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return for personal services; and the Roman law of do not tip, and to those who are coerced into tipping. contracts was very seriously modified by the persist. They would of course be unpleasant to those few who ence of the idea down to the latest times. Circuin- wish to tip; but these are just the social pests who stances seem to show that there was some truth in underlie the whole system and who deserve no consid. the notion ; and yet we must have personal service, eration. and it must be paid for, in default of slavery — the in- We know of at least one hotel where the non-tipping finitely worse alternative which governed the ancient plan was tried, we believe, with success. world. So long as the employer stood between guest and servant, taking the guest's money and therewith

The Washington Memorial Arch. paying the servant, the connection between guest and They were not mistaken who believed that the servant was so indirect as to obviate many of the evils celebration in New York of the centenary of Wash. which the Roman instinctively seared, and the some. ington's inauguration would not only stimulate the what aggressive independence of the American serve patriotism of the nation and of the city, but would inant did the rest. The system of tipping, bringing increase, especially, the sense and pride of citizenship a direct but surreptitious money connection between on the part of the inhabitants of the city itself. The guest and servant, cannot but result in a steady de- most conspicuous and gratifying evidence of this has generation of the servant's moral fiber. It gives the been given in the movement looking to the erection in servant a mercenary mode of thought which is un- permanent form, at Washington Square, of the temhappily too familiar to most men to need much speci. porary centennial arch designed by Stanford White. fication here. The worst of all results is that it cor- There has seldom been seen in New York a movement rupts the servant's whole conception of duty: duty is of the kind sustained so well by public opinion. The no longer something to which he is bound, but some- manner in which the various artistic, literary, and thing which some one else is bound to bribe him to do. social organizations have responded to the suggestion When such a conception of duty is daily borne in upon is quite unprecedented in our history. Of course one the heart and practice of a circle of servants, which is reason for this is the fact that the public were not steadily extending from the employees of hotels to called upon to subscribe to an unknown object. They those of railroads, steamboats, and every conceivable were assured by the very circumstances of the case that variety of personal service, and when all these men the monument would be a fit and beautiful one; that are not only servants but voters, how can it be ex- in its purity, simplicity, and majesty it would recall pected that we shall leave a man a virile conception of the character of the first President; that the form of his duty as a voter while we corrupt him as a servant ? the memorial would not be the dubious outcome of He will not bring you a glass of water at a hotel table, an anonymous competition. One reason, we say, that or handle your luggage on a steamer, without an extra the scheme has not flashed in the pan is that the ingratuity; why should he vote even the ticket of his telligence of the community stamped the monument at own party unless he is tipped for his trouble? How once with its approval. But another reason is that the far is democratic government compatible with the tip "centennial” had helped to make the city “feel itself.” system?

There never was a time when so many public-spir. It is said that there is no remedy. There is none ited citizens were determined that New York should which will take effect without effort, but sincere and offer something more to the eye of the visitor than a persistent effort could find a remedy. Some of our rushing stream of humanity, “something more" for clubs have found already that the social evil of tipping, the contemplation of the rest of the world “than a swiftthe sense of insecurity and inequality which it intro- running mill which grinds the grists of fortune.” The duces among the members, is not “clubbable.” They city's private architecture has improved strikingly durtherefore pay the servants honest wages, and make the ing the past ten years. It has acquired a few notable offer of any further tip or gratuity an offense against statues and more are being added to the number. But the club. Let us extend the club feeling and find in it the Washington Memorial Arch will be the first piece the remedy. It was in the hotels that the evil began its of purely decorative public architecture, of first-class imvicious course, and in them the remedy must find its portance, erected in New York. It will not only greatly beginning. It would not be a difficult matter for a add to the beauty and to the interest of the city, but hotel to announce in its advertisements, in its offices, is sure to be the beginning of a system of arches and and on its bills of fare, that its servants are paid full public gateways at appropriate places throughout the wages, that any of them accepting tips will be dismissed metropolis. at the end of the week, and that the guest is requested The more beautiful the city, and the stronger its apnot to tempt the servant by offering him gratuities. peal to the eye and to the heart of its inhabitants, the Only a few cases of vigorous enforcement of these more apt will these be to see to it that our local gov. notices would be needed. The results would be profit. ernment is not a reproach among the nations of the able to the employers, and pleasant to those guests who earth.

OPEN LETTERS.

14

1

2.66

2,334

2 8

11,868

426

16.25 16.50 16.75

I 18 21

1,402

2 13 35

6 16

17.25
17:50

3 31 7

18.00

6.00 6.25

47,661

76

18.25 18.50 18.75

6.37

2

5 15 130 174 11

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7.00 7.25 7.50

3 215

14 925

1 21

8.00

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8.25 8.50 8.66

9.00

288

1

9.50 9.75

24 1,134

1 10 375 22 35

14 . 19,046

18 37

1 15 62

I

26.25 26.75

10.00 10.25 10.50

27.50
30.00

Union Veterans and their Pensions.

Rates.
No. Rates.

N. $1.00

283
$13.75

16 1.87

2

14.00 HERE are two national associations, having organ

6.555 2.00 31,722 14.25

35 2.1242. 3 14.50

10 2.25

4

14.75 which are engaged in advocating a service pension for

2.50

3 14.8772. every Union survivor of the civil war, and the Grand

7 15.00 2.6633.

38 Army of the Republic, the largest and the strongest

15.25 3.00

1,935 15.50 society of veterans, has an extensive machinery at work

3.12

1

15.75

3.75 agitating for the support of pension measures both

348

16.00 4.00

69,210 at the polls and at Washington. It is true that this

4.25 machinery of the Grand Army is not strictly represent

5.00 5.25

17.00

2,65€ ative, but the State and national conventions of the

5. 33 order, made up of delegates elected annually, are in 5.333.

5.6633

17.75 the habit of discussing and voting upon measures 5.75

2,538 which are expected to be presented to Congress by a committee acting under authority of the whole body.1 Some of the measures indorsed by the Grand Army

6.37%

6.6033 in the past have become laws. The Dependent Pen

6.75 sion Bill, which was vetoed in 1887, originated in the

1,652 pension committee representing the National Encampment.

7.663 With a view to presenting the pension question as

7.75

63,142 it stands, both as regards the allowances drawn at this 8.12 time and the additional allowances to be asked for in the near future, I give below an abstract of the provisions already made for survivors of the service, and also

8.75 the provisions of the bills proposed, and an approxi

9.25 mate of the cost of these new measures.

According to the report for 1888 of the Commissioner of Pensions, there were then on the rolls 326,835 survivors of the war of 1861-65, 217,580 of the num

30.75 ber receiving allowances not exceeding $8 a month.2 10.75 The 109,255 reported as receiving an excess of $8 a

483 month include nearly all of the officers drawing invalid pensions (some of them are on the roll at a lower

11.33%.

36.00 rate), and all of the enlisted men having extra disabil

38.50 ity, such as the loss of limbs, or eyesight, or hearing,

12 122.

40.25 or the equivalents. Out of the 217,580 reported at $8 or less, there are 32,007 at $2 or less, 103,556 at $4 or

46.00 less, and 153,177 at $6 or less. Only 64,403 of the

328 217,580 in this class, and mainly those technically known as the fully disabled, receive over $6 a month, and the remaining 153,177 are on at an average of $3.50 13.33% a month. Since $8 was deemed a fair rate to support

326,135 a dependent veteran in the simple times of the first half of the century, when that rate was fixed, the Rates of Monthly Allowance according to Rank for Injuries

incurred in Service amounting to Total Disability. present allowance as it comes to individuals in the large Rank of lieutenant-colonel

$30.00 class here considered is not much more than a pittance. The aggregate annual value of the entire list at $8 and

" captain

" first lieutenant under, as it stood in 1888, is about $13,888,000.

" second The following table of ratings and of the number

6 11,257

10.66

II.00
11.25
11.33

31.25 32.00 32.50 35.00 35.50

1

11.50 11.75

88 3 3 4

2 2,927

I 24

I

1 2,540

1

12.00

9 25

25 25,078

6 15 211 707

40.00

42.00 45.00

12.25 12.50 12.75 13.00 13.12 13.25 13:33

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" cadets, etc

Privates and non-commissioned officers (except warrant pensioned at each rate shows how the allowance is officers in the navy). .

8.00 distributed among invalid survivors (war of 1861-65) Rates established by Law according to Disability. on the rolls June 30, 1888:

Loss of both hands or feet

72.00 Total disability in both hands.

50.00 1 The National Pension Committee of the Grand Army is ap. Total disability in both feet

31.23 pointed by the Commander-in-Chief, who is elected annually. Loss of sight of both eyes

72.00 The committee «erves one year.

Loss of one hand and one foot.

36.00 2 Eight dollars a month is the total for the rank of an enlisted Loss of a hand or foot... man whose disability, with respect to the part affected, incapaci. Any disability equivalent to loss of hand or foot tates for manual labor. This rate was established in 1818, and has Amputation at or above elbow or knee, or total disability not been increased except for special disabilities.

of the arm or leg...

36.00

46

30.00 24.00

Amputation at or near hip or shoulder joint..., $45.00 who may hereafter be suffering from mental or physical Inability to perforın manual labor.

30.00 disability, not the result of their own vicious habits, which Disability requiring regular attendance by another per

totally incapacitates them for the performance of manual son

50.00 Total deafness.

labor, shall, upon making due proof of the fact according 30.00

to such rules and regulations as the Secretary of the InThe rates for other disabilities are fixed by the Com- terior may provide, be placed upon the list of invalid penmissioner of Pensions.

sioners of the United States, and be entitled to receive

twelve dollars per month; and such pension shall comThe law assumes that these beneficiaries received mence from the date of the filing of the application in the permanent injuries incident to service during the war, Pension Office, after the passage of this act, upon proof or, if the injury be not permanent, that the allowance that the disability then existed, and shall continue during

the existence of the same in the degree herein specified : is suspended whenever the effects of the injury dis. Provided, That persons who are now receiving pensions appear. There is justification for this enormous pen- under existing laws, or whose claims are pending in the sion list of survivors, in the record of casualties and Pension Office, may, by application to the Commissioner diseases. There were over 250,000 wounds treated in benefits of this act; and nothing herein contained shall

of Pensions, in such form as he may prescribe, receive the hospitals, and in all about 6,000,000 cases of wounds be so construed as to prevent any pensioner thereunder and diseases. Aside from the dead on the field over from prosecuting his claim and receiving his pension

under any other general or special act: Provided, however, 200,000 cases proved fatal.

That no person shall receive more than one pension for Any reduction of this invalid list, which aggregated the same period: And provided further, That rank in the in 1888 an annual value of over $37,000,000, must be service shall not be considered in applications filed theremade by scaling the allowances of one or both of the under. two classes which I have distinguished, namely: the

This section was left unchanged in a bill passed by numerous class, which includes nearly all of the en

the Senate at the last session. Meanwhile there had listed men, and where the average is $5.31+ a month, been introduced in both houses a bill known as the and the aggregate annual value is not quite $14,000,000 Per Diem Service Pension Bill (given in full, below), a sor over 217,000 beneficiaries, or the class where the

measure which its advocates declared would benefit the average is greater and the number of pensioners less, three classes considered above, as being unprovided the beneficiaries being 109,255, the annual value about for, and the House committee of the last Congress re$24,182,000, and the average $18.42+ a month. This ported the Grand Army Disability Bill, with Section 2 higher class of pensioners, however, includes nearly changed to provide as follows: all of the disabled officers, and all of the enlisted men who are severely maimed.

A pension at the rate per month of one cent for each Assuming that these pensions will remain as they States during any of the wars in which the United States

day's service in the military or naval service of the United are during the lifetime of the beneficiaries, what other have been engaged, and all persons who have served as classes of survivors, who are deserving, are unpro- aforesaid, and have been honorably discharged as aforevided for?

said, and are now sixty-two years of age, shall also be

entitled, etc. First. Those who by reason of the hardships of service and old age combined are not able to labor, Further provision grants the same pension to all and who have no case under the invalid laws.

who attain the age of sixty-two. In this bill the three Second. Those who are disabled by reason of injuries classes above considered are recognized as deserving, received in service, and who cannot prove their claims. but the rate to be allowed is graded according to length

Third. Those who have become disabled since the of service. The bill was not voted upon. war, and whose faithful services entitle them to the During the discussion of the Dependent Bill before gratitude of the nation.

and after the veto, a measure, known as the Lovering, The number of these cannot be computed, but or Eight Dollar Service Pension Bill, providing eight doubtless there are many thousands. Every Grand dollars a month to every survivor who had served sixty Army post has some cases of the kind on its relief days or more, was brought before Congress. list. The average age of survivors is about fifty This bill would benefit the deserving classes to the years, and there must be a large number who have extent of eight dollars a month; but as it makes only passed the age of activity. Very many who received a slight distinction with regard to length of service, permanent injuries in service, but were young and several rated service pension bills were discussed by hopeful when the war closed, did not make application the veterans, and finally the Per Diem Bill was formuand secure evidence while the proper witnesses could lated. It was introduced early in the session of 1887be obtained, and cannot at this date prove their invalid 88, and is as follows: claims. Still others had no well-defined disease when they were discharged, but have become disabled since

A Bill to grant Pensions for Service in the Army, Navy,

and Marine Corps of the United States. and are now in want, and have no case under present Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representlaws.

atives of the United States of America in Congress It was to benefit, ostensibly, the three classes not

assembled, that the Secretary of the Interior is hereby

authorized and directed to place on the pension roll of now on the list that the Dependent Pension Bill, which the United States the names of all persons specified in failed to become a law, was framed by the Grand Army the following section, upon making due proof that they committee. Immediately after the veto the committee performed the service specified in said section. prepared a modified bill called a Disability Bill, pro- the preceding sections are as follows: Any officer or

Sec. 2. That persons entitled as beneficiaries under viding for veterans as follows:

enlisted man who shall have served in the army, navy, or

marine corps of the United States, including regulars Sec. 2. That all persons who served three months or and volunteers, subsequent to the fourth day of March, more in the military or naval service of the United States 1861, and prior to the first day of July, 1866. during the late war of the rebellion, and who have been Sec. 3.' That the rate of pension for such service honorably discharged therefrom, and who are now or shall be at the rate per month of one cent for each day's

a

service recdered in the said army, nary, or marine corps the veterans have original knowledge which should ofise Cated Sates 1

SEC. + Tha: se penud of service shall he competed make them competen: advocates and jodges in claims from be date of master into the United Sizes service made on the grourd of service. Bat with this knowl. to the dare cí éscsarge, bes no persion sha:: he granted edze ani iztience there is also responsibility, and it under his act to or ca account of any person who de; is to be hoped that the pension measares presented serad pric: 50 july I. 1865. ucl he shall have obtained

on behalf of the order will be based wholly upon jusa discharge from the service from which he deserted, and so ascoarge which was given to any person by reason tice for all concerned, - the interests of the country as ci reec's mess as a veteraa vcisateer, or to ease. well as that of the soldiers,, and not upon the mere w accesea poco con, sta! be deemed a discharge from fact of approval by an accidental majority in the ranks the services withia the meaning of this act

SEC. 5 Tbar pessiga under this act sha' be a: the of the veterans. rate specified in sectoa three, and star beradio the per

George L. Krimer. sons enceed tereto for the term of their tres from and after the passage of this bil.

* The Use of Oil to Still the Waves.** SEC. 6. Tois bil is intended as a service pension ti and is intended as an addit ja to ali avald pensions which have been or may hereafter be granted for disa

I HAVE just read with mech interest the article in Cudzy.

the March number of The CENTURY OR " The l' se

of oil to Sail the Waves." It so happens that lately The three bills, the Dependent or Disability Bil, the a large stip ladea with petroleum was run icto by a Eight Doilar Bi?), and the Per Diem Bill, were before steamer on the Owers higheship which carried away Congress when the national encampment of the Grani

a part of her catwater and made a huge hole in her Army Colambus, Ohio, 1888 i was again callei epoa to

bows. It was blowing pretty fresh from the southmeet the question. The committee on pensions reiter

west at the time, and there was a good sea on. The ated the ciaims of the Disability B.1., and finaliya reso casks began to roll ca: through the hole in the bows lacion was adopted almost onanimously favoriag a

of the l'inizia cf New Brunswick, and the vessel to service pension of eight dollars a month for every sor: settle down forward. The crew took to the boats and vivor who served sixty days or more, and an al litional abandoned her, and she drifted up channel and Enaily ancant of one cent a math for each day's service ese grounded of Hove, about three hundred yards from ceeding eight bundred.

shore. Two thousard or more casks of petrolecm The bili has not yet been presented, but the Grand drifted to land, and I was curious to see what effect Army committee has been active in pushing the Disa. the oil had upon the waves. To my surprise, I came büity Buil. However, the resolction of the encamp to the conclésion tiat the efect was almost entirely ment is an approval of the principle of service pensions, negative; ani I made the remark to some friends and is in harmony with the action of many of the State that, whatever effect oiker kinds of oil may hare, petrodepartments of the order.

leum is evidently of no use. I now find har this ex i pon the question of service pensions, the veterans perience is in strict accordance with the statement of in and out of the Grand Army are divided as to the Lieutenant Beehler, " tha: mineral cel is riot scitable, following points: First. Shail the pension begin at

especially if reined." The cargo of the landslia cononce, or at sixty-two years of age? Second. Shall it be sisted, I presame, of refined oil, for on observing some rared acording to leng:h of service, or be uniform? How from a cask, the tead of which was started, it Third. Shall it be in ad-lition to the invalid pension was evidently a rery limpid and perfectly clear oil, allowance in cases already on the roll? Foarta. Shall having a faint bluish tinge very similar to that observit continue to the widows or other dependent heirs ?

able in fuorescent liquids. Several of the casks were The number of survivors is estimated, in the departs store in and came to shore empty of their contents, so ments at Washington, at about 1,350,000. It is asserted that a large quantity of oil tai mingied with the sea by the Per Diem Service Pension Association that water. To such an extent was this the case that the the average term of service is about one year, and that sea along the length of the shore for two miles or more the Per Diem B:!) would a:low an average pension of presente a thin mik-and-water appearance. It ap$3.65 a month. If 1,000,000 survivors called for the peared to me, so far as I could judge, that the heavy arosance, the cost would be less than $50,000.000 a sea churned the oil up into minute globules, which were year. The Eighe Dollar Bill would cost $90,000,000 a dispersed throughoat the water and so rendered it vear if 1,000,000 men shoeld receive it. The Grand turbi 1. I quite satisfied myself that the oil did not Army Service Pension Bill would cost, on the same basis, spread out into a continuous film over the surface of 506.000.000 a year, and an additional sum to every the water, hat broke up into little patches. The surface ceteran who served over 800 days; that is, for three notion of the sea seemed unappreciabiy affected. It years' service, or 1095 days, $10.95 a month; for foar broke over the bows of the l'il'in, and came up in Fears, or 1460 days. $14.60 a moth; and at that rare beavy breakers upon the beach, but there seemed much for 2" terms of service of over Soo days.?

less foam than is usually created when the big rollers For more than twenty years the Grand Army of the

break. Repablic throughout the Union has engaged in a vast

George Gaine. and peculiar system of relief to neely comrades, and Hove, SUSSEX, ENCLAND

Two years is a fair terms of service in a long war and $8 is annual value of at the persicas on the roll was $55 29.2003, the pension esatished Pria Cer's senxe is not recorded and oct of this $:8.545, 3*3-50 was fu peasivas to the widors and if years; it is tra the way i actual e aceat to that of center dependents of three wars, and the unives 1812 and ischarge. Therefore a rate ofrecea cay, which was give

On the basis of the act co the rois for $.39<a tv-years' tern, vo give a proporoccate sus for 1838 the estimates for sbe Fer Dries 5e vold increase the asy jer the serce.

aan vaize of all pass to soreshing over $120, 300, 30% The cast arsenest fre pensions fore the scal year ending the Eizbe 142 BL w swell it te sve $5:00, 200, and Jene 30, 1933, -as $3.5.361.2, and Deary ore kind of the the Gred Arny Service Pension measure to a sai higher sem aunt was used in payze: ci arrears on dev claims

che Vera War.

The

BRIC-À-BRAC.

A Fence-Corner Oration.

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OMHOO, I hyah 'bout Ark’nsaw befo',

An' all dat lan' out Wes', But heah ole Peter hoed es row, An' hit 's mighty nigh time ter res'. I knows de white folks roun' erbout, An' de ole uns all knows me: When hard-time comes dey he'ps me out, Des same as I warn' free. An' I hyah 'bout dat five dollers er day, An' nuth'n' 't all ter do But ter shovel dirt on er railroad track An' eat when yer all git frough. I seen some niggers be'n out deir Come er-hustlin' back ergin, An' I hatter gi' um meat an' bread Ter he'p full out dey skin. Dey said dat rations pow'sul skearce, De hen roos' mighty high, An' 'possum des 'bout as hard ter ketch When he go rackin' by. T'ings way off yonner look mighty fine, But des you git up close, Gwineter see sup'n' else dat 'll mek yer want Butt yer head ergin er pos'. An' 'bout de time yer tu'n eroun' good, An' see how fur yer come, Some t'ings gwineter look mighty fine Erway 'long back to'rds home. Dis lan' ain't what hit used ter be Nobody ain''sputin' dat: But hit 'll talk back ter de hoe, An' keep de chillun fat; An' sometime guano ain' gwine stick, Don't keer wher' yer got um, But when hit wash down off de hill, Deir 's big corn grows en de bottum. An' ef de crik git out an’ wash Guano plum on down, Hit gethers some erway 'long up, An' sots hit on mer groun'. Yes, sah, I learned er heap er sense Sence freedom tunned me out, An' sho's yer born, Boss, hit 's all right; De Lord knows what he's 'bout ! When cotton short, de corn hit 's tall, An' when de hog meat 's high, I puts ner morgidge on ole mule, An' he wuk hit out bimeby. But yer can't learn dese young niggers sense, Dey got ter learn dese'f. 'T ain' what goes in meks white folks rich, Hit 's what sticks ter de she's; An' some niggers ain' gwine settle down, Don't cyah where dey be: Dey c'n all put out fer Ark’nsaw, But dey don't trabbl’’long wid me! Ole Mars'er buried out yonner by de plums, An' ole Miss, she deir too, An' my ole 'ooman ain' ve'y fur off, An' my las' littl' gal, Sally Lou. Don’t mek no diffunce whar some folks put, When dey race es all be'n run, But somehow I ain' wanter stray too fur 'Fo’my las' day's work git dun. Some er dese times, an' mebby 'fo' yer know, Gwineter hyah dey Gabeul horn An' gwineter be er-stirrin' ev’ywhar en de lan',

An' er heap er folks skeered, sho's yer born:
Heap er folks what tort deysel' mighty good
Gwineter trimble en de traces an' balk,
An I wanter be whar 1 c'n sorter step eroun'
An' hyah ole Miss when she talk.
She mighty good ’ooman, ole Miss was,-
Ev'ybody roun' heah knowed dat,-
An' what she says es gospel law,
I don't keer whár she at.
Ef she lean fum de chariot er-rollin' frough de gate
An' ses, “ Sen' my nigger in ter me,"
De angeul gwineter lit es hat ter her,
An' I ain' gwineter tell 'im I 'm free.

9

Harry Stillwell Edwards.

The Sensitive Visitor.

The night was bitter : Pride and I Sat gazing on it through the pane : Who can this gallant horseman be That at our casement draweth rein ?

We turn our faces, Pride and I;
And yet the pleading and the pain
Of that one look — nay, out of sight,
He 's passed into the night and rain.

Who could the bold intruder be?
Alas! to-day 't is but too plain :
His name was Opportunity -
He never came to us again.

Orelia Key Bell.

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