Puslapio vaizdai

year 1860, and others followed their example laid upon the table, nearly every member of in the autumn meeting of 1861. They formed the Presbytery voting against it. their General Assembly of the Southern Con- The Methodist Church in the South had federacy on the 4th of December of that year. separated from their brethren in the North Even before the inauguration of Mr. Lincoln fifteen years before the war on the question of the Protestant Episcopal Convention of several slavery, and a portion of their clergy and laity States formally withdrew from the Union, and when the war broke out naturally engaged in that fiery soldier-priest Leonidas Polk, Bishop it with their accustomed zeal; but they were of Louisiana, commanded the clergy to shift by no means unanimous, even within the secedtheir public prayers from the President of the ing States, and the organization was virtually United States to that of the Confederate States, wrecked by the war.2 and announced in a pastoral letter that “ Our As the national authority began to be reësseparation from our brethren of the Protestant tablished throughout the States in rebellion, not Episcopal Church of the United States has the least embarrassing of the questions which been effected because we must follow our generals in command were called upon to decide nationality. . . . Our relations to each other was that of the treatment of churches whose hereafter will be the relations we now both hold pastors were openly or covertly disloyal to the to the men of our mother church in England.” Union. There was no general plan adopted Unable to restrain his ardor within the limits by the Government for such cases; in fact, it of the church militant, he exchanged his crozier was impossible to formulate a policy which for a sword and died by a cannon shot on the should meet so vast a variety of circumstances Georgia hills.

as presented themselves in the different reAt the session of the first General Council gions of the South. The Board of Missions of of the Protestant Episcopal Church at Augusta the Methodist Church sent down some of their an address was adopted congratulating the ablest ministers, with general authority to take Church in the Confederate States upon the charge of abandoned churches, and to estabunity which existed in its councils, upon its lish in them their interrupted worship. The promise of growth and expansion, and upon mission boards of other denominations took the fact that the leading minds of the new re- similar action, and the Secretary of War’ gave public were of their own communion; they general orders to the officers commanding the called upon the Church to make strenuous ef- different departments to permit ministers of forts in behalf of the slaves of the South, and the gospel bearing the commission of these gently advocated such an arrangement of their mission boards to exercise the functions of peculiar institution as not to violate the right their office and to give them all the aid, counof marriage among the blacks.“ Hitherto," tenance, and support which might be practicathey say, “ we have been hindered by the press- ble. But before and after these orders there ure of Abolitionists; now that we have thrown was much clashing between the military and off from us that hateful and infidel pestilence, the ecclesiastical authorities, which had its rise we should prove to the world that we are faith- generally in the individual temperaments of ful to our trust, and the Church should lead the the respective generals and priests. There was hosts of the Lord in this work of justice and an instance in one place where a young offimercy.” Feeble efforts in this direction were cer rose in his pew and requested an Episcopal made by churches in other communions in the minister to read the prayer for the President South, but strong opposition was at once de- of the United States, which he had omitted. veloped. In the Transylvania Presbytery it was Upon the minister's refusal the soldier adargued that “Though the matter presented vanced to the pulpit and led the preacher, was one of undoubted grievance, involving a loudly protesting, to the door, and then quietly sin which ought to be purged away, yet, to returning to the altar himself read the prayer — prevent agitation in the Church at such a time not much, it is to be feared, to the edification of intense political strife, there must be no in- of the congregation. General Butler arrested termeddling," and a resolution in favor of the a clergyman in Norfolk, and placed him at solemnization of matrimony among slaves was hard labor on the public works for disloyalty

1 McPherson, “ History of the Rebellion,” p. 548. that the ministers be instructed to propose to their

2 At a convention of loyal ministers and laymen of congregations to unite en masse with that church. the Methodist Episcopal Church held at Knoxville, Their report states “that there are in the bounds of August, 1864, it was resolved that the loyal members the Holston Conference 120 preachers known to be of the conference have a just claim to all the church loyal, and 40 others supposed to be true to the Union; property; that they really constitute the Southern and it is thought, therefore, that the work of reconMethodist Episcopal Church, within the bounds of struction will be easily accomplished.” [McPherson, the Holston Conference; that they propose, at the “History of the Rebellion,” p. 546.) earliest day practicable, to transfer the same to the 3 March 10, 1864. McPherson, “ History of the Re. Methodist Episcopal Church in the United States; and bellion,” p. 522.

in belief and action; but the President reversed only in Missouri, but throughout the Union. this sentence and changed it to one of exclusion The President, being informed of it, wrote3 to from the Union lines. The Catholic Bishop General Curtis disapproving the act of the of Natchez having refused to read the pre- provost-marshal, saying, in a terse and vigorscribed form of prayer for the President, and ous phrase, which immediately obtained wide having protested in an able and temperate currency, “ The United States Government paper against the orders of the commanding must not, as by this order, undertake to run general in this regard, the latter ordered him the churches. When an individual in a church, to be expelled from the Union lines, although or out of it, becomes dangerous to the public the order was almost immediately rescinded. interest he must be checked; but let the General Rosecrans issued an order 2 in Mis- churches, as such, take care of themselves.” souri requiring the members of religious con- But even this peremptory and unmistakable vocations to give satisfactory evidence of their command did not put an end to the discusloyalty to the Government of the United States sion. Taking the hands of the government as a condition precedent to their assemblage away from the preacher did not quench the and protection. In answer to the protestations dissensions in the church, nor restore the paswhich naturally resulted from this mandate he tor to the position which he occupied before replied that it was given at the request of the war; and almost a year later some of the many loyal church members, both lay and friends of Dr. McPheeters considered it necclerical; that if he should permit all bodies essary and proper to ask the intervention of claiming to be religious to meet without ques- the President to restore to him all his ecclesition, a convocation of Price's army, under the astical privileges in addition to the civil rights garb of religion, might assemble with impunity which they admitted he already enjoyed. This and plot treason. He claimed that there was the President, in a letter 4 of equal clearness no hardship in compelling the members of such and vigor, refused to do. “ I have never interassemblages to establish their loyalty by oath fered,” he said, “ nor thought of interfering, as and certificate, and insisted that his order, while to who shall, or shall not, preach in any church; providing against public danger, really pro- nor have I knowingly or believingly tolerated tected the purity and the freedom of religion. any one else to so interfere by my authority”;

In the course of these controversies between but he continues, “If, after all, what is now secessionist ministers and commanding gen- sought is to have me put Dr. McPheeters erals an incident occurred which deserves a back over the heads of a majority of his own moment’s notice, as it led to a clear and vigor- congregation, that too will be declined. I ous statement from Mr. Lincoln of his atti- will not have control of any church on any tude in regard to these matters. During the side.” The case finally ended by the exclusion year 1862 a somewhat bitter discussion arose of Dr. McPheeters from his pulpit by the between the Rev. Dr. McPheeters of the Vine order of the presbytery having ecclesiastical Street Church in St. Louis and some of his authority in the case. congregation in regard to his supposed sym- In this wise and salutary abstention from pathies with the rebellion. Looking back upon any interference with the churches, which the controversy from this distance of time it was dictated by his own convictions as well seems that rather hard measure was dealt to as enjoined by the Constitution, the Presithe parson; for although, from all the circum- dent did not always have the support of his stances of the case, there appears little doubt subordinates. He had not only, as we have that his feelings were strongly enlisted in the seen, to administer occasional rebukes to his cause of the rebellion, he behaved with so much over-zealous generals, but even in his own discretion that the principal offenses charged Cabinet he was sometimes compelled to overagainst him by his zealous parishioners were rule a disposition to abuse of authority in that he once baptized a small rebel by the things spiritual. Several weeks after he had name of Sterling Price, and that he would not so clearly expressed himself in the McPheedeclare himself in favor of the Union. The ters case, he found, to his amazement, that the difference in his church grew continually more Secretary of War had been giving orders virtflagrant and was entertained by interminable ually placing the army in certain places at letters and statements on both sides, until at the disposition of a Methodist bishop for the last the provost-marshal intervened, ordering enforcement of his ecclesiastical decrees. He the arrest of Dr. McPheeters, excluding him addressed to Mr. Stanton a note of measured from his pulpit, and taking the control of his censure, which was followed by an order from church out of the hands of its trustees. This the War Department explaining and modifyaction gave rise to extended comment, not ing the more objectionable features of the

1 Report of Judge-Advocate General, April 30, 1864. 5 “ After having made these declarations in good 2 March 7, 1864. 3 Jan. 2, 1863. 4 Dec. 22, 1863. faith and in writing, you can conceive of my embar

" 2

former document. The Secretary explained tempting to formulate his creed; we question that his action had no other intention than to if he himself ever did so. There have been furnish “a means of rallying the Methodist swift witnesses who, judging from expressions people in favor of the Union, in localities uttered in his callow youth, have called him where the rebellion had disorganized and scat- an atheist, and others who, with the most laudtered them.”1 This explanation was not en- able intentions, have remembered improbable tirely satisfactory to the President, but he conversations which they bring forward to thought best to make no further public refer- prove at once his orthodoxy and their own ence to the matter. Scarcely was this affair dis- intimacy with him. But leaving aside these posed of when a complaint was received from apocryphal evidences, we have only to look Memphis of some interference by the military at his authentic public and private utterances with a church edifice there. Mr. Lincoln made to see how deep and strong in all the latter upon the paper this peremptory indorsement: part of his life was the current of his religious “If the military have military need of the thought and emotion. He continually invited church building, let them keep it; otherwise, and appreciated, at their highest value, the let them get out of it, and leave it and its prayers of good people. The pressure of the owners alone, except for the causes that justify tremendous problems by which he was surthe arrest of any one." 2 Two months later the rounded; the awful moral significance of the President, hearing of further complications in conflict in which he was the chief combatant; the case, made still another order, which even the overwhelming sense of personal responsiat the risk of wearying the reader we will give, bility, which never left him for an hour — all from his own manuscript, as illustrating not contributed to produce, in a temperament natonly his conscientious desire that justice should urally serious and predisposed to a spiritual be done, but also the exasperating obstacles he view of life and conduct, a sense of reverent was continually compelled to surmount, in those acceptance of the guidance of a Superior troubled times, to accomplish, with all the vast Power. From that morning when, standing powers at his disposition, this reasonable desire. amid the falling snowflakes on the railway car I am now told that the military were not in pos

at Springfield, he asked the prayers of his session of the building; and yet that in pretended neighbors in those touching phrases whose execution of the above they, the military, put one echo rose that night in invocations from thouset of men out of and another set into the building. sands of family altars, to that memorable hour This, if true, is most extraordinary: I say again, if when on the steps of the Capitol he humbled there be no military need for the building, leave it himself before his Creator in the sublime words alone, neither putting any one in or out of it, except of the second inaugural, there is not an exon finding some one preaching or practicing treason; pression known to have come from his lips or in which case lay hands upon him, just as if he were doing the same thing in

his other building,

pen but proves that he held himself answer

any or in the streets or highways.3

able in every act of his career to a more au

gust tribunal than any on earth. The fact that He at last made himself understood and he was not a communicant of any church, and his orders respected; yet so widespread was that he was singularly reserved in regard to the tendency of generals to meddle with mat- his personal religious life, gives only the greater ters beyond their jurisdiction, that it took three force to these striking proofs of his profound years of such vehement injunctions as these

reverence and faith. to teach them to keep their hands away from In final substantiation of this assertion, we the clergy and the churches.

subjoin two papers from the hand of the PresLincoln had a profound respect for every ident, one official and the other private, which form of sincere religious belief. He steadily bear within themselves the imprint of a sincere refused to show favor to any particular denom- devotion and a steadfast reliance upon the ination of Christians; and when General Grant power and benignity of an overruling Proviissued an unjust and injurious order against dence. The first is an order which he issued the Jews, expelling them from his department, on the 16th of November, 1864, on the obserythe President ordered it to be revoked the ance of Sunday: moment it was brought to his notice.4

He was a man of profound and intense The President, Commander-in-Chief of the Army religious feeling. We have no purpose of at- and Navy, desires and enjoins the orderly observrassment at now having brought to me what purported which may be made to his taking such possession and to be a formal order of the War Department, bearing control. What is to be done about it? ” [Lincoln to date November 30, 1863, giving Bishop Ames control Stanton, MS., Feb. II, 1864.) and possession of all the Methodist churches in certain 1 Lincoln to Hogan, Feb. 13, 1864. Southern military departments whose pastors have 2 Lincoln MS., March 4, 1864. not been appointed by a loyal bishop or bishops, and

3 Lincoln MS., May 13, 1864. ordering the military to aid him against any resistance 4 War Records, Vol. XVII., pp. 424, 530.


ance of the Sabbath by the officers and men in the ing from those relations of religion and good military and naval service. The importance for man government which the wisest rulers have aland beast of the prescribed weekly rest, the sacred ways recognized in their intercourse with the rights of Christian soldiers and sailors, a becoming people, we will give one other document, of deference to the best sentiment of Christian people, and a due regard for the Divine will, demand that which nothing of the sort can be said. It is Sunday labor in the Army and Navy be reduced to

a paper which Mr. Lincoln wrote in Septemthe measure of strict necessity. The discipline and ber, 1862, while his mind was burdened with character of the national forces should not suffer, the weightiest question of his life, the weightnor the cause they defend be imperiled, by the prof- iest with which this century has had to grapple. anation of the day or name of the Most High. “At Wearied with all the considerations of law and this time of public distress (adopting the words of of expediency with which he had been strug. Washington in 1776) men may find enough to gling for two years, he retired within himself do in the service of their God and their country without abandoning themselves to vice and immo- and tried to bring some order into his thoughts rality.” The first General Order issued by the Father by rising above the wrangling of men and of of his Country after the Declaration of Independence parties, and pondering the relations of human indicated the spirit in which our institutions were government to the Divine. In this frame of founded and should ever be defended. “The Gen- mind, absolutely detached from any earthly eral hopes and trusts that every officer and man will considerations, he wrote this meditation. It endeavor to live and act as becomes a Christian sol- has never been published. It was not written dier, defending the dearest rights and liberties of to be seen of men. It was penned in the awhis country.”1

ful sincerity of a perfectly honest soul trying The date of this remarkable order leaves no to bring itself into closer communion with its possibility for the insinuation that it sprung Maker. from any political purpose or intention. Mr. Lincoln had just been reëlected by an over

The will of God prevails. In great contests each whelming majority; his party was everywhere party claims to act in accordance with the will of

God. Both may be and one must be wrong. God triumphant; his own personal popularity was cannot be for and against the same thing at the unbounded; there was no temptation to hy- same time. In the present civil war it is quite pospocrisy or deceit. There is no explanation of sible that God's purpose is something different from the order except that it was the offspring of the purpose of either party; and yet the human sincere conviction. But if it may be said that instrumentalities, working just as they do, are of the this was, after all, an exoteric utterance, spring- best adaptation to effect his purpose. I am almost

ready to say that this is probably true; that God 1 General McDowell used to tell a story which illus- wills this contest, and wills that it shall not end trates Mr. Lincoln's Sabbatarian feeling: The Presi. yet. By his mere great power on the minds of the dent had ordered a movement which required dispatch, now contestants, he could have either saved or deand in his anxiety rode to McDowell's headquarters stroyed the Union without a human contest. Yet the to inquire how soon he could start.

“On Monday morning,” said McDowell; “or, by pushing things, contest began. And having begun, he could give the perhaps Sunday afternoon.” Lincoln, after a moment's final victory to either side any day. Yet the conthought, said, “ McDowell, get a good ready and start test proceeds. Monday.” (Herman Haupt, MŠ. Memoirs. ]


Poet, whose golden songs in silence sung

Thrill from the canvas to the hearts of men,-
Sweet harmonies that speak without a tongue,

Melodious numbers writ without a pen,-
The great gods gifted thee and hold thee dear;

Placed in thy hand the torch which genius lit,
Touched thee with genial sunshine, and good cheer,

And swift heat lightnings of a charming wit
Whose shafts are ever harmless, though so bright;

Gave thee of all life's blessings this, the best,-
The true love of thy kind,- for thy delight.

So be thou happy, poet-painter blest,
Whose gentle eyes look out, all unaware,
Beneath the brow of Keats, soft-crowned with shadowy hair.

Celia Thaxter,



ROM a friend and fellow-crafts- ing water, and was glad when we grounded

man, who was the owner and upon the sand. From the ferry it was but a
inventor of a camping-car, a short walk up to the tavern.
small company of wood-en- Standing for a moment hesitatingly upon
gravers had received invita- the piazza, after repeated knocking at the

tions to a novel camping-out ex- open doorway, which brought no response, cursion. Hungering for the woods and fields we and straining my eyes at the fog beyond, I saw

Ι hurried away, each by himself, as opportunity coming out of the dimness the outline of a offered, to seek the unknown regions of Hocka- barn and, taking shape gradually, the ponnum, near Northampton, Massachusetts. derous and portly form of a man, who was

Night had come before I reached North- engaged in greasing the axles of a wagon. ampton, and as no one met me at the station, The fog so narrowed and circumscribed the I went no farther that night. But I took the visible world that what remained was of road again at an early hour the next morning, immense importance to me, and the presence and rode through a mysterious land where the of mine host, whom I found this man to be, was fog hid all but the gray roadway under the hailed with pleasure. He explained that my feet of our horse, whose head and ears, almost friends were in camp upon the mountain right lost in the fog, stretched outward in the dis- above us, and he pointed over his shoulder tance in an alarming manner.

up towards the omnipresent screen of the fog, For fully two miles we sped on across a level shutting out mountain and the blue heavens sandy road without seeing a solitary object, beyond. But he said he was going to the animate or inanimate, until we came at last to camp soon, and we made our way to the a clump of trees close to the narrow roadway, house, where I found a surprisingly good and then, with a sudden dip down a sandy bank, breakfast awaiting me. I found myself on the shore of the Connecticut After our pleasant repast Edwards was River. Before me was a rickety-looking gang- ready to go to the camp, and we went to the plank reaching from the sand to a flat-bottomed doorway. Walking out upon the piazza, and open scow. This was Hockanum ferry. another and an entirely different world was By the roadside and in reach from the carriage before me. I could hardly believe my eyes. was a tin horn, or trumpet, hanging upon a Such a revelation- light, brilliancy, sweetness, stake, like an extinguisher upon a candle, and everywhere. Out of a moving, vapory atmosa blast upon this instrument is regarded as a phere rushed swiftly as a swallow's flight bits peremptory summons by the ferryman. of blue sky and fragments of mountain.

The ferryman and his assistant soon appeared, The cozy old hotel, sitting calmly and peaceand we pushed out upon the mysterious waste. fully by the highway, with its well-worn drive I could see nothing beyond the gray and steam- to the hospitable entrance; the heavy and Vol. XXXVIII. — 74.



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