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N modern education the factors may be grouped as industrial, political, social, and moral, each of which is essential to the realization of an harmonious ethical training. An education which discovers the duties men owe to themselves and to society, growing out of their natural or acquired capacities and their position and prospects in life, which trains men to fulfill the ends and aims of their existence, or to know their rights and to perform their duties, is an harmonious ethical training. The results in manualtraining schools have been somewhat loosely attributed to the industrial factor alone instead of attributing them to the harmonious coöperation of all the ethical elements involved. The ethics of the modern manual-training school may be expressed in Macaulay's epitome of the philosophy of Bacon - utility and progress.

Education is acquisition and training. The type in modern society which largely determines our civilization is the industrial man; education in the United States must be considered, primarily, in relation to the needs of the masses, and the masses are of the industrial type. Less than three per centum of the boys of this country can hope to make a living by the practice of the professions; the mass of American boys must succeed, if they succeed at all, in industrial occupations. A servile adherence to traditional class interests has forced all minds along a narrow public-school course, and by the exclusion of the industrial factor has kept the curriculum a fragment and has maintained a discrimination against the essential group of industrial rights, duties, and interests into which all men are born. More important than that which may be learned at school is the discipline which comes with the

acquisition and the training. To omit industrial discipline in education is to wage war against common sense. The manual-training school is the modern means of acquiring a knowledge of things and of men; its training is a discipline that may be described as having ethical proportions. The new movement is an embodied expostulation against the fatal narrowness of our schools, and there is reason to believe that by the harmonious ethical training realized in manual-training schools some evils now crowding upon society in this country will be remedied.

ing school is, to use a current phrase, “sufficiently literary," could not every school introduce the industrial factor into its curriculum, and by harmoniously administering educational powers already possessed, with absolute certainty increase and intensify the benefits accruing to society from educational work?

A manual-training school is composed of several departments in co-relation: science, mathematics, literature, history, economics, engineering, drawing, and manual work. The harmony of the new education is the harmony of instruction and of construction, which may thus be outlined:

Construction in materials, as wood, metal, etc.

Laboratory work; presentations

Instruction in mathe-
matics, science, draw-graphic

To the objections that the curriculum of the public schools is already crowded; that the introduction of the industrial factor will only add to present confusion; that the industrial training. is technical training, and that the schools of the country are wholly unprepared in faculty or in equipment to add the industrial factor, the reply is the experience of the present manual-training schools: the results reveal that the new education differs from the old chiefly in the administration of educational powers. The time given to manual training might be given to training in language, or mathematics, or philosophy; the Literature, history, and question of which training is one of values. Manual training does not mean no training in language, in mathematics, or in philosophy. Given the present condition of society, the capacities of boys and girls and their respective

economics, drawing..

positions and prospects in life, the question is: Engineering, drawing.
Shall their education consist of acquisition and
-training in language, in mathematics, and in
philosophy only, or in a sufficient amount of
these three, and in industrial training? The
question becomes a practical problem in eco-

nomic administration of educational forces. In Manual work, drawing,
academies and in high schools the tendency
is to imitate the college. The true function of
the academy and of the high school is to help
boys and girls prepare for life; too often these
schools expend their energies in merely prepar-
ing students for college. The manual-training
school has for its function the fitting of the
young for careers in life appropriate to their
characters, their position, and their prospects:
it fits boys for college, but first, by its harmo-
nious training, it teaches them to think and fits
them for making an honorable living in the
world. It is a world school.

Shall a boy know less of Latin, less of Greek, less of French, less of German, less of conic sections or quaternions, less of psychology, and in place thereof know the principles of industrial occupations, the use of tools, the construction of typical forms in the applied arts, and possess both the trained mind and the skilled hand? For the mass of American boys which training is best worth having? Provided that the course in the manual-trainVOL. XXXVIII.—121.


in botany, electricity, chemistry, physics,

physiology, etc.; collections and investigations.

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Experience in Philadelphia proves that drawing, mathematics, and language underlie all other departments.1 Drawing is as important in the school as are tools in the arts. It in

1 Course of Study, Philadelphia Manual-Training School.




Carpentry and Joinery.
Drawing, free-hand and mechanical

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volves the knowledge of things and is the graphic language of facts, forms, and objects. It is a means to an expression of the beautiful and to its conception in science, in literature, and in economics. As the ends of the school are not solely industrial, drawing becomes the means for a graphic presentation of political, industrial, and moral conditions of society. The construction of mechanical units is, educationally, only a method of discipline, and drawing becomes the medium for a logical process. In a working drawing are embodied the facts of form, the appearance of an object to the eye, and the ornamentation incorporating elements of design, beauty, and utility. The results in drawing are: the ability to make out and to interpret working drawings, e. g., machine or house drawings; to produce from drawings the indicated forms in plastic material; the understanding of the phraseology of artistic constructions; and the power to elaborate a proposition. The elaborative faculty has constant use in the school in the construction of machine drawings, tracings, blue-prints, sketches, specifications, drawings to scale, and in the applications of drawing in the work of the various departments. In architectural drawing details from private and from public buildings, plans, elevations, constructions, and graphic problems, such as the combination of use and ornament in a construction, sufficiently test the practical value of the training. In freehand the boy is fitted to delineate rapidly and accurately the apparent form of objects, models,

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tools, applications of typical forms in daily life, and to understand the use of light and shade, both natural and artificial. He learns also the properties and the elementary use of colors. He can distinguish between good and bad design, recognize the historical styles of ornament, and analyze or conventionalize plant forms in artistic applications.

Were the applications of drawing and of the principles of art to go no further, the training in the school would differ but slightly from that given in schools of art. Drawing has not been in American schools long, and the greater part of it has been mere school copy work leading to no practical applications. The manual-training school applies drawing in every department. Exercises in wood, metal, smithing, or molding are first drawn to scale, to which the rough material must be reduced according to the blue-print specifications. The first lesson in the metal shop requires the reduction of a block of cast iron, rough from the foundry, to the proportions 4" X 2" x 1". The groove is cut across the rough face with a cope chisel; the whole surface is chipped off with a flat chisel and filed perfectly smooth. Each face is tested mechanically and is reduced to mathematical proportions, according to the blue-print. Successive lessons increase in difficulty as typical forms are composed, and the completion of the last lesson is the embodiment of all preceding lessons. At the completion of the course in the metal shop alone boys are fitted to enter establishments

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THIRD YEAR: Individual work (constructions) in .5 chemical laboratory, electricity, wood-working, ethical I studies, depending upon the character of the student. FOURTH YEAR: Individual work with special professors preparatory for further studies or for practical work. Distribution of Subjects.

English Language, Rhetoric, with classic authors...3 Geology





American History


Social and Industrial Drawing, mechanical and

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Political Economy





In the fourth year, special work in various depart


2 ments; hours, voluntary.

employing skilled workmen and earn fair wages. In a few instances, such boys have been able to earn wages enough to support themselves.

In the process of transforming rough material into typical forms possessing artistic proportions a boy applies mechanical principles, produces material changes visible to himself and capable of undoubted tests; he acquires the discipline shown in muscular accuracy, perfection of sight and of judgment in the exercise involved. Industrial discipline forms habits of inestimable worth. The finished manual lesson, the construction of a typical form in metal, is an unprejudiced record of the industrial boy. In wood-working, or in forging, the same methods obtain as in the metal shopthe drawing, the instruction, the use of raw material, the reduction to required form. The boy proceeds by various exercises, graded in difficulty, in sawing, planing, squaring, chiseling, mortising, mitering, dove-tailing, and in combinations of these, and learns, during his course, the design, the structure, the use, and the care of tools..

Parallel with the work in wood and in cold metal is a course in the manipulation of hot iron. The boy learns the economy of heat and of material. He draws the design, bends, splits, upsets, punches, shapes, and tempers the iron in the construction of rings, squares, hooks, tongs, and machine tools, each of which is a typical lesson in the art of smithing. The necessity for quick work in forging and the impossibility of testing the accuracy of the strokes while the iron is hot compel a mental concentration peculiarly valuable in any system of education. The smithery is as popular with the boys as any department of the school. All courses in drawing, metal-working, wood-working, forging, tin-smithing, pattern-making, molding, and casting, together with the acquisition and the training from the other departments of the school, prepare for the culmination of the industrial training in a construction. By a construction is meant the making of a mechanical unit, such as a steam-engine, an electric dynamo, a bridge, a turn-table, or some other unit involving the composition of forces and of principles with which the previous training has made the boy familiar. These constructions are models in wood or metal, or in both, and are accompanied by complete drawings.1

Were the instruction in the school to end 1 The training provided in the school may be outlined as follows: Drawing, free-hand, mechanical, architectural, design; wood-working, pattern-making, carving, turning, joinery; metal-working, chipping, filing, fitting; smithing, iron, tin, brazing, molding, casting; mechanical constructions in wood, metal; electrical and mechanical engineering, motor powers,

here it might, perhaps, be called a trade-school. The training thus far outlined has been in mechanical principles and their applications, but the course has ethical proportions and it does not merely fit a boy for a special trade. Exercises in manual work alternate with exercises in other departments. The industrial factor in education is but one element in the recognition and the interpretation of types in the world of worths and of forms. Mechanical units can be classified, and the just administration of educational affairs provides for the training, the industrial discipline which comes by the construction of a mechanical unit after an adequate study, in a practical way, of mechanical principles. But the construction takes a far higher significance when it is made by a boy equally well trained in language, in mathematics, and in philosophy.


The more complex the construction the greater familiarity with ethical principles is demanded. All the factors in education are inseparably involved in the manual-training school. The new movement is endangered if manual work alone be made the essential characteristic of the school. Then the school becomes a shop, and the ethical completeness of the education promised by the school is lost. It is difficult to make plain the harmony of mental and manual work realized in the school to those to whom the proposition is new, who have not examined the school personally. As far as possible, each department of the school is a laboratory. In manual work, in drawing, in chemistry and physics, and in engineering, laboratory methods have been long in use. But in conjunction with the methods of the German "seminar," manual skill has worked a revolution in the study of literature, history, and economics. It is on the so-called "literary side" that manual training displays the power of the new education. Mechanical skill acquired by industrial training in free-hand, machine, and architectural drawing; in tool constructions; in working accurately to specifications; in the composition of constructions; in the power which the boy gains to apply his various acquisitions and training to the solution of a given proposition, is a new factor in ethical training for which there is no substitute and which cannot be eliminated from modern education without defeating the primary purposes of education itself. The new education liberates hand power as brain power and the boy is enabled to express his compreillumination; modeling and carving; mathematics, arithmetic, geometry, trigonometry, algebra; physics, the study of matter; economic botany; chemistry; physiology and hygiene; the English language and literature (German, French, or Latin); history, general and (specially) American; social science, government, political economy; morals.

hension of men and of things not only in the traditional manner known to schools, but by a graphic language of sketch, of chart, of diagram, and of illustration which remove the last doubt of his mental obscurity. Practical school men appreciate the worth of a trusty measure of a boy's understanding. If he can give the traditional tests of recitation, examination, and thesis, and, in addition, give a graphic presentation of his own understanding of the problem under investigation, he has attained a condition long sought in the schools and he possesses powers of recognized value among men. The manual-training school teaches a boy to think and trains him how to do; it enables him to understand his own powers.

As the school is unfettered by traditions it may incorporate all known best educational methods, and in so far as the incorporation is reasonable, the results will be the same as those already realized wherever those methods obtain. But the peculiar feature of the school - the harmonious coöperation of all the factors present is an educational discovery. Especially has skill of hand supplemented the understand ing in the study of history, economics, and literature. Such subjects as rent, taxation, public debts, banking, labor, have, by graphic presentation by the boy, become intelligible to him. Had he pursued these, or kindred topics, in an ordinary high school, he would have probably satisfied conditions by memorizing the pages of a book. By graphic illustration1 the life and growth of language, the position of literary men, the tendency of historic periods, the co-relation of historic epochs, the distribution of social conditions, the economic status of nations or of communities, the movements of population, and the political condition of men under differing forms of government, are raised from the dead surface of mere verbal description into comparative reality. Graphic methods are not unknown in our best schools, but industrial training alone can impart the manual skill, the mathematical accuracy, and the mental grasp to understand and to elaborate the visible proofs that the boy understands the subject before him so thoroughly as to be able to construct, as it were, a photograph of the impression it has made upon his mind. Not from manual training alone can this power come; the boy must be trained ethically; the whole boy must be put to school. As the school is an embodiment of the educational tendencies of the present, in addition to other departments which train boys for modern society a department of electrical

1 The illustrations for this paper, taken from work done in cursu by boys in the Philadelphia Manual Training School, show, to some extent, the harmony of mind training and hand training.

engineering was organized. Electrical science has become the world's property, and it was thought wise to provide a practical knowledge of a force which, as a motor and as a means for illumination, has become essential to the comfort of man. The study of electricity is put side by side with the study of mechanics, of literature, and of chemistry.

American boys usually leave school before they are fourteen years old. Our public schools, in the higher grades, are chiefly attended by girls. Boys find the utilities lacking in the schools, and they are tempted to leave them as soon as they are able to understand the dominant conditions in society. Less than twenty per cent. of American boys enter high schools and less than half of those who enter complete the course. Those who never enter the high school, or who leave before the completion of the course, outnumber those who graduate more than twenty-fold. The wholesome interest taken by boys in industrial training suggests a remedy for many of the evils which have so long prevailed in the higher public schools. Experience in St. Louis, in Chicago, and in Philadelphia leads to the reasonable belief that by the incorporation of manual training in public schools boys will remain longer in school, and at that critical time, from the fourteenth to the eighteenth year, when the character of subsequent life is so largely determined. Experience at Philadelphia further shows the beneficial effects of the new education in the general condition of school interests. In the manual-training school a boy's growth is wholesome because harmonious. He acquires strength of body and of mind. The healthfulness of manual training is of itself a sufficient reason for its introduction into our schools. Subject to the discipline of a harmonious training boys develop a moral power which carries them over the temptations which too often overcome the school-boy. The discipline of the school is that of an industrious and reasonable household. The reason for so healthful moral condition lies in the nature of the school: it touches life at every point; it deals with realities; the boy sees his world not by means of books alone, but also with the aid of daily wrestling with practical problems. By the addition of the industrial factor the chasm between the subjective and the objective world is practically bridged, and the boy finds a way into the meaning of his daily life. The building of this educational bridge is the departure in modern education; it is still in process of construction, but so near completion that many have already traveled safely across.

In the details of the purposes and methods of the new education those engaged in direct

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