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says, speaking of a visit to the house of Thomas Miff- Salmon P. Chase's Training for Finance.
lin: “Here we had much conversation with Mr. Charles
Thomson, who is, it seems, about marrying a lady, a

In a recent number of THE CENTURY the biographers
relation of Mr. Dickinson's, with £5000 sterling. This of Mr. Lincoln, speaking of Mr. Chase, say:
Charles Thomson is the Sam Adams of Philadelphia.”
In a foot-note to his article Mr. Bowen says, “ Thomson preparation for his exacting task than great natural abili-

Without any special previous experience, without any other was the father-in-law of Elbridge Gerry. .This also is ties, unswerving integrity and fidelity, and unwearying inan error. Mr. Thomson was twice married. His first dustry, he grappled with the difficulties of the situation wife was a daughter of Charles Mather of Chester

in a manner which won him the plaudits of the civilized

world and will forever enshrine his name in the memory County, hy whom he had two children, who died in their of his fellow-citizens. infancy. By his second wife he had no children, and hence it is very clear that he was not the father-in-law The statement above, italicized by me, is perhaps not of Elbridge Gerry. Mr. Gerry's wise was a Miss Ann strictly correct. It is true that Mr. Chase was primarily Thompson, daughter of James Thompson of New York a lawyer, yet it is also true that he was a trained finanCity, a man of great prominence in his day, and on his cier. So early as 1834 he was appointed solicitor at mother's side connected with some of the oldest fami- Cincinnati of the old United States Bank. lies in New York. For details of this statement I refer In that year the Lafayette Bank of Cincinnati was Mr. Bowen to the “ Memoirs of Elbridge Gerry,” by established. I have before me as I write the original James T. Austin, p. 502.

minutes of the Board of Directors of that bank for the Mr. Bowen, however, is not the only person who has first ten years of its existence. From these I find that fallen into error about Charles Thomson. In Drake's Mr. Chase was one of the first Board of Directors, and “ Dictionary of American Biography,” in a sketch of continued a director for nearly ten years. In addition Gerry, Mr. Drake says: “ He married Ann, daughter to this, he was made Secretary of the Board at its first of Charles Thomson, Secretary of Congress,” and adds meeting and solicitor of the bank. The latter office he that she died at New Haven, March 17, 1849, aged held also for nearly ten years. At the time of this eighty-six years. In“ Appleton's Cyclopædia of Ameri- election he was but twenty-six years of age. I have can Biography," a very valuable work, it is stated that looked carefully through the minutes, and they disclose Charles Thomson “ had just come to Philadelphia in the fact that he was in constant attendance at the meetSeptember, 1774, with his bride, a sister of Benjamin ings of the Board, and took a controlling direction in Harrison, the signer.”

the affairs of the bank. He was constantly placed at PHILADELPHIA.

Horatio Gates Jones. the head of the most important committees, such as that

of preparing the by-laws.

It also appears from the minutes that he gave Imperial Federation.

minute attention to the business, and was severely exIn the April number of The CENTURY MAGAZINE acting. The resolutions in his handwriting, which I Charles H. Lugrin of Fredericton, New Brunswick, inclose, evidence this.1 writes : “I do not recall the name of a prominent

At the time he took so prominent a part in the affairs public man who favors the project [of Imperial Feder- of this bank, while so young a man, his associates ation); while several may be named ... who have numbered among them some of the most famous men put themselves on record against it.”

of that city of that day – Josiah Lawrence, the presiWill you allow me to correct this statement by re- dent, Judge Este, Neff, Jones, and others. This bank ferring to the latest list of the council of the Imperial became a leading bank of the city, and now, transFederation League in Canada, which I inclose, and formed into a national bank, maintains its original which contains the names of two ministers of the Do- high character. Here, as elsewhere, his work is en. minion, twelve senators, including the speaker, more during. Thus for ten years, in the formative period than fifty M. P.'s of the Dominion, the Roman Cath- of his life, from twenty-six to thirty-six years of age, olic archbishop of Halifax, the Anglican bishop of he had the double training of a bank director and soNova Scotia, four lieutenant-governors, and many well. licitor of the bank -- and this in one of the chief cities known names in all branches of public life.

of the country. Mr. Lugrin also states that “ A few branches of the As a bank lawyer, he ranked first in his profession. Federation League have been established in the Do.

Before he became a member of Mr. Lincoln's Cabi. minion.” The facts are these :

net he had been for six years United States senator. A year ago branches were in existence in Montreal, While excluded by the pro-slavery majority from the Ingersoll, Victoria, B. C., Halifax, Peterboro, Ottawa, and Toronto. Since then branches have been organ- shall any mortgage upon real estate be received as security for any

1 The resolutions are as follows: "Resolved, 1. That in no case ized in Brantford, Port Arthur, St. Thomas, Orillia, loan or discount, unless the applicant for such loan or discount shall Lindsay, and county of Victoria; St. John, N. B.;

have furnished a complete abstract of the material parts of the title Chatham, Ontario; Pictou, N. S. ; Wiarton, Belle- equitable, to such real estate, to the solicitor whose duty it shall

papers of such real estate, and also of all adverse claims, legal and ville, and Kingston; and there are in course of for- be carefully to examine such abstract and to furnish to the Presi

dent his written opinion thereon, which opinion, together with the mation, branches at Woodstock, Picton, Cookstown, abstract, shall be lodged with the cashier. 2. That in all cases Barrie, Calgary; Yarmoutlı, N. S. ; St. Mary's, Van- where any real estate, received as security for any loan or discount,

shall be released from the operation of any mortgage before the couver, B. C.; Winnipeg, Paisley, Brampton, and debt secured thereby shall have been fully paid, the attendant exHamilton.

penses shall be paid by the applicant for such release. 3. No Arthur II. Loring,

discount or loan shall be granted to facilitate the payment of any

debt on which suit has been commenced or judgment rendered Secretary Imperial Federation League.

unless the applicant for such loan or discount shall pay the costs of LONDON, ENGLAND.

such suit or judgment, including attorney's fees.


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committees, because he “ belonged to no healthy po

Retaliation in Missouri. litical organization,” it was yet his duty to consider the finances of the nation; and where duty called him

There are errors in the April installment of the to act it was his habit thoroughly to inform himself. Life of Lincoln ” relative to the part taken by me He had also been for four years Governor of Ohio, Missouri, in October, 1862, in retaliation for the ab

in the execution of ten rebel guerrillas at Palmyra, with a general supervision of the finances of that great duction and murder of a Union citizen of that town. State. During this time occurred the famous defal

With the opinion of Messrs. Nicolay and Hay on what cation of Breslin, the State Treasurer. Mr. Chase, as governor, at once took possession of the treasury, demanded by the Mosaic law” I need not concern

they term “a punishment tenfold as severe as that and with a master's hand brought order out of chaos, and so satisfactorily to the State that what seemed at myself. The statement that my action was under the first to be a blemish to his administration redounded to authority of the State of Missouri is an error. The its honor. So it would seem that he had had that letter of General Curtis quoted to sustain that state

ment appears (according to a foot-note on page 860 of special training which fitted him for his mighty task.

Vol. XXII. of the “ Official Records ") never to have When he met the great bankers of New York he been sent; or, if sent, he was afterwards ashamed of met them not as a stranger, but as one of them, initi. its misstatements, for he forwarded to Washington a ated into the mysteries of their craft. It was well. Mr. Chase's achievement was not the flash of gen, fusing to treat with the rebel authorities in their inves

copy of a letter taking entirely different ground for reius that bewilders, but the natural result of trained

tigation of the execution. powers.

The fact is that while I was at the time a brigadierAllow me a word in another relation. The extracts from the diary and letters of Chase given in this general of Missouri State troops, I held a commission

as colonel of the 2d Missouri Cavalry, a regiment of history of Mr. Lincoln are not pleasant reading. But State militia mustered into the United States service. the picture has its relief. They were written chiefly As such I had been assigned, June 4, 1862, by the departin the weary, waiting year -- 1861–62. The most

ment commander, General Schofield, to command the effective pages of this history are, perhaps, those re

district of North-east Missouri (see Vol. XIII., page lating to McClellan. The grouping of the facts presents a progressive climax that is simply crushing - but 417, of the Official Records "), and instructed by him is it not reactionary? Is not the emotion it excites bands” infesting that section. General Schofield ex

to“ take the field in person and exterminate the rebel one of painful pity for McClellan and something akin pressly enjoined (see Vol. XIII., page 467, of the “Ofto indignation that those in power should have borne ficial Records "); “ Do not be too moderate in the so long with him ? Remember that Chase was present and saw all saw the grand army of the Union eral Orders No. 18 and No. 3 thoroughly.'

measure of severity dealt out to them. Carry out Genwasting away in hopeless inactivity; saw it again, led

General Order No. 18 (see Vol. XIII., page 402, to battle in a desultory way, defeated piecemeal by

" Official Records ") states that : a foe inferior in numbers ; saw it when victorious re.

Rebel officers and men are returning to their homes, treating from its vanquished enemy; meanwhile saw

passing stealthily through our lines and endeavoring again the debt of the nation piling up mountain high, threat. to stir up insurrection in various portions of the State where ening a financial abysm that would engulf all.

peace has long prevailed, and there still remain among

the disaffected who never belonged to the rebel army The situation was without precedent. No other

a few who avail themselves of every opportunity to murnation could have borne those loans. For many months der Union soldiers and destroy the property of citizens. Mr. Chase was in daily apprehension of a catastrophe, ali troops of the State in hunting down and destroying

The utmost vigilance and energy are enjoined upon blasting alike his country and himself. The responsi. these robbers and assassins. When caught in arms enbility was his. Others spent; " he smote the rock”; gaged in their unlawful warfare they will be shot down and yet he was ignored! He felt himself neglected, and upon the spot. All good citizens who desire to live in chafed as the strong man bound. Perhaps it would peace are required to give their assistance to the military have been better had he suffered in silence; and yet outlaws who infest this state, and those who shelter and

authorities in detecting and bringing to punishment the perhaps complaint brought relief.

give them protection. Those who fail to do their duty Born to command, a courtier he could not be. in this matter will be regarded and treated as abettors of

the criminals. A letter he wrote me of date August 29, 1862, por. trays his feelings during the McClellan régime. I close

It will thus be seen that I was acting directly under with this extract from it:

Federal authority as an officer of the United States

Army and in accordance with my official instructions as Since the coming of General Halleck, I have known no more of the progress of the war than any outsider. I

such. Moreover, the ten guerrillas executed (not one mean so far as influencing it goes. My recommendations of whom but had committed murder under circum. had been, before he came in, generally disregarded, and since have been seldom ventured. I did, in one or two

stances of atrocity) were selected from twenty-two who conversations, insist on the removal of General McClel- had previously been formally tried by a United States lan, and the substitution of a more vigorous and energetic military commission and sentenced to death, so that and able leader; on the clearing out of the Mississippi; their death was but hastened by the act of retaliation, and the expulsion of the rebels from East Tennessee all the remaining twelve of the twenty-two convicted which might have been done. But though heard, I was not heeded. I hope for the best. Those who reject my being soon afterwards shot in pursuance of their sencounsels ought to know more than I do. At all events tence by the officers in command at Macon City and little is now left for me, except to administer as well as I Mexico, Mo. Nor was there unseemly haste in thus may under existing circumstances the complicated and difficult concerns of my own department.

carrying out the sentence already pronounced against

these unfortunate men. Public notice was given that CINCINNATI.

W. M. Dickson. the ten men would be shot unless within ten days the leader who had been a Democrat."

of age

abducted Union citizen (Andrew Allsman, seventy Having thus the indorsement of both the officers who years and a non-combatant) was returned un- were my immediate superiors, the implied approval harmed to his family. During that period of ten days, of President Lincoln (whose too tender heart forbade my ranking officer, General Lewis Merrill of the reg- ordering retaliation even for the Fort Pillow massacre), ular army, and General Curtis, who had succeeded and cherishing, as I do, the firm conviction that my General Schofield in command of the district of Mis- action was the means of saving the lives and property of souri, September 26, 1862, were fully advised of my hundreds of loyal men and women, I feel that my act action. In a letter to me dated January 22, 1880, was the performance of a public duty. referring to an attack on me in the United States Senate relative to this matter, General Merrill wrote as

John McNeil, follows:

Late Brevet Major-General, U. S. Vols.

St. Louis. No notice appears to have been taken of the other executions, and no reflections were ever made that I know of on either General Curtis or myself, though equally Governor Seymour during the Draft Riots, responsible with you, and indeed having the greater responsibility, in that we were your superior officers and could have stopped your action had duty allowed it. Both

In the April CENTURY, the authors of the “Life of General Curtis and myself had to listen to many heart Lincoln ” have fallen into a mistake as to the conduct of rending appeals to take this action, and both uniformly Governor Seymour during the draft riots, which should refused. The event showed it would have been weakness and failure of duty to have listened, for the executions be corrected. I saw the audience in the City Hall practically ended all guerrilla operations in North Mis- Park which Governor Seymour addressed on the souri, and restored peace to the community to such an extent at least that it was possible thereafter to commit of rioters. He did not address the rioters at all. The

occasion referred to at page 929. It was not a crowd to the civil authorities the trial and punishment of most • of the crime which was thereafter perpetrated. Before people whom he there addressed were a multitude of

this the civil authorities were utterly powerless. You persons naturally attracted to the City Hall by the news have long suffered from falsehood and misapprehension in this matter, and it gives me great pleasure to do what that the governor of the State, whose arrival was I can to right you, as ỉ know no more tender-hearted sol- anxiously expected, had actually come. He used in dier than yourself ever lived, and no more painful duty speaking to the multitude the expression that he and could have been imposed upon you than that involved in

Mr. Everett commonly employed in addressing an the execution of these criminals, but I also know that you never permitted personal pain to swerve you from the audience — "My friends." There was no mention in plain line and demand of duty, however stern and hard the speech that the draft justified the riots, and I know it should be.

that the governor used the whole authority which the Such an investigation of this affair as President law gave him to suppress the riots. Nor can it be truly Lincoln made before appointing me a brigadier-gen- said that he did all he could to embarrass the Governeral (November, 1863) will convince any unbiased ment, or to rouse the people against it. On the contrary, inquirer that my action sprung from neither“ mistaken he was thanked by the Secretary of War for his active zeal” nor “uncurbed passion," as my present critics and energetic coöperation in forwarding troops to meet infer, but from an imperative sense of duty. Since the the Confederate forces. Indeed, one embarrassment issue of the April CENTURY an interview with General during the riots was that the city had been completely Merrill has appeared in the St. Louis “ Globe-Demo- stripped of uniformed militia, who had been sent forcrat” (April 2), in which he relates that he was sum- ward by Governor Seymour to meet the invading moned by telegraph to report to the President, and enemy. immediately repairing to Washington, ignorant of the

Everett P. Wheeler. reason for the summons, appeared before President Lincoln at a time when the members of the Cabinet

The “Life of Lincoln " - a Correction. wer2 seated about him. General Merrill then proceeds as follows:

On page 927 of the April CENTURY the authors of “ I was ordered to report to you, Mr. President," I said, the · Life of Lincoln ” speak of Brevet Brigadier. after being presented.

General Alexander S. Diven, one of the provostYes, General. . I want to inquire about that shooting in Missouri."

marshal generals of New York, as a “War Democrat.” "I can give you a written report in a few minutes that Mr. Ausburn Towner writes by way of correction to will explain all," I said.

say that General Diven “ was, originally, a •Free-soil " I don't want anything in writing, General. I want you Democrat,' one of that faction of the old Democratic to tell me the story."

I told it to him as I have to you, with this addition : "I party that, uniting with the · Free-soil Whigs,'formed telegraphed you a number of times asking your approval the Republican party. He was a member of the State of the order and asking you, Mr. President, to issue the order yourself, but I asked in vain; and as it was a ne

Senate of New York in 1858-59, having been elected cessity, I took the responsibility. It was my duty, and I such as a Republican and by Republicans, and there. have never felt a twinge of conscience that suggested I fore was one of those who composed the first Repubdid other than right to my trust.

lican Senate of that State. He was elected as a The President came up, laid his hand on my shoulder, and said: “ Remember, young man, there are some Republican and by the Republicans of his district, then things which should be done which it would not do for the 27th (the Elmira district), to the 37th Congress, superiors to order done."

By his manner I inferred that had he ordered me to do 1861–62, leaving his seat to help organize the 10th what it was essential for me to do, political complications Regiment, which he commanded until he was appointed would have arisen which would have been troublesome. to the position named in the History.' He can hardly, He evidently meant that he justified my course himself, with truth, be classed as a War Democrat,' unless but preferred not saying so, and left me to understand that my judgment was trusted, and to be exercised by me you so class Secretary Chase or any other Republican in emergency.

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One Reason of the Inefficiency of Women's Work. is at the beck and call of her husband and children and

of the world in general; she is sometimes imposed By subordinating self-improvement to her various upon and tyrannized over, often without realizing the domestic and social duties a woman not infrequently extent of the humiliation; and she is seldom brave defeats her own end: the sum-total of her usefulness enough to be willing to seem disobliging. The result in these very directions is less than it might be if she of all this is that, to a certain extent, she loses her ingave some time each day to intellectual culture. We are dividuality. In short, she becomes deficient in sense standing on the solid platform of practical usefulness of proportion and in power of analysis. and are not considering the delights of knowledge for When the situation is thus viewed it becomes a litits own sake; for all of charity is not bread and butter, tle difficult to say whether intellectual stagnation should and all of motherhood is not mending. Many a mother, be treated as cause or as effect. Certainly the charby an excess of devotion to her little son, unfits herself acter of one's occupation has a strong reflex influence to be a mother to the same boy when he goes to college; upon the character of one's thoughts, and it cannot be for he needs sympathy as much in his higher studies denied that the same degree of system is impossible in as he did in his blocks and his marbles. The wisest a woman's work as in a man's. However, our object mother will not merely see that her child is fed, and is not to cavil with fate, but to consider what are the clothed, and instructed, and made good and happy for best methods of procedure under existing circumthe time being. She will be careful to keep as far stances; and from this point of view intellectual stagas possible on a level with his intellectual stature, so nation appears as the cause of much that is defective in that his mental attitude towards her may not change the work of women. with his physical — so that the man may feel, as did The laws of habit and of exercise hold good of the the baby, that his mother is not only the best, but the mind as well as of the body. The hands perform most wisest, of women.

easily familiar actions; the mind, kept alert by constant Honest Dick Steele's reference to Lady Elizabeth exercise, is ready for any emergency. If we keep our Hastings, that “ to love her was a liberal education,” minds wide awake by constantly studying and doing is oftener quoted than deserved; and yet this is the genuine thinking in some definite direction; if we friendship which every woman of intelligence and will learn to analyze the various elements of a subject and can give to her husband and to her children. Surely see their true relative importance; if we learn to weigh an intelligent woman needs only to appreciate the and balance arguments with nice discrimination ; if we value of such an equipment in order to feel that time keep at our command, by constant practice, the power spent in gaining it is not wasted that it affords a suf- of concentrating our thoughts — these healthy mental ficient reason for taking one hour at least out of habits will have a wholesome influence upon everytwenty-four from the other duties of life, however thing that we do. When a thousand different claims absorbing they may be.

are made upon our time and attention the habit of The actual knowledge which comes of intellectual analysis will stand us in good stead, and we shall have work is of great value, but this is not all. It is not the the strength of mind to do the most important things, mere facts gained, but the mental discipline acquired, and to leave the others undone, instead of helplessly which give to the habit of study its highest justifica. attending to whatever important item happens to be tion, its chief value as a sort of mental gymnastics. brought to our notice first. When hard problems must

The idea is notorious among men that women can- be solved and difficult questions answered, the habit of not do business, cannot carry on a connected line of reflection and quick decision will be found simply inthought, cannot follow and appreciate an extended valuable. When the distractions of the kitchen, the argument. Like most generalizations, this admits of nursery, and the street make life one vast hubbub, the large exceptions, but it is in the main true. We all habit of concentrating thought and fixing attention know, for example, how impossible it is to converse will make it possible to form and keep in mind fixed with some women. They interrupt us in the middle purposes, and to make intelligent efforts towards carof what we consider an interesting and valuable train rying them out. In short, an active mind is as necesof thought, and run off on a side-track, without the sary an equipment for every-day life as a strong body, slightest appreciation of the discourtesy of which they and a proper early education is not sufficient to keep are guilty or of the fact that our conversation was either the mind or the body in healthy condition. They making logical approach towards some definite point. both need vigorous and habitual exercise is the power Their own remarks are never directed by any other for work is to be kept at its maximum. Moreover, if than the “word suggestion" method: one thing “re- the opportunity for healthy development does not lie minds "them of another indefinitely, and they become in the course of a person's ordinary occupation, that is confused in a hopeless labyrinth of parentheses, with just the case in which it must be sought. A fieldout attempting to extricate themselves, and without laborer needs no gymnasium, but a sedentary man even being conscious that they are lost. The same does; a professional student will naturally have an method is followed in their actions as in their thought active mind, but a wife and mother, whose affections processes.

are occupied more than her intellect, needs to set up We do not attempt to say how much of this is owing a sort of home gymnasium for intellectual culture, to a native lack of logical power; but we are convinced and to practice in it faithfully. that it is largely due either to defective early training It is not without a keen appreciation of the inherent or else to long.continued intellectual stagnation after difficulties of the case that these suggestions are made. school-days are over — probably to both. A woman's Probably no class of people meet more obstacles in occupation, it is true, consists largely in heterogeneous matching practice to theory than the women of whom details; she is subject to constant interruptions; she we speak, but it is none the less necessary :hat their power for actual work,- she will be much more an original opinion on a subject of national importance likely to study than if she regards intellectual occupa- when the chief executive on the other side of the partion as either a useless effort or a selfish indulgence. tition has received “ specials” from Washington and Of course there are crises in life when study must every State capital giving the views of men of all shades be suspended, just as proper rest and exercise are of opinion on the issue involved, many of them speakdispensed with under special pressure, and there are ing with an authority which readers will accept as conprobably some cases in which it is actually impossible; clusive ? Why venture to discuss the prospects of but this does not alter the fact that it is well to be in European war, when Bismarck's opinions, construed the habit of sleeping and of exercising, and, we would by Salisbury, may be had for money paid to maintain add, of studying.



theories should be sound. The inherent difficulties of his horse-car journey happens to be long enough. Of the case make it only the more necessary to have a course a good deal of this neglect has been due to the sure footing and a true aim.

increased size of the more prosperous papers and the Subjects and methods and times for study must vast extension of the field they cover. The news colalways vary with individual cases; several good sug- umns are so much more interesting than they used to gestions have been given in former numbers of The be! But there have been other causes at work, and the CENTURY. Our design is simply to suggest the proper great increase of personalism the word is used in a mental attitude in the matter. If a woman considers an broad sense — is to blame for the loss of respect for hour of aggressive, absorbing intellectual work as much the purely editorial utterance. The“ managing editor," an essential of a symmetrical day as sleep, or food, or the executive officer of the newspaper, is the really reexercise, - if her ultimate object in the study is in. sponsible party. How dare an editorial writer advance creased

a social lion as correspondent in London? The editor Mary A. Johnson.

of the metropolitan journal is driven to discuss phases

instead of the subject-matter, or, perhaps, devotes himThe Decline of the Editorial,

self to praise of the enterprise that has obtained the imIt has been urged with pertinacity that the editorial portant expression found in our news columns of this leader should be signed by the writer, and unrespon- date! The editorial writer has, alas ! not even the title sive pity has been called upon to rise in behalf of the of "editor" in some cases, and the conductor of more man whose talents find no recognition in the anonymity than one powerful journal to-day never puts pen to of the daily press. For my part, I know of nothing paper. more unfortunate than would be such a change in That the editorial page may soon disappear altogether custom, and I sincerely hope the desire for change, is a dreadful possibility; and if it is to be committed to for the unusual, will not lead to its adoption gener- the care of the elegant essayist, writing over his own ally. The potency of the editorial “we” has suffered signature, there will remain no reason for its existence enough in the last dozen years without this final blow, in its present form. The pressure for space in every and that it has retained its power at all has been due great daily is severe, and it now requires a stern front to the willingness of great minds to sacrifice the repu. to hold the three or four columns sacred for editorial tation for the advantages of the freedom of the anony- utterances. Give the news editor his opportunity mous form. The decadence of newspaper influence and he will abolish the essayist without a qualm of would follow the change almost inevitably, and the conscience. fault would be the writer's, not the reader's. An Yet one cannot see the approaching doom of a appeal to all who use their pens as bread-winners department in journalisin so powerful as this without would, I think, bring a response that the sense of an effort to avert it. A force so potential as the daily responsibility is not less when the writer is uniden- newspaper should be something more than the mirror tified, while a broader view is commonly taken and of events which the executive forces of journalism are inore courage shown in the expression of opinions making it. Let them pursue their glorious career which may provoke dispute, yet may, none the less, be undisturbed and hire the Prince of Wales for special eternally true. The tendency of the individual is to society correspondence, or the Pope for theological avoid quarrel, and the avoidance of quarrels is the discussion, if they can ; but let the editorial “we” gravest of newspaper blunders. To arouse some remain. The leader writer must, however, give in antagonisms is almost as necessary as to make friend- this daily work a cause for his existence, and that can ships, in a progressive journal.

be found only by some change in method. Journalists should need no warning, however, Far be it from me to suggest aught to the learned against the use of the first person, singular, in view of and “ able" writers of the editorial page in the great the decline of the editorial which most of them are cities, yet there have been occasions when an editorial aware of, though not so many will admit it. If Mr. expression of opinion might have been of tremendous Matthew Arnold had not spoken, one might appeal to value, backed by that mysterious anonymity of which the average citizen for confirmation of the declaration I have spoken. Some readers, I know, looked in vain that the editorial has, in fact, declined. By this let it for such an editorial discussion of the longshoremen's not be supposed that the leader is not so able (to use strike not long ago that would have shown real knowla favorite newspaper word) as in the earlier days, edge of the matter and an opinion based upon that for a comparison of the editorial page of to-day with knowledge. The instance is, perhaps, hardly a fair one, the page of twenty years ago shows no falling off, but but there should be, it seems to me, a more thorough rather a gain in method and matter. It is simply that study of current public agitations by editorial writers the editorial is not read with the attention once given who now avoid them, or, worse yet, slur them over with it, that it is now merely one department of the news- vague generalities. No so-called “expert” opinion paper, receiving the consideration of the subscriber if could take the place of the editorial discussion so

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