, the King's Printer in 1631, was cited to appear before the Star Chamber and fined three hundred pounds for his Bible and ordered to destroy the entire edition of a thousand copies. But six copies of this "Wicked Bible " are known to be in existence.

Various names have been applied to editions containing misprints, though the misprint is not the only one in the volume. Collectors know them by these names, and a list is appended in alphabetical order.

Adulterous or Wicked Bible, 1631. With text "Thou shalt commit adultery." Printed by Barker.

Bible of the Bear (Biblia del Oso), 1567-9. The first published Spanish translation of the whole Bible; so-called from bear which appeared as frontispiece. Published at Basle. Bishops' Bible, Folio (1568), by Richard Jugge, sometimes called "Parker's Bible." See "Treacle Bible."

Breeches Bible (the Geneva Bible), 1560. Reading in Genesis iii. 7, They sewed figge tree leaves together and made themselves breeches" (aprons).

Bug Bible, 1551. Reading in Psalm xci. 5, "So that thou shalt not nede to be afrayd for any bugges (terrors) by night." The same rendering is found in Coverdale and Taverner. The Bug Bibles were suppressed on account of the prologue to Leviticus, which consists mainly of an attack on the Sacraments of the Church and on the clergy. These Bibles are very scarce. Discharge Bible, 1806. Reading in 1 Timothy vi. 21, I discharge (charge) thee before God."


Ears-to-ear Bible, 1819. Who hath ears to ear (hear)," Matthew xiii. 43.

Geneva Bible.

First edition (Geneva) by Hall, 1560. (Breeches Bible) John Crispin, 1569. Thomson's edition by Chr. Barker, 1576, and many other editions by C. Barker and R. Barker to 1616.

He Bible. First edition (1611) of King James's Bible, called the Great He Bible. A passage, Ruth iii. 15, translated "he went into the citie," instead of "she went into the citie," as in

subsequent editions. The second issue, 1611 (which is correct), is called the Great She Bible.

Mazarin Bible (or Gutenberg Bible), an edition of 42 lines to page. So called from being found in Cardinal Mazarin's library in 1760. An edition of the Vulgate printed at Mentz, 1450-55, by Gütenberg and others, the first Bible, probably the first book, printed from movable type.

Murderers' Bible (about 1801). Reading in Jude 16, "These are murderers (murmurers)."

Placemakers' Bible sometimes satirically called the “ Whigs' Bible," 1562. Matthew v. 9, "Blessed are the placemakers (peacemakers)." The second edition of the Genevan version.


Printers' Bible, about 1702. Psalm cxix. 161, 'Printers (princes) have persecuted me without a cause." (A most humorous interpolation which must appeal to all translators.)

Proof Bible (Probe Bibel), the first impression of Luther's German Bible as revised by order of the Eisenach German Protestant Church Congress, of which the final revised edition appeared in 1892.

Rebekah's Camels Bible, 1832. Genesis xxiv. 61, "and Rebekah arose and called her camels (damsels)."

Rosin Bible (the Douay Bible of 1609), having in Jeremiah Is there no rosin in Galaad (Gilea)." See Treacle

viii. 22, Bible.

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She Bible, 1611. Folio. The Authorized Version (1611) was called the "Great He Bible," and this second issue (1611) corrected was called the "Great She Bible."

Standing Fishes Bible, 1806. Reading in Ezekiel xlvii. to, "The fishes (fishers) shall stand upon it."

Taverner's Bible, 1539, a revision of Matthews' Bible published by John Rogers, superintendent of the English Churches in Germany under the fictitious name of Thomas Matthews, 1537.

Thumb Bible, Aberdeen, about 1607. Of minute dimensions. One inch square and half an inch thick.

To-Remain Bible (Bible Society, Cambridge, 1805), with "to remain" inserted instead of a comma, Galatians iv. 29. Treacle Bible (the Bishops' Bible), 1568. Reading Jeremiah viii. 22, "Is there no tryacle (treacle) in Gilead." The editions 1573 and 1575 have triacle." Those of 1576, 1577, and 1584 had " tryacle."

Vinegar Bible (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1717). Parable of the Vinegar (Vineyard) over Luke xx. 2 vols. Folio. This is the last date of Bibles appealing to collectors.

Wicked Bible (or Adulterous Bible), 1631. Having the seventh commandment printed "Thou shalt commit adultery." Printed by Robert Barker.

Wife's Bible. Name given to Tyndale's New Testament, 1549. 2 Corinthians x. II reads, Let him that is soche (such) thinke on his wyfe," instead of "on thise wise."

Wife-hater Bible, 1810. Reading in Luke xiv. 26, "If any man come to me and hate not his father. . . yea and his own wife also."

The first Bible printed in Scotland is dated Edinburgh, 1559. folio. It is known as the Bassandyne Bible. Other Scottish impressions of this same Genevan Bible are dated 1601, Edinburgh, 8vo, and Edinburgh, 1610, folio.

The first edition of the Bible in Irish is dated London, 1685, and was translated by W. Bedell and W. O'Domhnuill. It is in two volumes 4to.

The first Bible printed in Welsh was issued from London by Barker 1588, folio. There is a second edition Llundain 1620.

It was Henry VIII who prohibited the reading of the Bible except by those who occupied high state office. A noblewoman or gentlewoman might read it in their "garden or orchard" or other retired places. Men or women of the lower ranks were forbidden to read it or have it read to them. On her succession, at her entry into London, Elizabeth kissed the English Bible which the citizens presented to her and promised diligently to read therein."

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When Bishop Bonner set up the first six Bibles in St. Paul's "many well disposed people used much to resort to the hearing thereof, especially when they could get any that had an audible voice to read to them."

It is little wonder therefore that the English peasant, the yeoman, the trader, and those classes

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