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of successful experiments has rendered further argument unnecessary. It is an established fact; but the College for the Training of Teachers is perhaps the first institution of its kind to accept it as such, with all that such acceptance implies. Inasmuch, however, as manual training is not generally taught in the schools and it would be impossible to insist upon candidates for admission having a thorough knowledge of it, the first principle which we have laid down. above must for the time being be violated. The work of the elementary and secondary schools must be supplemented in the trainingcollege course by that instruction in manual training which will shortly be generally given in those schools themselves. When this is the case, the training college will treat the various divisions of manual training precisely as it treats geography and spelling. That is, it will require knowledge of them for entrance; and only discuss their history and educational value and develop the best methods of presenting them to children.
Candidates for admission to the College for the Training of Teachers are required to be at least eighteen years of age, and either to pass a prescribed examination or to present a certificate of graduation from some approved academy, high school, or college. Pupils of either sex are admitted on equal conditions and are given pretty much the same course
pupils from ten to fourteen years of age, and wood-working. The excellence of the work done in wood by female students has excited no little surprise and some derision. The surprise, however, has been confined to those who have not kept pace with educational progress, and the derision to those who continue to see in manual training not education, but preparation for trades.
Instruction in these various branches of manual training shares with the study of the kindergarten and psychology the larger portion of the first part of the junior year. The careful and systematic study of children, their habits, powers, and peculiarities, is begun at once and is carried on throughout the entire course. In fact, it is principally from this study that the future teacher is to gain at the college that store of information which serves to make up what the world knows as "experience" in handling classes of children and in instructing them. A plan has been perfected by which the method of recording observations of this kind, begun at the Worcester (Massachusetts) Normal School a few years ago, will be extended and made a very prominent feature of the study of the child's mind and its development.
The work in natural science, which has so important a place in the curriculum, is designed to serve two purposes. It trains the students in habits of accurate observation and logical
thought, as well as in the methods of experimentation, and also fits them to construct from very simple and accessible materials the apparatus with which to illustrate in the schoolroom various physical, physiological, and mechanical processes. It is intended by the faculty to make, in connection with this science training, a fair test of the assertion of Professor Lintner, State entomologist of New York, that entomology is superior to botany as a means of training the child's power of observation.
Just as natural science is made to serve the teacher's professional purposes, so is history. The teacher needs a highly cultivated imagination and a power of illustration, which the study of the philosophy of history and the progress of civilization can supply. In order to gain this the curriculum contains instruction of this character, and it is carried on in connection with a carefully chosen course of collateral reading.
The science of education- the pädagogik of the Germans — is almost unknown in this country, as is the fact that Paulsen lectures on that subject to three or four hundred students each semester at the University of Berlin. It is to be developed at considerable length at the college by educators who have made it a subject of profound study. It includes a discussion of the philosophical principles underlying the theory of education, such as that given by Waitz and Rosenkranz, and also an examination of the relation of the family and the state to the work of education in the school. The subject of educational values, the relative importance of various subjects of study for the work of mental development, is also included under this head.
Instruction in the methods of teaching, in school organization and discipline, connects itself naturally with the foregoing and constitutes what is known as the art of education. It embraces didactics, discipline and punishment, school hygiene, and kindred topics. The art of education is studied experimentally as it were, for its precepts are to be observed in operation in the school of practice, and, under proper supervision, applied there by the students themselves. In all this mere formalism is to be guarded against, and this saying of Rosmini must be continually borne in mind: "It is true that the teacher, enriched by his own experience, can communicate what he knows to his pupil; but the teacher himself will, if he is wise, make himself the interpreter and disciple of nature, and lead the child's mind to the knowledge of truth by the same
gradual steps he would have to follow in gaining the knowledge for himself by the much longer road of experience."
The history of education is an education itself, and contributes largely to the professional training of the teacher. It includes the study of the development of educational institutions as well as that of educational theories, and involves a critical analysis and study of such works as Plato's "Republic," Quintilian's "Institutes," Luther's "Letter to the Burgomasters," Milton's "Tractate," Rousseau's "Émile," and Froebel's "Education of Man." It describes and compares the contemporary educational institutions in various countries; it discusses the gymnasium and the realschule, the lycée and the English board school, the question of technical education and that of electives in colleges, compulsory education laws and national aid to education in the United States.
The student who has in this way compassed the science of education and its history, the art of instruction and its practice, is entitled to his baccalaureate degree in pedagogy. The degrees of master and doctor are reserved for even higher attainments. The degree of bachelor of pedagogy is to be to the teacher what the doctorate of medicine is to the physician— at once an evidence of thorough professional preparation and a license to practice.
A single institution cannot do much directly in so large a country as our own to supply the schools with properly equipped teachers. Even should the number of its graduates reach several hundreds annually, the teachers of the United States are numbered by the hundreds of thousands. Indirectly, however, it can and will accomplish a great deal. It will serve as a stimulus, and, it is hoped, call many similar training colleges into existence. But should this hoped-for result not follow, it will serve to bring home to the teacher a full appreciation of what it is to belong to a profession which boasts a splendid history, a scientific basis, and a classic literature; a profession to which Alcuin and Abelard, Colet and Comenius, Pestalozzi and Froebel, Thomas Arnold and Mark Hopkins belonged; a profession that has counted and still counts among its members some of the truest, noblest, and best men and women who ever lived. It will improve the character of popular education and through it the quality of citizenship, particularly citizenship in that nation which Abraham Lincoln declared to be "conceived in liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal."
Nicholas Murray Butler.
MANUAL TRAINING AS A FACTOR IN MODERN
WITH ILLUSTRATIONS FROM THE PHILADELPHIA MANUAL-TRAINING SCHOOL.
N modern education the factors may be grouped as industrial, political, social, and moral, each of which is essential to the realization of an harmonious ethical training. An education which discovers the duties men owe to themselves and to society, growing out of their natural or acquired capacities and their position and prospects in life, which trains men to fulfill the ends and aims of their existence, or to know their rights and to perform their duties, is an harmonious ethical training. The results in manualtraining schools have been somewhat loosely attributed to the industrial factor alone instead of attributing them to the harmonious coöperation of all the ethical elements involved. The ethics of the modern manual-training school may be expressed in Macaulay's epitome of the philosophy of Bacon -utility and progress.
Education is acquisition and training. The type in modern society which largely determines our civilization is the industrial man; education in the United States must be considered, primarily, in relation to the needs of the masses, and the masses are of the industrial type. Less than three per centum of the boys of this country can hope to make a living by the practice of the professions; the mass of American boys must succeed, if they succeed at all, in industrial occupations. A servile adherence to traditional class interests has forced all minds along a narrow public-school course, and by the exclusion of the industrial factor has kept the curriculum a fragment and has maintained a discrimination against the essential group of industrial rights, duties, and interests into which all men are born. More important than that which may be learned at school is the discipline which comes with the
ciently literary," could not every school introduce the industrial factor into its curriculum, and by harmoniously administering educational powers already possessed, with absolute certainty increase and intensify the benefits accruing to society from educational work?
acquisition and the training. To omit industrial ing school is, to use a current phrase, “suffidiscipline in education is to wage war against common sense. The manual-training school is the modern means of acquiring a knowledge of things and of men; its training is a discipline that may be described as having ethical proportions. The new movement is an embodied expostulation against the fatal narrowness of our schools, and there is reason to believe that by the harmonious ethical training realized in manual-training schools some evils now crowding upon society in this country will be remedied.
To the objections that the curriculum of the public schools is already crowded; that the introduction of the industrial factor will only add to present confusion; that the industrial training. is technical training, and that the schools of the country are wholly unprepared in faculty or in equipment to add the industrial factor, the reply is the experience of the present manual-training schools: the results reveal that the new education differs from the old chiefly in the administration of educational powers. The time given to manual training might be given to training in language, or mathematics, or philosophy; the question of which training is one of values. Manual training does not mean no training in language, in mathematics, or in philosophy. Given the present condition of society, the capacities of boys and girls and their respective
A manual-training school is composed of several departments in co-relation: science, mathematics, literature, history, economics, engineering, drawing, and manual work. The harmony of the new education is the harmony of instruction and of construction, which may thus be outlined:
Instruction in mathe-
Literature, history, and
positions and prospects in life, the question is: Engineering, drawing..
nomic administration of educational forces. In Manual work, drawing,
Shall a boy know less of Latin, less of Greek, less of French, less of German, less of conic sections or quaternions, less of psychology, and in place thereof know the principles of industrial occupations, the use of tools, the construction of typical forms in the applied arts, and possess both the trained mind and the skilled hand? For the mass of American boys which training is best worth having? Provided that the course in the manual-trainVOL. XXXVIII.—121.
Construction in materials, as wood, metal, etc.
Laboratory work; graphic presentations in botany, electricity, chemistry, physics, physiology, etc.; collections and investigations.
Graphic presentations of historic events; social science; language; biography; economics.
Electrical and mechanical laboratories; models; working machines; designs; ornamentation.
Typical forms in wood and metal; clay modeling; casting; smithing; forging; tool constructions.
Conduct, daily association; industrial relations; social duties; record of personal qualities and powers; selfknowledge.
Experience in Philadelphia proves that drawing, mathematics, and language underlie all other departments.1 Drawing is as important in the school as are tools in the arts. It in
1 Course of Study, Philadelphia Manual-Training School.
Hours per week through year.
Carpentry and Joinery.
volves the knowledge of things and is the graphic language of facts, forms, and objects. It is a means to an expression of the beautiful and to its conception in science, in literature, and in economics. As the ends of the school are not solely industrial, drawing becomes the means for a graphic presentation of political, industrial, and moral conditions of society. The construction of mechanical units is, educationally, only a method of discipline, and drawing becomes the medium for a logical process. In a working drawing are embodied the facts of form, the appearance of an object to the eye, and the ornamentation incorporating elements of design, beauty, and utility. The results in drawing are: the ability to make out and to interpret working drawings, e. g., machine or house drawings; to produce from drawings the indicated forms in plastic material; the understanding of the phraseology of artistic constructions; and the power to elaborate a proposition. The elaborative faculty has constant use in the school in the construction of machine drawings, tracings, blue-prints, sketches, specifications, drawings to scale, and in the applications of drawing in the work of the various departments. In architectural drawing details from private and from public buildings, plans, elevations, constructions, and graphic problems, such as the combination of use and ornament in a construction, sufficiently test the practical value of the training. In freehand the boy is fitted to delineate rapidly and accurately the apparent form of objects, models,
tools, applications of typical forms in daily life, and to understand the use of light and shade, both natural and artificial. He learns also the properties and the elementary use of colors. He can distinguish between good and bad design, recognize the historical styles of ornament, and analyze or conventionalize plant forms in artistic applications.
Were the applications of drawing and of the principles of art to go no further, the training in the school would differ but slightly from that given in schools of art. Drawing has not been in American schools long, and the greater part of it has been mere school copy work leading to no practical applications. The manual-training school applies drawing in every department. Exercises in wood, metal, smithing, or molding are first drawn to scale, to which the rough material must be reduced according to the blue-print specifications. The first lesson in the metal shop requires the reduction of a block of cast iron, rough from the foundry, to the proportions 4" X 2"X1". The groove is cut across the rough face with a cope chisel; the whole surface is chipped off with a flat chisel and filed perfectly smooth. Each face is tested mechanically and is reduced to mathematical proportions, according to the blue-print. Successive lessons increase in difficulty as typical forms are composed, and the completion of the last lesson is the embodiment of all preceding lessons. At the completion of the course in the metal shop alone boys are fitted to enter establishments
Hours per week through year. 2 6
THIRD YEAR: Individual work (constructions) in 5 chemical laboratory, electricity, wood-working, ethical I studies, depending upon the character of the student. FOURTH YEAR: Individual work with special professors preparatory for further studies or for practical work.
Distribution of Subjects.
English Literature, classic authors.