Puslapio vaizdai








[ocr errors]















A. Main Prison Building; B, Kitchen and Bath-house ; C, Small Solitary.confinement cells, not now used ; 1, 2, 3, 4, Large Kamera or cells designated respectively by the as

," "Dvorianka," or lazaret; , Water-; 7, Main ; 8room buildings; e, Gate to prison yard; f, Bath-house dressing room,

page 533. In general type it differs little from the common-criminal prisons, but it is larger, better lighted, and more spacious than the latter, and is, in all respects, a more comfortable place of abode. It contains four kameras, exclusive of the hospital, or lazaret, and in each of them there are three windows, a large table, a brick oven, and sleeping-platform accommodations for about twenty-five men. There are no beds, except in the lazaret, and all the

bed-clothing that the prisoners have was pur7

chased with their own money. Originally the palisade did not entirely inclose the building, and the prisoners could look out of their front windows across the Kara valley; but GovernorGeneral Anuchin, on the occasion of one of his rare visits to the mines, disapproved of this

arrangement, remarked cynically that“A prison SOUTH

is not a palace,” and ordered that the stockade of high, closely set logs be so extended as to

cut off the view from the windows, and comYakutka," and "Kharchofka": 5, Kamera used as a prison hospital. pletely shut in the building. It is hard to see 2. Ovens: 6 Entry ways; 'c, Sentry-boxes : d, Stockade around prison in this order anything but a deliberate inten

tion on the part of a cruel official to make the want to live any longer, he said, in a country life of the political convicts as miserable and where an honest man could not do his duty intolerable as possible. Every common-crimwithout running the risk of being burned alive. inal prison in Kara, without exception, has In St. Petersburg he was given another posi- windows that overlook the settlement or the tion, as representative on the general staff of valley; and every burglar and murderer in the the Cossack forces of the Trans-Baikal, and he whole penal establishment can see from his lived there quietly until the summer of 1888, cell something of the outside world. The politiwhen he was promoted to the rank of general cal convicts, however, in the opinion of the and appointed to command the largest and Governor-General, had no right to live in a most important penal establishment in Siberia; “palace” from which they could see the green namely, that on the island of Saghalien (Sagh- trees, the glimmer of the sunshine on the water, a-leen'). This appointment is in the highest and the tender purple of the distant hills at degree creditable to the Russian Government, sunset or at dawn. They must be shut up in a and, taken in connection with the erection of tight box; the fresh invigorating breeze from the new prison in Verkhni Udinsk, it furnishes the mountains must be prevented from entera gratifying proof that the Tsar is not wholly ing their grated windows; and the sight of a indifferent to the sufferings of Siberian exiles human being not clothed in a turnkey's uniand convicts. As long as General Kononovich form must never gladden their weary, homeremains in command of the Saghalien prisons sick eyes. I have wished many times that his and mines there is every reason to believe Excellency Governor-General Anuchin might that they will be intelligently, honestly, and be shut up for one year in the political prison at humanely managed.

the mines of Kara ; that he might look out for Almost the last work that Kononovich ac- 365 days upon the weather-beaten logs of a high complished at the mines of Kara was the erec- stockade; that he might lie for 365 nights on a tion of the new political prison near the Lower bare sleeping-platform infested with vermin; Diggings. Captain Nikolin would not allow and that he might breathe, night and day, for me to inspect this building, nor would he al- 52 consecutive weeks, the air of a close kamera, low Mr. Frost to photograph it; but from con- saturated with the poisonous stench of an unvicts who had been confined in it I obtained the covered excrement-bucket. Then he might plan on this page and the picture on page 534, say to himself, with a more vivid realization and from memory Mr. Frost drew the sketch on of its meaning, “A prison is not a palace.”

George kennan.




FTER a hard pull we and coax him along. The road was heavy with

came to a beautiful sand and we lost a parallel trail made by the creek heavily tim- passage of the Eighth Cavalry some weeks bebered with post- fore. We hoped to discover the “breaks ”l oak, black-jack, of the South Canadian River before darkand pecan trees. ness set in; but the land rose steadily away in Taking our well- front, and we realized that something must be

wornponies from done. At last coming suddenly upon a group the pole we fed and cur- of miserable pole cabins, we saw two Cadried them, hoping that does reclining on a framework of poles. I by careful nursing they conceived the idea of hiring one of these to might be gotten through guide us through in the darkness. The wretches to Fort Reno. I wasted refused to understand us, talk English, sign

some anxiety on myself language, or what we would. But after a hard as I discovered that my cowboy driver un- bargain one saddled his pony and consented rolled from a greasy newspaper the provisions to lead the way through the darkness. On we which he had assured me before starting was traveled, our valuable guide riding so far ahead a matter which had been attended to. It was that we could not see him, and at last we came “ poor picking” enough, and I did not enjoy suddenly in sight of the bright surface of the



[graphic][subsumed][merged small]

my after-dinner smoke when I realized that South Canadian. The sun was fast sinking, and the situation was complicated by the fact that by the time we had crossed the wide sand-bars we had eaten everything for dinner and were and the shallow water of the river bottom a then miles from Reno, with a pair of played- great red gleam was all that remained on the out ponies.

western horizon. About a mile to the left Hooking up again, we started on. On a little flickered the camp-fires about a group of lodges hill one jaded beast “set back in the breech

1 The lowering of the land, cut by streams tending ing” and we dismounted to push the wagon towards the basin of a large river.




of Arapahoes. ance of the morning, in the person of a young

a We fed our team Cheyenne scout from Fort Reno who had and then our- been down to buy a horse of a Caddo. He selves crunched had lived at the Carlisle school, and although kernels of“horse- he had been back in the tribe long enough to trough

let his hair grow, he had not yet forgotten all which were ex- his English. As he was going through to the tracted from the post, we dismissed our Caddo and followed feed box. Our him. Caddo sat on his Far ahead in the gloom could be seen two horse while we of the post lights, and we were encouraged. lay stretched on The little ponies traveled faster and with more the grassy bank spirit in the night, as indeed do all horses. above the sand The lights did not come nearer, but kept at flats. A dark- the indefinite distance peculiar to lights on a skinned old Ar- dark night. We plunged into holes, and the apaho rode up, old wagon pitched and tipped in a style and Cad- which insured keeping its sleepy occupants do saluted him. awake. But there is an end to all things, and They began to our tedious trail brought us into Fort Reno converse in the at last. A sleepy boy with a lamp came to the

sign language as door of the post-trader's and wanted to know Reseason

they sat on their if I was trying to break the house down, ponies, and we which was a natural conclusion on his part,

watched them as sundry dents in a certain door of the place with great interest. With graceful gestures they will bear witness to this day. made the signs and seemed immediately and On the following morning I appeared at fully to comprehend each other. As the old the headquarters office, credentials in hand. A Arapaho's face cut dark against the sunset I smart, well-gotten up “non-com.” gave me a thought it the finest Indian profile I had ever chair and discreetly kept an eye on the articles seen. He was arrayed in the full wild Indian of value in the room, for the hard usage of costume of these latter days, with leggings, my recent travels had so worn and soiled my beaded moccasins, and a sheet wrapped about clothing that I was more picturesque than his waist and thighs. The Caddo, on the con- assuring in appearance. The colonel came trary, was a progressive man. His hair was soon, and he too eyed me with suspicious cropped in Cossack style; he wore a hat, boots, glances until he made out that I was not a and a great

“ slicker," or cowboy's oil-skin Texas horse thief nor an Oklahoma boomer. coat. For the space of half an hour they thus After finding that interested each other. We speculated on the I desired to see meaning of the signs, and could often follow his protégés of them; but they abbreviated so much and did the prairie, he it all so fast that we missed the full meaning sent for the inof their conversation. Among other things the terpreter,

Mr. Caddo told the Arapaho who we were, and Ben. Clark, and also made arrangements to meet him at the said, “Seek no same place at about 10 o'clock on the follow- farther; here is ing day.

the best CheyDarkness now set in, and as we plunged enne in the into the timber after the disappearing form of country.” our guide I could not see my companions on Mr. Clark I the seat beside me. I think horses can make found to be all out things better than men can under circum- that the colonel stances like these ; and as the land lay flat had recommendbefore us, I had none of the fears which one ed, except that who journeys in the mountains often feels. he did not look

The patter of horses' hoofs in the darkness like a Cheyenne, behind us was followed by a hailing cry in being a perfect the guttural tone of an Indian. I could just type of the fronmake out a mounted man with a led horse tier scout, only

FREIENU PLMIMURON beside the wagon, and we exchanged inquiries lacking the long in English and found him to be an acquaint- hair, which to his

Vol. XXXVIII.-70.






practical mind a white man did not seem to back, although I have never heard any one require. A pair of mules and a buckboard with enough temerity to question his ability. were provided at the quartermaster's corral. I always like to dwell on this subject of riding, and Ýr. Clark and I started on a tour of and I have an admiration for a really good obxrvation.

rider which is altogether beyond his deserts in We met many Cheyennes riding to some the light of philosophy. In the Eastern States place or another. They were almost invaria- the European riding-master has proselyted to bly tall men with fine Indian features. They such an extent that it is rather a fashionable wore the hair caught by braids very low on fad to question the utility of the Western the shoulders, making a black mass about the method. When we consider that for generaears, which at a distance is not unlike the as- tions these races of men who ride on the plains pect of an Apache. All the Indians now use and in the Rocky Mountains have been liter light“ cow-saddles," and ride with the long ally bred on a horse's back, it seems reasonable stirrups peculiar to Western Americans, instead to suppose they ought to be riders; and when

[graphic][ocr errors][merged small]

of “ trees” of their own construction with the one sees an Indian or a cowboy riding up short stirrup of the old days. In summer, in- precipices where no horses ought to be made stead of a blanket

, a white sheet is generally to go, or assuming on horseback some of the groworn, which becomes dirty and assumes a very tesque positions they at times affect, one needs mellow tone of color. Under the saddle the no assurance that they do ride splendidly. bright blue or red Government cloth blanket As we rattled along in the buckboard, Mr. is worn, and the sheet is caught around the Clark proved very interesting. For thirty odd waist, giving the appearance of Zouave trou- years he has been in contact with the Cheysers. The variety of shapes which an Indian ennes. He speaks the language fluently, and can produce with a blanket, the great differ- has discovered in a trip to the far North ence in wearing it, and the grace and natural- that the Crees use almost identically the same ism of its adjustment, are subjects one never tongue. Originally the Cheyennes came from tires of watching. The only criticism of the the far North, and they are Algonquin in oririding of modern Indians one can make is the gin. Though their legend of the famous “mediincessant thumping of the horse's ribs, as though cine arrow” is not a recent discovery, I cannot using a spur. Outside of the far South-west, forbear to give it here. I have never seen Indians use spurs. With A long time ago, perhaps about the year the awkward old“ trees” formerly made by the 1640, the Cheyennes were fighting a race Indians, and with the abnormally short stirrup, of men who had guns. The fighting was in an Indian was anything but graceful on horse- the vicinity of the Devil's Lake country, and

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

the Cheyennes had been repeatedly worsted in borne by the women ever since the oldest man combat and were in dire distress. A young can remember. Some of them have the pleasant Horatius of the tribe determined to sacrifice sound which we occasionally find in the Indian himself for the common weal, and so wandered tongues: “Mut-say-yo,” “Wau-hi-yo,” “ Moaway. After a time he met an old man, a ka-is,” “ Jok-ko-ko-me-yo,” for instance, are exmythical personage, who took pity on him. amples; and with the soft guttural of their InTogether they entered a great cave, and the dian pronunciation I found them charming. As old man gave him various articles of “medi- we entered the camp all the elements which cine” to choose from, and the young man se- make that sort of scene interesting were about. lected the “medicine arrows." After the old A medicine-man was at work over a sick fellow. man had performed the proper incantations, We watched him through the opening of a lodge the hero went forth with his potent fetish and and our sympathies were not aroused, as the parejoined the tribe. The people regained cour- tient was a young buck who seemed in no need age, and in the fight which soon followed they of them. A group of young men were preparconquered and obtained guns for the first time. ing for a clan dance. Two young fellows lay Ever since the tribe has kept the medicine ar- stretched on the grass in graceful attitudes. rows, and they are now in the Indian Territory They were what we call “chums.” Children in the possession of the southern Cheyennes. were playing with dogs; women were beading Years ago the Pawnees captured the arrows moccasins ; a group of men lay under a wagon and in ransom got vast numbers of ponies, al- playing monte; a very old man, who was quite though they never gave back all of the arrows, naked, tottered up to our vehicle and talked and the Cheyennes attribute all their hard ex- with Mr. Clark. His name was Bull Bear, and periences of later days to this loss. Once a he was a strange object with his many wrinkles, year, and oftener should a situation demand gray hair, and toothless jaws. it, the ceremony of the arrows takes place. From a passing horseman I procured an No one has ever witnessed it except the initi- old “buck saddle" made of elk horn. They ated priests.

are now very rare. Indian saddlery is interThe tribal traditions are not known thor- esting, as all the tribes had a different model, oughly by all, and of late years only a very and the women used one differing from that of few old men can tell perfectly the tribal stories. the men. Why this is so no one seems to know, unless We dismounted at the lodge of Whirlwind, the Indians have seen and heard so much a fine old type who now enjoys the prestige through the white men that their faith is of head chief. He was dignified and reserved, shaken.

and greeted us cordially as he invited us to Our buckboard drew gradually nearer the a seat under the ramada. He refused a cigar, camp of the Cheyennes. A great level prairie as will nearly all Indians, and produced his of waving green was dotted with the brown own cigarettes. toned white canvas lodges, and standing near Through the interpreter we were enabled them were brush "ramadas,” or sheds, and to converse freely. I have a suspicion that the also wagons. For about ten years they have old man had an impression that I was in some owned wagons, and now seldom use the tra- way connected with the Government. All vaux. In little groups all over the plain were Indians somehow divide the white race into scattered pony herds, and about the camp could three parts. One is either a soldier, a Texas be seen forms wearing bright blankets or cowboy, or a “ big chief from Washington," wrapped in ghostlike cotton sheets. Little which latter distinction I enjoyed. I explained columns of blue smoke rose here and there, that I was not a “big chief,” but an artist, the and gathered in front of one lodge was squatted significance of which he did not grasp. He was a group of men. A young squaw dressed in a requested to put on his plumage, and I then bright calico gown stood near a ramada and proceeded to make a drawing of him. He bandied words with the interpreter while I looked it over in a coldly critical way, grunted sketched. Presently she was informed that I several times, and seemed more mystified had made her picture, when she ran off, laugh- than ever; but I do not think I diminished in ing at what she considered an unbecoming trick his estimation. In his younger days Whirlon the part of her entertainer. The women of wind had been a war chief; but he traveled this tribe are the only squaws I have ever met, to Washington and there saw the power and except in some of the tribes of the northern numbers of the white man. He advised for plains, who have any claim to be considered peace after that, and did not take the wargood looking. Indeed, some of them are quite path in the last great outbreak. His people as I imagine Pocahontas, Minnehaha, and the were defeated, as he said they would be, and rest of the heroines of the race appeared. The confidence in his judgment was restored. I female names are conventional, and have been asked him all sorts of questions to draw on

« AnkstesnisTęsti »