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SOUND STEAMER “PURITAN." in handling the boat at landings. If the boat wheel boat for the Mississippi are as follows: has a stern-wheel the two engines work together The hull, which may be of wood or steel, is and are controlled from the center of the engine- 300 feet long, 50 feet wide, with 9 feet depth of room. The boilers are always placed in the hold. The boat draws 10 feet of water loaded center of the boat, and the two tall smokestacks and 4 feet light. The main deck overhangs are set on each side to distribute the weight. the hull for the greater part of the length and This section is, however, misleading in one is usually ninety feet wide, or twenty feet wider respect. The engines and boilers are really on each side than the hull. It will be seen wide apart, the boilers being placed quite for- that the boat is practically a long, shallow flatward of the center while the engines are at boat, and to give it strength and stiffness it must the stern. This also is to distribute the weights be tied together by some overhead system of over the long and shallow hull. With this framing. In Eastern boats the same thing is section is another, giving a cross-section of accomplished by massive timbers, or “hog the Puritan. A comparison of the two sec- frames.” In river boats heavy rods and chains tions will be interesting, as showing the pro- are used in connection with upright struts of portions of the hulls to the houses or decks. wood. This simple device of tying the two

The usual dimensions of a first-class side- ends together seems to accomplish its purpose

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perfectly, and the hull is sufficiently strong and or landing stages, handled by steam-power, stiff for the smooth waters on which it moves. steam capstans, and electric search-lights that In a sea-way the boat would be unseaworthy may be controlled from the pilot-house, are and would soon break in two. This has hap- among the more recent improvements added pened on the river, when boats have been to the boats. The freight capacity of such a caught on a bar and the receding water has boat is estimated at 1500 tons, and there are left the center resting firmly and the bow and about 70 staterooms, with accommodations stern unsupported. In such wrecks the hog for 140 passengers. The two engines have 26chains break and the boat falls apart. Many inch cylinders, with 10-feet strokes, and are of curious stories have been told of the ingenious 3000 horse-power. The cost of such a boat, devices resorted to by Western captains to pre- furnished and ready for service, will vary, acvent such wrecks. Finding their boats aground, cording to the finish, from $100,000 to $120,with the water falling, they have attempted to sustain the unsupported parts with piles driven in the river bottom and with heaps of logs and freight thrown under the hull. So elastic are these long, shallow hulls that it is not uncommon to lift them bodily over a shoal or bar by pushing stout poles or spars into the river bottom and then "jumping” them over by means of tackle, very much as a boy might vault over a ditch by means of a stout pole.

In point of design the hulls of these more recent river boats are quite equal, within the limits of their duty, to the fine boats of the East. An effort has been made to secure as high speed as may be consistent with capacity and a perfectly flat bottom. The lines are long and easy and the bows sharp. The sides are straight and are drawn in very gradually towards the square stern. In stern-wheel boats the guards do not overhang much. In sidewheel boats the guards are wide

ooo, and such a enough to inclose the paddle

boat is good for boxes. There is a very slight

from 12 to 18 years' sheer, or rise, at the bows

service. The pictand a smaller rise at the

ure of a typical stern, so that the deck is prac

stern-wheel boat on tically level. When loaded, the

page 361 is from guards are close to the water, and

a photograph of a it is only when the boat is docked

boat now in use. that any idea of the shape of the hull

In facility in can be gained.

handling, and in On this long, flat hull is erected a

speed and capacity, saloon deck extending nearly the whole

these boats are unlength of the boat, and on it are placed two rows doubtedly the best and cheapest river boats ofstaterooms, one on each side, with doors open- ever designed. They do not look very shiping into the saloon and also upon the narrow shape to Eastern eyes; yet the fact remains that gallery, or deck, outside. The saloon is always they do the business cheaply and with reasonof the entire length of the house, giving a fine, able speed. While it is quite possible that they large, well-lighted room that is used in part might be a little more substantial, still they for a dining-room and in part for a general are the best boats ever built for their service meeting room for the passengers. Above this and climate. If any criticism might be made deck is an upper deck, or “roof,” and on this it would be in the color. White is not the best is placed a smaller house for the accommoda- color for a soft-coal boat. It might also be tion of the officers of the boat; above this, wished that the profusion of scroll-saw work in the center of the boat, is the lofty wheel- might give place to something more simple house, which is always entirely inclosed in and not quite so dangerous in case of fire. glass, that the pilot may have an unobstructed Upon the lakes both side-wheel boats and view in every direction. Swinging gang-planks, propellers are used for passenger service. The

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WORKING-BEAM,

“ PURITAN."

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propellers do not differ materially from the are the Sound steamers Puritan, Connecticut, and coastwise steamships, except that the state- City of Worcester, the Hudson River boat New rooms are all on the upper deck and the pilot- York, the passenger transfer boat Monmouth, house is placed almost at the very bows of the and the ferry-boat Bergen. The ferry-boat Berboat. The side-wheel boats recently placed on gen, built of steel at Newburg, is 200 feet long, the line between Cleveland and Detroit are with 37 feet beam, and with a hold of 17 feet essentially copies of the Fall River boats, and depth. The deck overhangs the hull andis sixtyare sumptuously furnished night boats. Among two feet wide in the center. The boat is interestthe new boats on the lakes may be mentioned ing on account of its peculiar motive power. a very large transfer boat for use at Detroit. There are two screws, one at each end of the It is an iron boat, having both paddles and boat, designed to be used both at once. The screws, and is of massive construction to enable motive power is a triple-expansion engine, and it to break through the ice. The deck is fitted is placed fore and aft. The three cylinders are with two tracks, and will carry two locomotives respectively 18 inches, 27 inches, and 42 inches and four passenger cars on each track. in diameter, with a stroke of two feet. The shaft

In the East the most interesting new boats extends the whole length of the boat and con

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nects both screws, one pulling, the other usual massive overhead framing, at a very great pushing the boat at the same time. This pe- gain in the appearance of the boat. The boat culiar form of motive power has made it is 311 feet long on the main deck, the hull bepossible to construct a boat with clear cabins ing 40 feet wide and the deck 74 feet wide on each side and with a wider roadway for in the center. It draws only six feet, and is of teams in the middle. The cabins are each 137 1552 tons burden. Being designed only for pasfeet long, 16 feet wide amidships, and 14 sengers it has no staterooms, and the three decks feet high. In the center, to break the long are left as clear as possible. The house, or saroom into two smaller rooms, open screens and loon, on the main deck is very light and open, archways are introduced. The windows are in the sides being wholly of glass. The dining groups of three, and are of large plate-glass- room is on this deck aft, and is one of the most the most noticeable feature of the decoration. beautiful rooms afloat, as there is an unob

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“Steamboat decoration” has become a by- structed view on every side. The house on the word, by reason of the complete lack of second deck gives a circular saloon formed artistic feeling in its treatment. In many of with low windows, and in the rear of this sathe new boats there is a noticeable departure loon are small drawing-rooms with long winfrom the carpenter work of the past, and in the dows intended for the use of passengers who Bergen the decorations have been intrusted to wish private rooms during the trip. Aft is a one of the leading art firms of New York, and covered deck, while above is the hurricane the result of their work is most interesting. The deck, open for the entire length of the house, color in the ladies' cabin is cream and gold, and giving a promenade 200 feet long and 70 with a deep frieze in a wreath pattern, while feet wide. the ceiling is of a mosaic design. The seats In the decoration there is a complete departare in the form of antique settles, and are made ure from the conventional steamboat style that of mahogany. At the transom-lights is fine still rages on the Western river boats. The instained-glass. The work is harmonious and terior finish is in ash and mahogany, and is artistic and in keeping with its place. quiet and artistic. The dome lights and tran

The Hudson River boat New York is the soms are of rich mosaic glass in admirable finest American example of a passenger day keeping with the woodwork. Each of the boat afloat, and is probably the most beautiful drawing-rooms is decorated in a different river boat, designed for passengers only, in the scheme of colors, and all are furnished in good world. The hull is of iron, and was built at taste. Wilmington, Delaware, in 1887. The use of The motive power is a beam engine of the iron enabled the builders to dispense with the usual type with a feathering paddle-wheel.

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The wheels are feet high. The staterooms, 190 in number, placed aft of the are of the usual type, and, with the berths center, and are in the cabin, give accommodations to 600 thirty feet in di- passengers. In external appearance the boat ameter with

a is very attractive, while the interior decobearing only on rations are simple and in quiet good taste. the hull. By means The boat is 358 feet 6 inches long over all, of radial rodsoper- and 87 feet wide at the guards. ated by an eccen- This boat is specially interesting on account of tric at the outer its motive power, which consists of a compound end of the shaft direct-acting oscillating engine. The two cylthe twelve steel inders are inclined and placed opposite each buckets are ar- other, the pistons being connected directly rangedtoenter and with the crank shaft. The high-pressure cylleave the water inder is 56 inches and the low-pressure cylin"feathered," or on der 104 inches in diameter. It is the largest the edge. This oscillating engine ever built, and is estimated prevents the dis- to develop six thousand horse-power. The adagreeable jarring vantages of this type of engine are less weight motion sometimes and a great gain in room, as the engine is quite to be noticed on low in the hull, and thus gives more room in boats using large the saloon above. wheels with fixed Among the recent boats added to the fleet floats.

on New York Bay is the Monmouth, built in The new Sound Philadelphia for the Central Railroad Company steamer Connect- of New Jersey, and her sister boat the Sandy icut was built at Hook. The Monmouth plies between New Noank, Connect- York and the Sandy Hook terminus of the

icut, in 1888, and Central Railroad is of wood, with the usual of New Jersey. massive overhead fram- The trip

triplasts ing. The hull departs only an hour, and somewhat from the usual the Monmouth and type, as it has long bow the Sandy Hook lines extending nearly are practically half the length of the passenger transfer boat, with rather sharp boats. The Monstern lines, and a short, mouth is of iron, parallel body in the 250 feet long, 35 center. The forward part feet wide, and of the hull is designed draws only 10 feet. to carry nearly all the There are two freight burden, as the decks inclosed forfreight deck is forward wardand provided of the wheels. Within with many large the hull are five water- windows, so that tight bulkheads. The practically the general arrangement of main and saloon the saloons and cabins is decks are inclosed the same as on the older in glass, giving a boats of the Providence fine view on every

and Stonington Steam- side, with ample PILASTER IN CABIN OF ship Company, except protection from “PURITAN."

that the café and lunch- the weather. The room are placed on the quarter deck near interior fittings are the main entrance, while the ladies' cabin in hard woods, is still farther aft at the stern. A stairway and the decorain the café leads to the dining-saloon below. tions are quiet and The saloon deck and the gallery decks have in good

taste. staterooms the entire length on each side, One peculiar featthe main saloon being 280 feet long and 25 ure is the con

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DETAIL OF PILASTER.

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