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securing examination, registration, certification, or appointment.

(e) The habitual use of intoxicating beverages to


13. Special Examinations; College Degrees.—If the needs of the service require that a special examination be held to secure persons with qualifications not possessed by eligibles on the existing civil-service registers, a recommendation should be made to the Secretary stating fully the necessity for such examination, the subjects and weights on a percentage basis, the title of the position, salary, age limits, headquarters, etc. If the recommendation is approved by the Secretary, a formal request on the Civil Service Commission will be made. A position for which a special examination has been announced and held, can be filled only from the list of eligibles established by such examination, unless it shall be deemed best in the interests of the service to fill the position by reinstatement, transfer, promotion, or demotion. No bureau shall establish a college degree as an unqualified prerequisite for admission to a competitive examination for any position in the classified service of the department, except in cases in which the position to be filled, like that of veterinary inspector, is of such a scientific or technical character that both the chief concerned and the Secretary consider that a college degree is an essential prerequisite. In all other cases in which a college degree is desirable, an alternative requirement of experience in line with the work of the position to be filled shall be made. Bureaus will observe this rule in the preparation of tentative subjects, weights, and prerequisites for submission to the Civil Service Commission in connection with the establishment of new registers.

14. Examination Papers; Confidential.-No inspection of examination papers of eligibles certified by the Civil Service Commission is permitted except for the purpose of selecting an appointee, and employees having occasion to inspect such papers under these circumstances must treat the same as confidential and are prohibited from making copies of any of the questions contained therein.

15. Temporary Appointments; Restrictions.-Chiefs of bureaus will see that the number of temporary appointments of clerks, stenographers, typewriters, and the like is reduced to the minimum. The need of temporary help from time to time is recognized, but where such temporary help is employed continuously for more than six months, the necessity for permanent help would appear to exist, and the employment of temporary assistants under such circumstances is an evasion of the civil-service law of apportionment.

16. Temporary Appointments, Competitive Service, in District of Columbia.—If the needs of the department require that a temporary appointment in the competitive service be made in the District of Columbia, pending the certification of eligibles for probational appointment, or for the performance of job service after the completion of which the service of a temporary appointee will no longer be required, or for duty pending the filling of a vacancy by transfer, reinstatement, or other action involving the issuance of a certificate by the Civil Service Commission, a temporary appointment can be made either from a civil-service certificate or by the prior authority of the Civil Service Commission. Under no circumstances can a temporary appointment be made except upon such certificate or prior authorization.

In circumstances requiring the extension of a temporary appointment in the District of Columbia, therefore, it is imperative that a recommendation be made in sufficient time before the expiration of the original appointment to permit of full consideration of each case by the Civil Service Commission.

Recommendations to the Secretary for a temporary certificate or authorization must state fully the necessity for the temporary assistance and, as nearly as possible, the total period of service. Any temporary `appointment in the District of Columbia, which is limited by the Civil Service Commission to a specific date, will be terminated on the date of expiration, unless authority from the commission for the extension of such temporary appointment shall have been secured, or a recommendation from the chief of bureau for its termination prior to the date of expiration has been received by the appointment clerk.

No person shall be appointed temporarily unless he or she meets the requirements for entrance to the examination for the position. This applies to reappoint

ments pending certification.

In recommending temporary appointments, or extensions thereof, the following information should be given:

1. Whether the person concerned has taken or applied for a civil-service examination which, in the opinion of the recommending officer, makes him eligible for the position to which his appointment has been made or proposed.

2. The title of the examination taken or applied for.

3. The place where the examination was or is to be taken.

4. Date of examination.

5. Average attained.

17. Temporary Laborers in District of Columbia.— The Civil Service Commission maintains a list of unskilled laborers available for immediate employment for short periods in the District of Columbia. Certifications from this list may be secured from the appointment clerk in the usual manner. In urgent cases, where the immediate appointment of a laborer is required, the names of the eligibles will be secured before the receipt of a certificate, and prior approval of appointment without reference to the register may also be promptly obtained when services are required for a very limited period. No temporary appointment from the register of eligibles shall continue for a period in excess of 30 days. Appointments of laborers which will extend beyond a period of 30 days must be made from certificates containing the names of persons eligible for regular or permanent appointment.

18. When Temporary Appointments May Be Made Permanent. The temporary appointment of a civilservice eligible does not affect his standing on the register for permanent employment, and his experience gained as a temporary appointee does not in any way vary the order of his standing for permanent appointment. Should the needs of the service require it, a temporary appointment may be made permanent upon the receipt of written authority from the Civil Service Commission, provided the temporary appointee is within reach for certification for permanent appointment at the time of his temporary appointment, or becomes within reach during his temporary service.

19. Reports of Employment of Temporary Labor.Officials will make a monthly report of the employ

ment of temporary assistants and labor outside of the District of Columbia, which report must include a statement of the specific kind of labor or duties performed in every case by those so employed. Each monthly report will include all temporary assistants in classified competitive positions employed during the month under letters of authorization issued to officials in charge of field work. Temporary assistants in positions exempted from examination (forest guards, field assistants, cooks, rodmen, chainmen, etc.) and temporary labor in unclassified positions, employed under letters of authorization issued to officials in charge of field work, may be reported monthly, semiannually (December 31 and June 30), or annually (June 30), giving a consolidated statement for each employee covering all employment within the period of the report.

20. Reinstatement.-A person separated without delinquency or misconduct from a competitive position, or from a position which he entered by transfer or promotion from a competitive position, may be reinstated in the department or office in which he served at the time of his separation, upon certificate of the Civil Service Commission, subject to the following limitations: The separation must have occurred within one year next preceding the date of the requisition of the nominating or appointing officer for such certificate; but this limitation shall not apply to a person who served in the Civil War or the War with Spain and was honorably discharged, or his widow, or an Army nurse of either war. No person may be reinstated to a position requiring an examination different from that required for the position from which he was separated without passing an appropriate examination.

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