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after the plants had been set. Cotton here needs planting but once in three or four years, for as soon as one harvest is gathered, the plants are covered with new shoots, ready to blossom again.
Some goods were left by Captain Scott to form a store, the person managing the business being Russell McCoy.
A telephone was brought ashore by Captain Scott for the amusement of the islanders, who took turns in speaking to one another at the distance of half a mile. A magic-lantern was also exhibited,—the first that was witnessed by many of the young people and children. When the captain sailed, he took with him two of the young men of the island and Peter Butler.
In March, 1879, the Enterprise-one of De Wolf & Co.'s ships-called to take away the first of the produce we had been able to collect, and which amounted to three thousand eight hundred and forty-two pounds of candle-nut and four hundred and seventy-three pounds of cocoa-nut; besides these, a small quantity of wool and cotton. At the same time, our two young men also returned, both having experienced the feeling that "there is no place like home," although that home may be on such a small, out-ofthe-way place as Pitcairn Island. Peter Butler, having left the Venus some time before, has never been heard of since.
Mention has been made of the continued kindness of Admiral De Horsey. As a very substantial proof of this, we received, in July, 1879, a most beautiful organ, of American manufacture, selected by him and sent as a gift from our beloved sovereign, Queen Victoria. An inscription to that effect was written on a silver plate and placed in the center of the organ, above the key-board. This instrument was sent on H. M. S. Opal, and was safely landed and brought up to the village on the evening of the same day on which it arrived. It was opened in the church, which was now finished, and in which the congregation met to sing "God save the Queen," accompanied by the organ.
We were also informed that the good admiral, by his account of his visit to us, had awakened such an interest in our welfare among the people of England that a subscription was immediately set on foot for our benefit. A committee was formed of several gentlemen, some of whom had been to this island in years gone by. The chairman of the committee, Rev. Andrew A. Drew, was brother-in-law to Admiral De
Horsey. Several people contributed to what was called the Pitcairn Island Fund, and the result of their untiring exertions was seen in the many valuable and useful gifts which reached us safely on the 28th of March, 1880, a year after they were sent. Such care had been taken by the kind friends in preparing the goods for the long passage, that everything reached us in the most perfect order. Not the least of the valuable presents were a life-boat, the Queen Victoria, and a whale-boat, the Admiral Drew, so named after the father of the Rev. A. Drew. A few days after the Osprey (which brought the gifts) had sailed, the Chasseur, a French frigate, called in. It was quite a surprise for us. Most of the officers landed on the west side of the island, where they obtained some cocoa-nuts and oranges. Three of them came up the weary way to the village, accompanied by one of our men. These were the doctor, the paymaster, and another officer. The doctor, who spoke English well, soon made friends with every one, and the two others were also liked by the people. They professed themselves much pleased with their visit, which lasted about two hours, and regret was expressed on both sides that the stay could not be lengthened, as the day was fast declining. So they had to hasten away, carrying with them the sincere good wishes of the people.
The Ocean King, an American merchantvessel, was here on the same day. The captain's daughter, Miss Freeman, and the first officer landed on the island, where they staid for a short time, three of the ladies from the shore accompanying the young lady to the ship, where they received the greatest kindness. The American ladies who have been among us have universally won the love and respect of the inhabitants, and all who have had the pleasure of spending a short time in their company on board can testify to the true kindness of heart shown by them all.
On the Queen's birthday, May 24, of this year, 1880, Francis Christian was married to Eunice Jane, daughter of Moses Young. No festivities marked the day, on account of there being so many who were ill, but only a quiet gathering of the families and friends of the young couple, to unite with them in their happiness, and to wish them joy.
One of the sick persons was Russell McCoy, who had been ill for two months before. Many times was his life despaired
of, and everybody who could render assistance attended him day and night, all showing the kindest attention that lay in their power.
chaste and beautiful wine-cup in its stead, which was received with feelings of sincere gratitude and delight.
In June, we received a most unexpected visit from a young relative from Norfolk Island, who informed us that there were several others of our relatives and friendsall young men-on their way to Pitcairn Island, to pay us a visit. It was our happiness to welcome them on August 6th, 1880. How thoroughly delighted was every one to behold again, face to face, those whom we thought we were never to see again in this world! How much there was to ask and to answer! How eagerly we inquired about all those we love, so far away, and heard, with thankful hearts, that they were all well! During their stay, their captain, who was a sincere Christian, held two religious meetings; all who conveniently could, attended. After being with us a week they left, but not until all the inhabitants of this island had met once more on the top of the hill overlooking the beach, to commend them, and to be themselves commended, to the mercy, guidance, and protection of the gracious Heavenly Father who had hitherto led us all thus far. And so we parted, amid tears, and with deep sorrow pervading each heart, yet in the hope that one day we all may meet in that world where parting is unknown.
As a people, we receive favors on every side. Our wants are not many, and those wants are abundantly supplied. Of books, we have a large store. Kind and Christian friends supply us with these on every hand, to all of whom we tender our heart-felt thanks and sincere gratitude. To all who have ever shown us kindness, and who have ever taken a lively interest in our well-being, we owe a debt of love and gratitude a tithe of which we are powerless to repay. Especial thanks are due to Captain H. G. Williams and Messrs. Hanley and Snow, gentlemen through whose kindness and favor we are able to communicate with those who are near and dear to us, though far away.
There is not much more to say before I close this paper; but there is one important point of which no mention has been made, and that is, the partaking of the Lord's Supper. The observance of this sacrament was not kept by us since the return from Norfolk Island until the year 1877, Mr. Young having some scruples about administering it. This coming to the ears of a Christian brother, Mr. Gardner, in New Zealand, he wrote to Mr. Young, telling him that no mention was made in the Word of God about ordained ministers being the only persons that can lawfully administer the sacrament of the Lord's Supper, but that the early Christians went from house to house, breaking bread with one another. The feast of love was first held on November 4, 1877, the total number of communicants being thirty-eight, from the age of fifteen years and upward. An English lady had, some time before, presented a cup for the communion service, which was afterward accidentally broken. On application being made to a friend in San Francisco to replace the loss, a gentleman-Dr. McDonald-very kindly sent a
Of the present number of the inhabitants of this island, there are fourteen families, one of these having no father or mother; the father, Mayhew Young, having died four years ago. Two other families have only the mothers, one of whom is the widow of Samuel Warren, and the other the wife of Butler, thus making, in all, twenty-four married persons. Of unmarried persons, there are, from eighteen years and upward, five young men and seven young women. Of boys and girls, from twelve to seventeen years of age, there are seventeen-seven boys and ten girls. Of children, from the age of twelve downward, there are forty-two. These make a total of ninety-five. The oldest inhabitant is Mrs. Elisabeth Young, now ninety years old.
From the return of the first party to this island till the present time, only twelve deaths have occurred-five infants and seven grown-up persons. Infectious diseases are unknown, and sickness of any kind is never prevalent.
Of children who attend the day-school (where only simple instruction, such as reading, writing, arithmetic, and geography, is given) there are thirty-three from six to fifteen years of age, while forty attend the Sunday-school.
We have everything that is required to render us contented and happy, and have friends whom God has raised up for us on every hand. Still, though such favors are shown us, we are far from being what we should be. While we pray that God would unceasingly bless them, we need also to pray that we may be more worthy of the numberless acts of kindness shown toward us, and seek, by our conduct, to be more worthy of the name of Christians, which we bear.
THE SANITARY CONDITION OF NEW YORK.
I. THE DISEASE.
A COMMUNITY, no less than a person, is subject to disorders and distempers which call for cure and for prevention, and which, not being prevented or cured, lessen its vigor, and entail discomfort, and cost, and weakness, and death. The disorders of the community, like those of the person, are susceptible of rational study and interpretation, and its defective condition is equally susceptible of amelioration. As the fever-threatened man may be restored to full vigor and guarded against future assault, so the threatened community may be protected against many of the dangers to its health and life, and its strength and stability may be assured.
Ámong our own communities, probably none is more gravely in need of healing and safeguard than that which occupies the crowded point of land between the Hudson and East rivers. This general fact is accepted, in a very general way, by all who have had its more prominent indications forced upon their senses of sight and smell, and more definitely by those who have investigated even slightly the unfavorable conditions under which this community exists. Complete knowledge on the subject no man possesses; but enough is known to form the basis for a suggestive description of the sanitary condition of New York and to justify some recommendations as to the manner in which its worst defects may be removed.
It is proposed, in this paper, to indicate the actual sanitary condition and surroundings of the city, as they appear, after somewhat careful investigation and study. In a subsequent paper, such remedies for its more obvious defects as seem suited to its conditions will be suggested.
It has been necessary, in connection with work now in hand for the Census Office, to make a somewhat careful examination of the improvements of the city of New York. Especial attention has been given to the original topography, to the modifications of that topography incidental to the conversion of the original surface into the site of a densely built and populous city, and to the manner in which necessary modifications have affected the natural healthfulness of the locality for better or for
worse. Enough material has thus been obtained to warrant the expression of an opinion on the subject. The sanitary relations between the houses in which we live, and the sites upon which they are built, the condition of the surface by which they are surrounded, the water with which their occupants are supplied, and the manner in which their discarded refuse is retained or removed, are still but blindly and imperfectly understood.
Unfortunately, knowledge on this subject is yet too limited and too vague to admit of more than the expression of an opinion and the indication of probabilities. The precise manner in which the human subject is influenced by local causes of disease; the degree to which the influence of these causes is modified by attendant circumstances; and the reason why the withdrawal of conditions which are found to be unfavorable produces an improvement in the public health, are not clearly known. As a rule, in all sanitary matters we can reason by comparison only. It is sufficiently known that the contamination of drinking-water by the specific infection of cholera, typhoid fever, and other diarrhoeal diseases will, in certain states of the system, reproduce these diseases, and, by an extension of the cause, lead to the establishment of an epidemic. We believe that many other diseases, notably diphtheria and cerebro-spinal meningitis, are in some way allied to the conditions which accompany a defective removal of waste matters. We believe, also, that undue dampness of the soil leads, at least, to the great aggravation of consumption. It seems quite clear that, whatever may be the cause of marsh malaria (fever and ague), that cause operates much more perniciously under certain conditions of the atmosphere which are produced by a combination of heat, moisture, and vegetable decomposition.
Out of this sum of limited knowledge and not very extensive conjecture, there has been formulated what is known as sanitary "science." Science it certainly is not, but it is the best substitute for it that we have, and there is enough experience in the matter to show that a proper observance of its indications and its warnings invariably results in an improvement of the health of