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sand feet, the inevitable rain poured down me the route to Morne Rouge on the farupon us, and after crouching for an hour ther side of a great gorge. over my instruments to keep them dry, we We were far out of our course, and the gave up the ascent and returned to St. only thing to do was to ascend again to Pierre and Carbet without so much as a the Lac des Palmistes basin, near the crater, glimpse of the spine that day. The mor- and find our trail of the morning. This row was just as bad in regard to weather we did, but the rain had nearly obliterated on the mountain, and I determined to even the marks left by my heavy boots, and return to Fort-de-France and go to the soon we were again floundering across the east side of the volcano for further at- dreadful gullies, my "guide" completely tempts at its summit.

bewildered, and I with insufficient comMaking Vivé, the hospitable home of mand of patois to talk to him in the manFernand Clerc and his superintendent E. ner necessary to bring him to his senses. Beuzelin, my headquarters, I started for the The second rift in the clouds for the day top of Pelée early in the morning of Febru- came at five o'clock, and showed us that ary 27, with a guide, taking a boy along we were just above one of the great rock to care for my mule during my absence on precipices at the head of the Falaise River, the mountain. Clouds had covered the a long distance from the trail. There was summit continuously for a week, but the then nothing to do but to make up our island weather-prophets predicted good minds to a night on the mountain without weather for the afternoon, and I pushed food or water, though the dampness of the on in spite of present rain. My route lay enveloping clouds kept us from suffering through flourishing cane-fields, and across much from thirst. picturesque gorges with wonderful foliage, It was my first night on the top of until we reached Morne Balai, one of the an active volcano. We crouched down villages swept by the blast of the eruption together under my old rain-coat in an of August 30. It was the route followed angle of a gully, where we were proby Professor Heilprin on that memora- tected somewhat from the keen wind. The ble day.

long hours of the dreary night passed with After entering the devastated zone here, a few interruptions from showers which we went straight up the ridge down which threatened to drive us from our shelter by that blast had come, leveling everything the streams sent down our ravine. Mornbefore it, and at ten o'clock we stood ing came at last without serious incident, on the edge of the great crater. We were and we found our way off the top of near the spot where I first stood, June 18, the mountain, met a searching party half1902, with George Carroll Curtis, and way up the trail with food and drink, and strained every faculty to penetrate the by one o'clock were joyously welcomed by clouds of steam hiding everything before my friends at Vivé, who had spent an us and learn the secret of the terrible anxious night on account of my absence. crashing noises that assaulted our ears. The next day I went to St. Vincent, and Now, as then, clouds and steam concealed three weeks later returned to Vivé, deterfrom view everything more than a hundred mined to see the inner cone from the edge yards distant. The wind drove over the of the crater if I had to stay in Martinique mountain with terrible force, and the fre- all summer. The weather was more propiquent torrential showers soon drenched us tious now, and in three ascents, March 21, to the skin. The cold was severe for my 25, and 26, I saw the whole of the new thinly clad guide, and, after spending a cone with its spine, the encircling wall of few minutes on the edge of the crater, I the old crater, and the valley between the gave the word to turn back to seek some two. The new cone with the great spine is place of shelter from the storm. We wan- not central within the old crater. The dered off from the summit in the search, most important of the openings concerned and after half an hour's tramping across in the present series of eruptions were the almost interminable gullies that cut into on the west side of the old crater-lake, the sides of the upper part of the old cone, L'Étang Sec, and the axis of the new cone a momentary rift in the clouds revealed to is northwest of the center of the old crater. 1 See article by Mr. Curtis in this magazine for January, 1903. For accounts of the eruptions,

by eye-witnesses and others, see the numbers for August and September, 1902. – EDITOR.

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The edge of the crater shows in the foreground, the new cone and spine being on the farther side of a valley about 200 feet deep. The spine itself rises about 1150 feet above the edge of the crater, which here is about 4000 feet above the sea. The vertical grooving which shows on the spine is one of the strong arguments for believing that the rock was pushed up in a solid or almost solid condition. The remains of Morne Lacroix, the former culminating point of Pelée, show on the edge of the crater at the right.

This has resulted in the complete filling of of the neck and by the expansive forces the northwestern quarter of the crater, underneath, an idea virtually new to the making the slope of the new cone continu- science of vulcanology. The French Govous or nearly continuous with the exterior ernment Commission, of which Professor of the old crater-rim on that side. On the A. Lacroix is the head, was the first to northern, eastern, and southern sides, be- put forward this theory and to include tween the new cone and the crater-rim, Pelée among the “cumulo-volcanoes." there is a shallow spiral valley which de- The shape of the spine, with its sides formbouches into the gorge of the Rivière ing angles of 750, 870, and even 900 with Blanche on the southwest. The deepest the horizontal, is an argument against the part of this valley is beneath the ruins of theory that it has been formed by ejected Morne Lacroix, and is estimated to be blocks or bombs which were sufficiently about two hundred feet deep. On the pasty to stick together on falling, and in southwest the new cone slopes continu- favor of the “stopper” theory. The great ously into the debris filling the gorge of the and sudden changes in altitude of the Blanche. Great ribs of solid rock project spine with reference to the rest of the from several parts of the new inner cone, cone, without great changes in its shape, which is a composite affair made up of frag- point in the same direction. Frequently mental ejecta from the vents, lava which has the cone and spine show red incandeswelled up or been pushed up from below, cent lines at night, together with a luminous and masses which have fallen or been blown spot near the top of the spine-an addioff from the latter. These ribs radiate more tional proof of the "solid," as distinguished or less roughly from the center of the cone, from fragmental, character of the mass. and above them towers the spine or tooth Thetooth showing in a photograph taken which is so remarkable. The spine, like July 6 seems to have been destroyed in the ribs, evidently is composed of “solid” the eruption of July 9, for it does not rock, that is, it is not made of fragments show in Professor Heilprin's photograph which have been thrown up into the air by already referred to, which was taken the volcano and have fallen back into a from about the same spot August 24. pile. The existence of these rock dikes in During a large part of September and the early history of the present series of October, 1902, the summit of Pelée was eruptions is indicated in a sketch by covered with clouds. About the middle of George Varian.1

October a view of the crater was obtained Although rifted and profoundly fis- by Professor Lacroix, who then saw the sured, the spine is not a chimney, there present spine just rising above the general being no conduit through it. The place crest of the active cone. A fortnight later from which have come the heaviest out- a momentary lifting of the clouds showed bursts since August 30 is on the south- the pointed peak still higher, and it bewest side of the new cone, but another came visible from the French observatory very active spot is on the northwest side; at Assier. both are near the base of the spine. The After another week a clear hour respine itself is more than one thousand feet vealed the spine rising a hundred meters high. Separate fragments could not be above the cone. Then ensued a period piled up to such a height and rest at the of rapid growth in the clouds; for during angles shown by the sides of the spine. the last week of November the mists The side toward the east is smooth and lifted so that the strange new feature vertically fluted, as if it had been rubbed was seen in its entirety, and the top against something hard, and this suggests was at the altitude of 5032 feet (as dethe explanation of the phenomenon. The termined by triangulation by Major W. M. rock mass of the cone, and particularly Hodder of St. Lucia). Since that time it that of the spine, has been pushed up has varied in height some hundreds of feet, bodily from below in solid or nearly solid being reduced in January, by explosion condition by the enormous expansive or subsidence, to 4600 feet. After oscillaforces working underneath, and is main- tions it again reached the previous maxitained there, somewhat like a stopper in a mum early in March, and during the latter bottle, partly by friction against the sides part of that month was 1568 meters (5143

1 “McClure's Magazine,” August, 1902.


feet) above tide, according to the determi- Blanche and reached the sea; the dust nations of the French commission. The and steam even rushed across the Lac des great spine seems to rise from a different Palmistes basin and a short distance down part of the cone from that occupied by the eastern side of the outer cone. M. des the “shark's fin” observed in July.

Grottes and I were thankful that the Every time that I was on the crater-rim outburst had not occurred until after we small explosions were taking place in the had reached a place of safety. cone, and masses were dropping from the My recent studies of the Grande Souspine; but the heaviest eruption during my frière of Guadeloupe and the Peak of Saba visit took place at 6:12 P.M., March 26, lead me to the conclusion that they have two and a half hours after M. Louis des passed through the phases through which Grottes, of Habitation Leryts, on the lower Pelée is now passing, and that they belong slopes of the mountain, and I had left the to the same class of volcanoes. This is summit. The cauliflower-like column of especially clear in the case of the Guadethe eruption cloud rose to the altitude of loupe Soufrière, the cone of which rises 11,150 feet (3400 me above the sea;

above an old crater-rim which it has buried the dust-laden steam rolled with violence in the same way that Pelée is now striving and great rapidity down the gorge of the to bury its surrounding crater-walls.




OOD hunting !-aye, good hunting,

Wherever the forests call;
But ever a heart beats hot with fear,

And what of the birds that fall ?
Good hunting !-aye, good hunting,

Wherever the north winds blow;
But what of the stag that calls for his mate?

And what of the wounded doe?
Good hunting !--aye, good hunting,

And ah! we are bold and strong;
But our triumph call through the forest hall

Is a brother's funeral song.
For we are brothers ever,

Panther and bird and bear;
Man and the weakest that fear his face,

Born to the nest or lair.
Yes, brothers, and who shall judge us?

Hunters and game are we;
But who gave the right for me to smite ?

Who boasts when he smiteth me?
Good hunting!-aye, good hunting,

And dim is the forest track;
But the sportsman Death comes striding on:

Brothers, the way is black.

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