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struction of fine drawing-rooms or day staterooms furnished as parlors. These rooms are leased by the year, each tenant having his own key, so that on his daily trips he has a room on the boat for the exclusive use of himself and family. Each room is handsomely decorated and furnished in good taste. The boat is interesting not only as an example of a fine seagoing day boat fitted with every possible luxury and comfort for the use of her passengers, but also as a departure from the conventional paddleboat. The motive power consists of twin screws, each driven by a vertical triple expansion engine. The united power is about 3000 horse-power, and the boat has a regular speed of 18/2 knots. The twin screws and separate engines are also found useful as an aid to the rudder in docking or otherwise handling the boat.

The new steamer Puritan, of the Fall River line, is the largest and in every respect the finest boat of its class ever built. It marks a great advance in the art of boat-building, and its in- deck boats, it varies sufficiently to give it a terior fittings and decoration indicate a wholly character of its own. The most noticeable new departure in this line of work. While our feature is the absence of the conventional boat-builders have had scant respect for the paddle-boxes, the wheels being inclosed in traditions of their trade, and while our boats the house. Another feature is the covering have shown great originality in construction, of the working beam by a dome above the there has been too much conservatism in the hurricane deck. All the decks, except the first, matter of interior decoration. The first build- give a free promenade by means of galleries ers were more carpenters than decorators, and outside or over the wheels the entire length of later builders have clung to the scroll-saw and the boat, excepting the space occupied by the bracket style too long. In the Puritan, as in boats on the hurricane deck. the Bergen, an effort has been made to pro- The hull was built at Chester, Pennsylvania, duce a boat that shall be artistic as well as in 1888, and the boat was fitted with engines seaworthy, and the result is very satisfactory. and the decks and houses built and decorated The boat itself is of grand proportions, and in New York in the winter of 1888–89. The while it follows the general plan of the four- hull has a double bottom extending on the side

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FORWARD CABIN OF THE

PURITAN."

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up to the water- something in the spaciousness of the land that
line. In this space makes our people demand largeness and gen-
are fifty-two com- erosity in the way of public accommodations.
partments, while The genius of our people runs more and more
the inner hull is to Puritans and drawing-room cars, where there
divided into seven is room enough and to spare. This sense of
compartments by bigness on the Puritan is not mere bigness and
water-tight bulk- emptiness. A cathedral may be grand as well
heads. To give an as lofty if its proportions are right, and it seems
idea of the grand on this monster boat, with its lofty ceilings and
proportions of this ample saloons, that the builders knew whereof
great boat it may they wrought. There is size and space, yet by
be noted that the reason of the proportions and the treatment of
hull is 404 feet long the decoration there is also that sense of repose
on the water-line and general personal comfort so dear to the
and 420 feet long American heart.
over all, 52 feet The boat is distinctively a night boat. Its
wide, 21 feet 6 voyage begins before sunset and often ends be-
inches deep, and fore sunrise, and its sleeping accommodations
draws 13 feet of must be ample and comfortable. It is safe to
water when load- say that on the Puritan more attention has been
ed. The decks are paid to the lighting, heating, and ventilation of
much wider, being the rooms and the general comfort of the tray-
at the center 91 feet eler who sleeps upon the Sound than on any
wide and inclosing other boat ever launched. There are 355 state-
the wheels. The rooms, many of them being regular chambers,
four decks are un- with large windows, mirrors, and complete
usually high, and, chamber furniture precisely as in a first-class
measuring from dwelling-house. The entire boat, including
the bottom of the berths in the cabin, gives sleeping accommo-
keel to the top of dations for 1200 passengers. To place so many
the dome over the staterooms on the boat it was necessary to
working beam, the arrange them in rows. This has been done be-
boat is 70 feet high. fore on the Sound boats, but it has one very
With all these im- serious objection, and that is the want of light
mense proportions and air. Some of the older boats even had
the boat is graceful, staterooms in the middle of the saloon, where
and to the nautical absolutely no light or air could be obtained.

eye accustomed to On the Puritan this matter appears to have purahati

our built-up boats been carefully considered, and every stateroom looks safe, handy, has free ventilation by means of large transoms

seaworthy. opening to the outer air. This is accomplished Passing through by covering the outside rooms with roofs, the Sound, where thereby leaving a space between the under its proportions can side of the deck above and the roofs of these

be seen to advan- outer rooms. The rain cannot beat into this DOLPHIN NEWEL ON BOARD THE tage, its enormous space, nor can any room be entered by the “PURITAN."

bulk will present a transoms, and yet there is a free circulation of sight unlike anything in European waters. By air and plenty of light for the interior rooms night its rows of windows, tier on tier, will next to the saloon. There will be no stateshine upon the waters like a white phantom rooms in the middle of the boat, thus doing with myriad electric eyes drifting in silence away with all the dark rooms. along our coasts.

The decoration of the boat is in the style The general arrangement of the saloons does of the Italian Renaissance, the ornamentation not differ greatly from that of the older Sound being brought out by judicious gilding on an boats, except that everything is upon a grander ivory-white ground. The railings of the galscale. The entrance on the main deck, with leries in the saloon are of wrought iron in its lofty ceiling, wide stairways, and liberal the same general style, and all the interior doors, gives an impression of spaciousness that woodwork is of the best quality and of the is wholly new afloat. This generosity of space finest finish. The masts, which in the older is in key with American demands. There is boats were often overdecorated where they

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and

passed through the saloon, are in the Puritan depart from the of steel, and serve as ventilators, as well as older type of night supports for the electric-light fixtures. In boats. This steampoint of fire protection, safety, and sanitary er was built in arrangements the boat is superior to anything Wilmington, Delyet built in this country, so that the boat is aware, in 1881, a perfect and complete hotel afloat, and as and has an iron comfortable, safe, and luxurious as any con- hull 328 feet long, veyance on land or sea.

46 feet wide, and The motive power is of the usual beam en- 14 feet deep. gine type, except that it is a compound engine, The gross tonnage the two cylinders being placed fore and aft, is 1921 tons, and and connected with the working beam over- the boat draws head. The high-pressure cylinder is 75 inches when loaded 10 in diameter with 9 feet stroke, and the low- feet 3 inches. The pressure cylinder is 110 inches with 14 feet City of Worcester stroke, and the engine is designed to develop is interesting be7500 horse-power, at a steam pressure of 110 cause it was, when pounds per square inch. The wheels are 35 launched, regard- PANEL FIGURE, “PURITAN." feet in diameter with steel" feathering " buck- ed as the finest ets 14 feet long and 5 feet deep. The accom- boat built for our Eastern waters. There are panying pictures give an excellent idea of this two decks above the main deck, and the sagrand boat, with some suggestions as to her in- loons and cabins are arranged on a plan terior fittings. One picture may also serve to that undoubtedly suggested the arrangement show the massive proportions of the engine of some of our later boats. The entrance, at and the working beam.

the usual place just abaft the wheels, leads Among the Sound boats the City of Worces- to the main deck saloon, and from this sater, of the Norwich line, was one of the first to loon a grand staircase, that occupies a place

usually assigned to the ladies' cabin, leads to the saloon deck. The grand saloon extends the entire length of the house, with a single row of staterooms on each side as far as the engine-well. This saloon has no gallery and makes a low, dome-lighted room that is far more cozy and homelike than the saloons on longer boats. Forward of the engine is a saloon having a gallery for upper staterooms and arranged for a dining-saloon. This plan of placing the dining-room upstairs is certainly more agreeable, as the saloon is large, lofty, well lighted, and well ventilated. The City of Worcester was one of the first boats to use electric lights and one of the first boats to substitute hard wood for the old style of painted pine. The decorative woodwork is all in hard woods, and inlaid in excellent designs and decorated in good taste. In point of speed, comfort, and decoration this boat was really the pioneer of the splendid new fleet headed by the Puritan.

It is not easy to predict what is to be the future of this great boating interest. We have over twenty thousand miles of steam navigation, we have original and enterprising boatbuilders, and an enormous traveling public. We have had in the past a phenomenal fleet of steamboats, particularly on our Western rivers, and yet the business has been greatly depressed, and there are fewer boats afloat today than twenty years ago. Moreover, — and this is the most serious matter of all, - our canals

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COLUMN IN CABIN OF “PURITAN,"

are being abandoned year by year. While fought to destroy a vital water route. FortuEurope spends millions on canals and water- nately, the English generals who planned in ways, while France is trying to make every London thus to cut the country in two failed, little stream navigable, and England is trying and yet to-day we are abandoning our canals to turn her interior cities into sea

and see our great ports, we permit our canals to fill

internal steam naviup or foolishly give

gation system decay them away to impe

without a thought of cunious railroads for

the consequences. road-beds. Is it wise?

On the other handAre we safe in trusting

for there is a brighter all our freight busi

side to every picture ness to railroad cor

there is a disposition porations ? To-day

among the traveling we can, if the need

public to demand come, send gun-boats

larger, finer, and safer inland from the Del

boats everywhere. We aware to New York Bay. If we

are being taught by permit the railroads to destroy the

English tourists who business of the canal between our

visit us how to see our ship-yards and our navy yards, we

own country. We may may be sure that in every European

complacently talk of War office the fact of our folly is

our limited trains and carefully noted for future reference.

all that. Every forOnce Great Britain fought a great STATEROOM DOOR LOCK, “PURITAN." eigner who visits us battle to destroy the water route

asks first of all for our that connects the port of New York with the steamboat routes, because our lake, river, and back door of New England. Saratoga was Sound boats are known of all the world.

Charles Barnard.

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THE ADVANCE IN STEAMBOAT DECORATION.

NLY a few years ago it seemed River line. The first step—and the most

as though sordid ugliness was novel that could have been taken - was to nowhere so firmly intrenched as select an artist of experience and skill and in our ferry-boats, while the give him complete control of the task. Every "floating palaces" on which item in the decoration and furnishing of the

we betook ourselves to Albany Puritan has been conceived by Mr. Frank Hill or Newport were synonyms for the most Smith, and designed and carried out under pretentious bad taste. There could not be a his careful superintendence. The success which clearer sound of our progress in art than the he has achieved in a field where no precedents fact that both these classes of boats are now guided him certainly deserves great praise. I being built to satisfy a cultivated eye as well do not mean judged simply by the standard as to transport a comfort-loving body with set by the boat-interiors of other days- this safety and speed.

would be no test at all; I mean judged by the The most conspicuous example of a desire same standard we should use if a luxurious to put really good decorative work into a home or great public building were in quesstejmboat interior is the Pritam of the Fall tion. It may be thought by some that soberer colors and a smaller amount of ornamental which, supported by solid gilded piers, form detail would be more appropriate in so utili- the gallery rail. Their design is extremely tarian an interior, Mr. Smith's scheme show- graceful, and, fortunately, they are not gilded, ing only white and very pale colors and a but left black to bring a needed accent of vigor profuse employment of gold as well as of and decision into the pale delicacy of the gencarven or molded decoration in low relief. But eral scheme. Still more attractive and much the American people are accustomed in these more original than this railing are the irongreat inland vessels to awkward attempts at work supports for the electric lights, forming ball-room effects, and will unquestionably be coronals around the masts and extending upbetter pleased with this artistic version of the ward to the gilded capitals, that give the masts same idea than with any other kind of treat- an architectural character, in graceful spirals ment that could have been chosen ; and, after from which the lights project at varied angles. all, the critic's place is not to weigh an artist's Unfortunately our little illustration does not conception in the balance of other person's show how beautiful and dignified yet extremely tastes, but to accept it frankly and only dis- effective these fixtures really are; but the gencuss the quality of its expression.

eral character of their design can be appreciThe first point of excellence to be empha- ated, and the good sense and good taste which sized is that Mr. Smith gives us no mere heter- have known how to serve a novel practical ogeneous assemblage of pretty patterns and purpose thoroughly well by means of a novel tints, but a systematic scheme of adornment, and expressive manner of treatment. based on architectural principles, coherent In the New York, the new day boat of throughout, carefully studied in all its varied the Albany line, we find agreeable rooms, sendetails, and executed with technical skill. sibly treated in those dark tones which were Italian Renaissance forms served as his inspi- altogether desirable when service in the hot ration, and every item from end to end of his hours of summer was to be considered. The elaborate work is harmonious in character and walls are paneled to the top with ash, and the as well adapted in scale as in motive to the carpets are green; and while the details can exact place it holds.

hardly be called artistic in treatment, the genReaching the quarter-deck we find the walls eral color-effect is charming, except as regards divided into panels by fluted pilasters which the tones supplied by stained glass of rather support a dignified frieze in low relief. The crude and glaring tints. panels are filled with half-draped floating female But perhaps the most wholly satisfactory figures, in very low relief, which were modeled piece of decoration that has yet been set afloat by the well-known sculptor Mr. Donoghue. is found — shall I be believed ?- in a ferryThese figures are of an ivory-white tone, boat designed to carry the long-suffering “subrelieved against a pale yellow background. urban resident” upon his daily trips from All the architectural features are likewise ivory- Hoboken to New York. The Bergen being toned and are lavishly gilded. The ordinary a screw instead of a side-wheel steamer, the staterooms are finished throughout in wood, cabins run through from end to end; and the painted white, and perfectly plain. The larger purely utilitarian reasons which prescribed her rooms are simply but prettily decorated in white, external lines have resulted in an imposing and the tender tones of blue, yellowish pink, and perspective of singularly graceful curvature. yellow everywhere employed, with less use of There would have been some monotony, gold than appears in the saloons. The dining- however, had the whole length been left unroom is dignified and attractive, and even the broken; so the artist skillfully divided it by the barber-shop has neither been neglected by projecting screens shown in our picture, which the artist nor over-adorned. But, of course, the cut the walls into three compartments without center of interest is the main saloon with its at all interfering with convenience or the freeencircling gallery leading to the upper tier of dom of the eye. The central compartment is staterooms. Here the festal effect of Mr. Smith's much shorter than the others, and its decorascheme is most strikingly apparent, and, when tion is emphasized by a large mirror against the great space is lighted by its multitude of the inner wall and a more elaborate window incandescent burners, the “ average citizen” than those on either side. All the windows are will have his love for a gay and luxurious- grouped in threes- a vast improvement upon looking environment fully met, while a more the old uniform rows. The walls in the women's critical eye will be disturbed by no heavy ex- cabin are wainscoted with oak and then cess or trivial fantasticality. It is impossible to painted a neutral grayish green with a band of dwell here upon the details of this saloon, which simple Renaissance decoration in white and is covered with a pale-blue ceiling, while a red a little gold. Parallel with the window tops carpet gives it warmth and richness. I can runs a cornice-strip of oak, and above this only say a word about the wrought-iron screens again is a simple painted frieze. The faces of

Vol. XXXVIII.- 49.

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