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being his due; and he knew also that to try doorway Fray Antonio. And very pitiable to explain the subtle qualities which com- was the sight that met their eyes. posed his mood when - as he now perceived Upon the ground lay a poor ass, laden with
the devil had instigated him to address great earthen pots, and the two Indians with Susurro would be only to confuse with unavail- him were beating him with their sticks to make ing doubts the simple faith that was in his him rise, the while shouting at him all manner brother's soul. Therefore, as the smaller of of coarse abuse. The ass, with so agonized a two evils, he accepted silently the undeserved look that a heart of stone would have been commendation that was bestowed upon him. melted by it with pity, was crying aloud in That night — although Fray Inocencio heard pain; for one of his legs- as the brothers it not, for his slumber was of the substantial saw, though the Indians seemed to perceive sort that is the portion of little fat men whose it not—had broken under him as he fell beconsciences are at rest — there was a sound neath his too heavy load. He was but a small of scourging in Fray Antonio's cell.
ass, and his lading of pots would have been So far as this was possible in one whose overheavy for a strong mule. heart was full of love and charity, Fray Ino- Then was the wrath of Fray Inocencio so cencio at times envied Fray Antonio because kindled within him that every fiber of his lithe was superior to the many temptations which tle round person tingled with rage. Forgetmade his own life burdensome; but he knew ting all the teachings of gentleness of the nothing of the temptations of the spirit which blessed saints, and the example of long-sufferbeset his finer-natured companion, which some- ing set him by the good father St. Francis, times, as in the present yielding to a too whim- and his own vow to a life of peace and holisical humor,- that yet was as much a part of ness— forgetting all this, Fray Inocencio in an his natural being as of Fray Inocencio's natu- instant had gathered up and tucked into his ral being were his stoutness and his ruddy girdle the skirts of his blue gown, that he cheeks,- begot evil results which caused him might have the free use of his short stout legs, heart-bitterness and much distress of soul. and most carnally had fallen afoul of the backs
Doubtless, being more sublimate, the pains and shoulders of those cruel Indians with his of conscience which attend upon waywardness staff. of the spirit are more searching than those As for the Indians, this visible outbreak of which attend upon waywardness of the flesh; the wrath of God took them so sharply by yet because of their gross and tangible nature surprise, while such pain penetrated their the fleshly sins are more instantly appalling. brown hides with the blows which Fray InoThus Fray Inocencio probably would have cencio rained down upon them, that without reasoned, had he possessed a mind disposed pausing for thought or consideration they intowards such abstract considerations, together continently took to their heels. In an instant with a knowledge of the spiritual suffering they had plunged through the slimy water of which Fray Antonio at times endured; but the acéquia beside the causeway, and were as neither of these possessions was his, he fleeing away across the meadow land beyond simply bemoaned very heartily his own fre- as though their assailant had been not a little quent lapses from grace. And greatly did he stout friar, but the devil himself. lament one especially great sin, the doing of Then Fray Inocencio, puffing greatly,- for which came about in this wise :
at the best of times he was but a short-winded One day, while Fray Inocencio was gather- man,-knelt down beside the ass with Fray ing lettuces, and while Fray Antonio was Antonio and aided him to loose the cords tending lovingly his flowers, there came over which bound the pots upon its back, and so the top of the garden wall the sound of angry set it free of its grievous load. Together, very words, and then of heavy blows, and then of a tenderly, they lifted the maimed creature and cry that was something like the bray of an ass, carried it into the convent garden; and while and — being a very great cry and terrible – Fray Inocencio gave it water to drink -- and something like the shriek of a giant in pain. this before he had quenched his own thirstWith the promptness that was customary with Fray Antonio, who had a good knowledge of him Fray Inocencio unbarred the door and the surgeon's craft
, set himself to binding up ran out upon the causeway to see what was the broken leg in a splint. And the poor ass, the meaning of this commotion; and as be- seeming to understand that it was being dealt side the door stood a stout staff, that he car- with by friends who meant well by it, sufried with him for support when he walked to fered them to do with it what they would. the great convent with a back-load of vege- was not until their labors were ended tables, he seized it that he might not affront the broken leg well set, and the ass straitly fasthe danger, if danger there were, unarmed. tened in a little stall that they made for him More deliberately came out also through the that he might not stir the leg in its setting —
that Fray Inocencio had time to think of the The cat Timoteo, called Susurro, and the sin which he had fallen into in giving his doves, were wild things of nature ; of no use righteous anger such unrighteous vent. He to man save in so far as they were a source of was the more distressed in spirit because, for happiness through the love in them and for the very life of him, he could not create in his them that God inspired. But the case of the heart a sincere repentance of having given to ass, an animal both useful and valuable, was those Indians so sound a beating. Strive how- different. Fray Inocencio, into whose heart ever much he might to crush it, the thought the devil put the thought that the ass very would assert itself that they richly deserved well might bear to the great convent the loads not only every blow that they received, but which he himself was wont to carry thither on also the great many more blows which they his back, reasoned that, inasmuch as the ass escaped by running away. And with this in truth was not their own, but only in their thought most persistently came a carnal long- ward until his rightful owners should be found, ing to get at them again and finish the work they might use him in all conscionable work that he had so vigorously begun. To Fray without falling into sin. But Fray Antonio, Inocencio's dying day this sin remained with seeing more clearly, pointed out that they had him; and while the prickings of it were hard striven earnestly but vainly to find the ass's to bear, he had of it, at least, the compen- owner, and that now there was small chance sating advantage that it always was with him that the owner ever would be found at all; and as a wholesome reminder to keep his too-ready he showed, further, that no matter in whom anger within due bounds.
might vest his actual ownership, to them would Fortunately — for it is to be feared that he belong, should they elect to avail themselves could not have resisted it — the temptation of it, his usufruct; which possession was a to finish the beating was not put in his way. thing of value inconsistent with the poverty That the Indians returned and carried off their to which they were vowed. Yet, since the earthen pots was inferred by the brothers when, ass was not truly their own, he admitted, they having ended their surgical and other ministra- had no right to sell him and to give the tions to the ass's comfort, they looked out upon money to the poor — supposing the somewhat the causeway and found that the pots were improbable case of any one being found gone. And they believed that from the Indians willing to buy an ass that in addition to came the rather mysterious old man who pre- great natural laziness was hopelessly lame; sented himself the next day at the convent with nor were they free to give him away. Giving a confused request for medicine for a sick child; him in trust, to be surrendered should his and who contrived, while the apothecary-work owner ever be found, was the only solution was in progress, to get into the garden where of the matter that they could arrive at; and the hurt ass was and make an examination of this failed because they could find no one who its state. But from this old man they could would accept the ass on these —or, indeed, on learn nothing of the owners of the ass; nor any other— terms. Yet to support an ass in were their many inquiries among the Indians absolute idleness, as Fray Antonio was forced round about better rewarded. That the owners to own, would be to violate the law of his thus modestly veiled their identity, and that being under which a beneficent Creator had they made no effort to reclaim their property, placed him in the world for the good of man. on the whole was not surprising. No doubt Altogether this case of conscience was so they held, and wisely, that a broken-legged ass nice a one, and so beset by difficulties, that was not worth adventuring for within the after the brothers had debated it for a long dangerous range of the little friar's staff. while together fruitlessly, and had prayed for
Chiefly, as Fray Inocencio very firmly be- guidance without receiving light upon their lieved, because of the many prayers to this end path in answer to their prayer, they determined that he addressed to the miracle-working image to relegate its decision, through Fray Agustin of San Antonio that was in the little church, de Vetancurt,- to whom, their little church the ass in due season got well. But as, through being adjunct to the parish church of San José some mischance, the broken bone had gone in San Francisco, they were directly responsiawry in the splint, it healed crookedly; so that ble,— to the Very Reverend Father Friar Juan that leg was shorter than the other legs. From Gutierrez, who then governed the province of this fresh misfortune the ass suffered no pain, the Santo Evangelio, to which their convent but thenceforward he was very lame. pertained, and who was the Senior Provincial
Being thus healed, and, after a fashion, a of the Franciscan order in New Spain. serviceable ass once more, the question what This high resolve they executed. Driving they should do with him perplexed the brothers before them the cause of their spiritual tribusadly. Of other valuable property, being lation, and accommodating their steps to the strictly vowed to poverty, they had none. halting slowness of his gait, and even stop
ping when he turned aside to crop in a medi- Fray Inocencio, who was terribly frightened tative fashion at some especially tempting at speaking to so great a personage, grew pale bunch of grass, they went together along the and stumbled in his speech; but by God's help causeway, past the church of San Cosme, the he told truly how he had beaten those cruel convent of San Diego, the burning-place of Indians; how his repentance of this act was the Inquisition, and the Alameda, and so not complete, since he could not banish from through the outskirts of the city to the great his heart the wish to finish the punishment convent. They entered by the gate from the that he had begun; and how the devil had Zuleta, and fastened the ass in the court- put into his heart the desire to keep the ass, yard beneath the windows of the building set that in bringing vegetables to the great conapart for the use of the commissioners-gen- vent his own back might be spared. Having eral of the order - the same building that now thus said to the end what he felt it to be his profanely has been changed into a hotel. duty to say, he drew a long breath, wiped
There was not a little merriment among the with the sleeve of his gown the beads of brothers when the purpose for which Fray sweat from his forehead, and was still. That Antonio and Fray Inocencio had come thither the case might be complete, the Father Prowith the ass was known; for already the vincial looked from the window and saw the ass brothers within this convent, being grown rich fastened in the court below, and the brothers and lustful of earthly pleasures, had so fallen pointed to his crooked leg and told how in its from grace that conscientious scruples in re- healing the bone had gone awry; and the ass, gard to the ownership of a lame, wretched ass hearing the voices of his friends, looked up toseemed to them laughable. But the Father wards them with affection and brayed a mighty Vetancurt, who was a holy man, and who had bray. chosen Fray Antonio and Fray Inocencio for With a full heart answered to them the the missionary work that they had in charge Father Provincial: because in the midst of much that was evil and “It is God himself, my brothers, who hath corrupt they had remained pure, treated with given this ass to you in reward for your tena due seriousness the case of conscience that derness and goodness of heart, and to accept they had come to have resolved. That he a gift from him surely is no infraction of your smiled a little as he exhibited the matter to vow. Go in peace to your convent again, and the Father Provincial is true; and this great keep for your service this poor beast that dignitary smiled also on hearing what a quaint you have saved from a life of misery, and in cause of perplexity beset the souls of the two whose brute heart I perceive that there is brothers and had been brought by them, in for you such well-deserved love. Take you their rare simplicity, to him for resolution and also my blessing — though, in truth, rather adjustment. But the smiles of these two good should I ask your blessing than thus give you men had in them nothing of derision, and, in mine." truth, were not far removed from tears.
And the brothers, very grateful for the dis“It is the spirit of our father St. Francis pensation in their favor, but not at all underalive again," said the Provincial, reverently; standing the full meaning of the Father and in all humility they thanked God that in- Provincial's words, made proper reverence to nocency so excellent should be found remain- him and went their way homeward; being full ing pure amid so much of earthly corruption of happiness because of the glad consciousand spiritual guile.
ness, untroubled by doubt or misgiving, that Then came the brothers before the Father the ass now really was their very own. Provincial, and by his grace told him the whole Thereafter so often as it was necessary that of the matter that filled with anxious doubts vegetables should be brought from the little their souls. Fray Antonio, who feared noth- convent to the great one the bearer of the ing but evil and the doing thereof, said what load was the lame ass, and behind him or he had to say reverently, as became him in beside him Fray Inocencio walked. As they such a case, yet plainly and at his ease: telling slowly journeyed, these two held pleasant conhow the ass came into their possession, yet verse together; for Fray Inocencio maintained touching but lightly upon the fiery part that Fray that the ass understood the meaning of human Inocencio had played; how they had sought speech as well as he himself understood the earnestly but had failed to find his lawful owner, meaning of the glances which the ass gave him, and therefore had no right either to sell him or and the various twitchings of his scraggy tail, to give him away; how no one could be found and the shakings of his head, and, above all, willing to accept him as a trust; and how, the whole vocabulary that was in the waggings being thus forced to keep him themselves, of his ample ears. they feared that the use of him was a valuable It was, indeed, a cheery sight to see these possession that their vow of poverty forbade. friends upon the road together. At his best the ass hobbled along at a pace that a tortoise the Spanish tongue, signifies “ the lazy one." would have scorned for its slowness; and at In this wise came the proverb that is spoken times he would stop wholly and would gaze of any one who greatly loves a useless beast or around him with a look of thoughtful in- person : he loves him as Fray Inocencio loved quiry; or he would step aside to crop a bit of Flojo, the lame ass. grass that pleased his fancy; and ever and Over the brothers, dwelling peacefully in anon he would edge up to his friend and rub their little convent, and serving God by lovhis long nose gently against the friar's side, and ing his creatures and by ministering faithfully then would look into his face with a glance so to the welfare of the souls of their fellow-men, movingly tender that nothing more could have the years drifted happily. Unharmed by been added to it for the expression of his love. Timoteo, called Susurro, who waxed fat and For his part, Fray Inocencio patiently accom- sluggish as age stole upon him, yet lost nothmodated the naturally brisk movements of his ing of the sweetness of his nature nor of the own stout little legs to the ass's infinite slow- thunderousness of his purr, the doves increased ness: when the ass would stop, he would stop and multiplied; the little garden yielded ever also; when by any chance the ass missed sight freshly its substance of fresh food and sweetof a choice bunch of grass, he would lead him smelling flowers; the ass, Flojo, tenderly to it and would wait by him until he had cherished by his masters, developed yet greater cropped it to the very last blade; and when prodigies of laziness as his years advanced; the ass by his nose-rubbings would manifest and the brothers themselves, happy in leading his love, he would gather the ass's long, shaggy a life in all ways innocent and very excellent head in his arms against his breast and would in the sight of Heaven, knew not what it was to lavish upon him all manner of terms of endear- grow old, because their hearts ever remained ment as he gently stroked his fuzzy ears. young.
So the fame of these two went through all And in the fullness of their years, their good the city; and upon the ass, who truly was as lives ended, Fray Antonio and Fray Inocencio lazy as he was lame, the common people be- passed out gently from time into eternity, and stowed the name of Flojo, which word, in were gathered home to God.
VAPOR AND BLUE.
Floored with a pavement of pearl, In silence of moon-dim caves,
Where, haze-wrapt, the August night slumbers, Soft as the eyes of a girl,
Or the wild heart of October raves.
Girt with a magical girdle,
Here, where the jewels of nature
William Wilfred Campbell.
Ventilator over Cabin door in the Puritan.
INLAND NAVIGATION OF THE UNITED STATES.
HERE appeared a few years ago the factors of one of the most important com
in one of the illustrated papers mercial questions of the day.
represented fifty men carrying other way, and might then serve to show the 2:
a large block of stone. The men evolution of the business of moving freight
were arranged in four files and and passengers. No doubt the most primitive each file carried on their shoulders a stout pole. method of moving either people or things was By means of other poles and ropes the block to pick them up and carry them. The first of stone was suspended in the middle of the passenger was an infant in its mother's arms. group of men, and with terrible strain and The chief of a tribe in prehistoric woods may labor they were staggering along with their have envied the babies, and compelled two of tremendous load. The picture showed how his followers to lock arms and carry him over unaided brute force could be used in transport- a stream or rough place in the trail. Procesing a weight—or, as we might say to-day, in sions of slaves were the first lines of through moving freight.
freight. The second picture represented the same If placed in their historical order the sugblock of stone placed in a rude cart and gested picture of the boat would stand second, drawn by a pair of oxen with great difficulty for the floating log, the raft, the dug-out, and over a very soft and sandy road. The third the canoe probably antedated by hundreds, picture represented the same block placed on perhaps thousands, of years any form of a hand-car and easily pushed along a track by wheeled vehicle. The third picture would be one man.
the ox-cart, and the last picture would be the The first picture was an illustration of simple hand-car, for this idea of an improved car and animal power used in the most wasteful and a smooth track is essentially modern. expensive manner. In the second picture the It
be suggested that such a series of principles of mechanics were applied in a rude pictures, to be fair, should contain a fifth, repreway to assist the oxen. The oxen could not senting a locomotive dragging fifty blocks of carry the stone or even lift it from the ground; stone along a track and only employing a crew but when attached to the cart they were able of six men. Such a picture would be suggestive, to haul it a much greater distance than the fifty but could be offset by an equally pertinent men. In the third picture the mechanical ad- picture representing two horses drawing a vantage was used to the utmost by employing canal-boat containing a freight equal to the a better vehicle and placing it on a smooth, entire load of an ordinary freight train and hard track. So great was the gain that one guided by a crew of one man and a boy-in man could do the work of fifty without such one case an expenditure of two horse-power mechanical aid or the work of a pair of oxen and in the other a steam-power equal to, say, aided by a cart.
one hundred horses. The three pictures were instructive, but the The instincts of men led them to the water series was clearly incomplete. There should because it meant a road, and this meant conhave been a picture representing five blocks of tact with others, the gaining of knowledge, and stone, of the same size as the one shown, placed the beginning of trade and civilization. Even in a boat and easily drawn or poled along a to-day the great cities are by the waterways, shallow river or canal by one man. The friction because they are the oldest and cheapest roads. would here be so much reduced that one man The great cities of the future will be just what walking on the bank of the canal could by they are now — great ports. means of a tow-line do the work of five times Edward Eggleston, writing upon the comfifty men. The four pictures would then tell merce of the colonies (see THE CENTURY for far more than the first three, and together they June, 1884), gives a graphic picture of the great would make a graphic statement of some of water traffic that grew up between the settle
Vol. XXXVIII.- 46.